London, Canada

The University of Western Ontario , which is commonly referred to among Canadian universities as Western or Western University, is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario." It incorporated Huron University College, which had been founded in 1863. The first four faculties were Arts, Divinity, Law and Medicine. The Western University of London was eventually made non-denominational in 1908.According to the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings, the university ranked 201–300 in the world and top 10 in Canada. The 2011 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 157th in the world, making it seventh in Canada. Several of Western's programs were also ranked in individual rankings. Social science at Western was ranked 96th in the world in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, and Western's Ivey Business School was ranked 1st in the World in the Global MBA Category of Bloomberg Businessweek.Western's Co-educational Student body of over 24,000 represents 107 countries around the world and Western scholars have established research and education collaborations and partnerships on every continent. There are more than 306,000 alumni who are active internationally, living and working around the globe. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, and distinguished fellows.Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Wikipedia.

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University of Western Ontario and Trudell Medical | Date: 2016-04-13

The present invention relates generally to an oral device, or mouthpiece, for delivering a fluid to the mouth or oropharynx of a user. In one embodiment, the oral device includes an intraoral portion, an extraoral portion, and an auxiliary support device that serves to stabilize the oral device. In various embodiments, the auxiliary support device may be configured with ear loops, a support band, a support frame and/or a support member. The intraoral portion generally includes at least one outlet port through which the fluid is delivered to the oral cavity or oropharynx. A method of dispensing a fluid using the oral device is also provided.

University of Western Ontario | Date: 2016-08-30

The present invention relates to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein mutants. One mutant M protein includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 21, a leucine changed to a phenylalanine at position 111 and a methionine changed to an arginine at position 51. Another M protein mutant includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 22 and a methionine changed to an arginine at positions 48 and 51. Yet another VSV M protein mutant includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 22, a leucine changed to a phenylalanine at position 110 and a methionine changed to an arginine at positions 48 and 51. The present invention is directed also to recombinant VSVs (rVSV) having these M mutants and to vaccines based on the rVSV having the M mutants of the present invention. These new rVSVs having the mutant M were significantly attenuated and lost virulence, including neurovirulence, and are capable of inducing an immune responses against an antigen of interest. In addition, a rVSV serotype Indiana having the first described M mutant is capable of efficient replication at 31 C., and of poor replication or incapable of replication at about 37 C. or higher.

University of Western Ontario | Date: 2015-05-06

Self-immolative polymers degrade by an end-to-end depolymerization mechanism in response to the cleavage of a stabilizing end-cap from the polymer terminus. Examples include homopolymers, mixed polymers including block copolymers, suitable for a variety of applications. A polyglyoxylate can be end-capped or capped with a linker as in a block copolymer.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-09-2015 | Award Amount: 24.09M | Year: 2015

HIV-1 is responsible for a global pandemic of 35 million people, and continues to spread at a rate of >2 million new infections/year. It is widely acknowledged that a protective vaccine would be the most effective means to reduce HIV-1 spread and ultimately eliminate the pandemic, while a therapeutic vaccine may help mitigate the clinical course of disease and lead to strategies of viral eradication. However despite 30 years of research, we do not have a vaccine capable of protecting from HIV-1 infection or impacting on disease progression. This in part represents the challenge of identifying immunogens and vaccine modalities with reduced risk of failure in late stage development. To overcome this bottleneck some of the most competitive research groups in vaccine discovery from European public institutions and biotechs from 9 EU countries together with top Australian and Canadian groups and US collaborators, have agreed to join forces in EAVI, providing a pool of international expertise at the highest level. EAVI2020 will provide a platform for the discovery and selection of several new, diverse and novel preventive and/or therapeutic vaccine candidates for HIV/AIDS. Emphasis will be placed on early rapid, iterative, small Experimental medicine (EM) human vaccine studies to select and refine the best immunogens, adjuvants, vectors, homologous and heterologous primeboost schedules, and determine the impact of host factors such as gender and genetics. Animal models will be used to complement human studies, and to select novel immunization technologies to be advanced to the clinic. To shift the risk curve in product development we will develop innovative risk prediction methods, specifically designed to reduce the risk associated with late stage preventive or therapeutic vaccine failure, increasing the chance of discovery of an effective vaccine.

Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

In recent years our understanding of connexins has advanced from viewing them simply as proteins with a surprisingly short lifespan that form gap junction channels. Connexins are now known to be multifaceted proteins at the core of many multiprotein complexes that link to structural junctional complexes and cytoskeletal elements, and also to the cellular machinery that facilitates their transport, assembly, function and internalization. Collectively, these connexin-binding proteins can be termed the 'gap junction proteome'. The mechanistic understanding of the gap junction proteome with regards to the dynamic life cycle of connexins has grown further in importance in light of the large number of human diseases attributed to connexin gene mutations and regulatory changes in connexin spatial localization and expression levels. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biggar K.K.,University of Western Ontario | Li S.S.-C.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Methylation of Lys and Arg residues on non-histone proteins has emerged as a prevalent post-translational modification and as an important regulator of cellular signal transduction mediated by the MAPK, WNT, BMP, Hippo and JAK-STAT signalling pathways. Crosstalk between methylation and other types of post-translational modifications, and between histone and non-histone protein methylation frequently occurs and affects cellular functions such as chromatin remodelling, gene transcription, protein synthesis, signal transduction and DNA repair. With recent advances in proteomic techniques, in particular mass spectrometry, the stage is now set to decode the methylproteome and define its functions in health and disease. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Dick F.A.,University of Western Ontario | Rubin S.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Inactivation of the RB protein is one of the most fundamental events in cancer. Coming to a molecular understanding of its function in normal cells and how it impedes cancer development has been challenging. Historically, the ability of RB to regulate the cell cycle placed it in a central role in proliferative control, and research focused on RB regulation of the E2F family of transcription factors. Remarkably, several recent studies have found additional tumour-suppressor functions of RB, including alternative roles in the cell cycle, maintenance of genome stability and apoptosis. These advances and new structural studies are combining to define the multifunctionality of RB. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Leask A.,University of Western Ontario
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

Fibrotic diseases are a significant global burden for which there are limited treatment options. The effector cells of fibrosis are activated fibroblasts called myofibroblasts, a highly contractile cell type characterized by the appearance of α-smooth muscle actin stress fibers. The underlying mechanism behind myofibroblast differentiation and persistence has been under much investigation and is known to involve a complex signaling network involving transforming growth factor-β, endothelin-1, angiotensin II, CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor), and platelet-derived growth factor. This review addresses the contribution of these signaling molecules to cardiac fibrosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
FEBS Letters | Year: 2014

There are now at least 14 distinct diseases linked to germ line mutations in the 21 genes that encode the connexin (Cx) family of gap junction proteins. This review focuses on the links between germ-line mutations in the gene encoding Cx43 (GJA1) and the human disease termed oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). This disease is clinically characterized by soft tissue fusion of the digits, abnormal craniofacial bone development, small eyes and loss of tooth enamel. However, the disease is considerably more complex and somewhat degenerative as patients often suffer from other syndromic effects that include incontinence, glaucoma, skin diseases and neuropathies that become more pronounced during aging. The challenge continues to be understanding how distinct Cx43 gene mutations cause such a diverse range of tissue phenotypes and pathophysiological changes while other Cx43-rich organs are relatively unaffected. This review will provide an overview of many of these studies and distill some themes and outstanding questions that need to be addressed in the coming years. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Miransky V.A.,University of Western Ontario | Shovkovy I.A.,Arizona State University
Physics Reports | Year: 2015

A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density. Finally, we discuss the interplay between relativistic quantum field theories (including quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics) in a magnetic field and noncommutative field theories, which leads to a new type of the latter, nonlocal noncommutative field theories. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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