Prestes-Carneiro L.E.,University of West Paulista
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care | Year: 2013
An increasing number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. This review aims to discuss updated data of the eligible ART regimens and their role in inducing birth defects in utero. Zidovudine and lamivudine plus a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor (PI) is the first-line regimen applied. The role of zidovudine exposition monotherapy or associated with other ART in inducing birth defects remains inconclusive. The main organ systems involved are genitourinary and cardiovascular. For HIV-infected pregnant women, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines up to 2010 recommend the same group of drugs that are prescribed to nonpregnant women. The exception is efavirenz, which has been associated with an increase in the risk of teratogenicity. Increased rates of birth defects were found in large cohorts and computational studies conducted recently in infants exposed to efavirenz-containing regimens. The combination of zidovu ine and lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir is one of the most used ART regimens for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Conflicting data about the role of PI exposure in utero and birth defects have been reported. However, a reduced number of studies evaluating the role of PI in inducing birth defects in women are available. An association between prematurity and PI exposure in pregnancy was extensively described. Some questions arise due to the tendency of initiating ART early in the life of HIV-infected individuals or those at risk of infection. Long-time exposure to different ART regimens and the potential effect of birth-defect induction in pregnancy are not completely understood. Developing regions harbor the highest numbers of women of reproductive age exposed to ART. Most of the largest and expressive data come from developed countries, and could not be sufficiently representative of pregnant women living in developing countries. © 2013 Prestes-Carneiro, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Lastoria J.C.,Paulista University |
de Abreu M.A.M.M.,University of West Paulista
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2014
Leprosy is a chronic infectious condition caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). It is endemic in many regions of the world and a public health problem in Brazil. Additionally, it presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, which are dependent on the interaction between M. leprae and host, and are related to the degree of immunity to the bacillus. The diagnosis of this disease is a clinical one. However, in some situations laboratory exams are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of leprosy or classify its clinical form. This article aims to update dermatologists on leprosy, through a review of complementary laboratory techniques that can be employed for the diagnosis of leprosy, including Mitsuda intradermal reaction, skin smear microscopy, histopathology, serology, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, imaging tests, electromyography, and blood tests. It also aims to explain standard multidrug therapy regimens, the treatment of reactions and resistant cases, immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. © 2014 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.
Carvalho C.L.D.B.,University of West Paulista
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2014
The tumor necrosis factor alpha is a cytokine related to immune and inflammatory processes by acting on different parts of the body. It is secreted by several cell types including macrophages, lymphocytes, mono-cytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, among others. Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to soluble and transmembrane tumor necrosis factor alpha form blocking its action. In rheumatoid arthritis it is used because the cytokines that cause inflammation in this disease are regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis who developed segmental vitiligo after two months using infliximab. The event aims to alert to the existence of this adverse effect that can be induced with the use of this medication. © 2014 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.
Solubilization of phosphorus, soil correction and corn yield after addition of phosphates and natural and composted tannery sludge [Disponibilização de fósforo, correção do solo, teores foliares e rendimento de milho após a incorporação de fosfatos e lodo de curtume natural e compostado]
de Araujo F.F.,University of West Paulista
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy | Year: 2011
Solubilization of phosphorus, soil correction and corn yield after addition of phosphates and natural and composted tannery sludge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge associated with fosforita (rock phosphate) on the availability of phosphorus and correction of soil, leaf levels and maize yield. The experiment was conducted on the field during twelve months (October 2005 to October 2006) with the incorporation of 2.5 and 5.0 Mg ha-1 of tannery sludge (natural and composted) and 100 kg of P2O5 ha-1 in the form of soluble and natural phosphate (fosforita). During the months of November 2005 to April 2006, maize was grown in the experimental area. Treatment with tannery sludge naturally, at a dose of 5.0 Mg ha-1 associated with fosforita, incremented the levels of phosphorus, calcium and base saturation in the soil for 360 days after implementation. This treatment provided increases in levels of phosphorus in the leaves of maize. The composted tannery sludge treatment, compared to natural tannery sludge, was deficient in the absorption of phosphorus by maize and soil correction. Increased yield of maize was verified by the incorporation of fosforita associated with the natural and composted tannery sludge at a dose of 5.0 Mg ha-1.
Ribeiro L.F.P.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz |
Lima M.C.S.,University of West Paulista |
Gobatto C.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2010
The slope of the distance-time relationship from maximal 200 and 400 m bouts (S200-400) has been increasingly employed for setting training intensities in swimming. However, physiological and mechanical responses at this speed are poorly understood. Thus, this study investigated blood lactate, heart rate (HR), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and RPE responses to an interval swimming set at S200-400 in trained swimmers. In a 50-m pool, twelve athletes (16.5 ± 1.2 yr, 176 ± 7 cm, 68.4 ± 5.4 kg, and 7.8 ± 2.5% body fat) performed maximal 200 and 400 m crawl trials for S200-400 determination (1.28 ± 0.05 m/s). Thereafter, swimmers were instructed to perform 5 × 400 m at this speed with 1.5 min rest between repetitions. Three athletes could not complete the set (exhaustion at 21.0 ± 3.1 min). For the remaining swimmers (total set duration = 32.0 ± 1.3 min) significant increases (p < 0.05) in blood lactate (5.7 ± 0.8-7.9 ± 2.4 mmol/l), SR (29.6 ± 3.2-32.1 ± 4.1 cycles/min), HR (169 ± 11-181 ± 8 bpm) and RPE (13.3 ± 1.6-16.3 ± 2.6) were observed through the IS. Conversely, SL decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to the fifth repetition (2.48 ± 0.22-2.31 ± 0.24 m/cycle). These results suggest that interval swimming at S200-400 represents an intense physiological, mechanical and perceptual stimulus that can be sustained for a prolonged period by most athletes. © 2008 Sports Medicine Australia.