University of Waterloo is a public research university whose main campus is located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on 400 hectares of land in Uptown Waterloo, adjacent to Waterloo Park. The university offers a wide variety of academic programs, which is administered by six faculties, and three affiliated university colleges. Waterloo is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. Wikipedia.
Glick B.R.,University of Waterloo
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2010
In the past twenty years or so, researchers have endeavored to utilize plants to facilitate the removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment, especially from soil. These phytoremediation approaches have come a long way in a short time. However, the majority of this work has been done under more controlled laboratory conditions and not in the field. As an adjunct to various phytoremediation strategies and as part of an effort to make this technology more efficacious, a number of scientists have begun to explore the possibility of using various soil bacteria together with plants. These bacteria include biodegradative bacteria, plant growth-promoting bacteria and bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. An overview of bacterially assisted phytoremediation is provided here for both organic and metallic contaminants, with the intent of providing some insight into how these bacteria aid phytoremediation so that future field studies might be facilitated. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu J.,University of Waterloo
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014
Fluorescent silver, gold and copper nanoclusters (NCs) have emerged for biosensor development. Compared to semiconductor quantum dots, there is less concern about the toxicity of metal NCs, which can be more easily conjugated to biopolymers. These NCs need a stabilizing ligand. Many polymers, proteins and nucleic acids stabilize NCs, and many DNA sequences produce highly-fluorescent NCs. Coupling these DNA stabilizers with other sequences, such as aptamers, has generated a large number of biosensors.We summarize the synthesis of DNA and nucleotide-templated NCs; and, we discuss their chemical interactions. We briefly review properties of NCs, such as fluorescence quantum yield, emission wavelength and lifetime, structure and photostability.We categorize sensor-design strategies using these NCs into:. (1)fluorescence de-quenching;(2)generation of templating DNA sequences to produce NCs;(3)change of nearby environment; and,(4)reacting with heavy metal ions or other quenchers.Finally, we discuss future trends. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Ward O.P.,University of Waterloo
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2012
The initial focus of recombinant protein production by filamentous fungi related to exploiting the extraordinary extracellular enzyme synthesis and secretion machinery of industrial strains, including Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, was to produce single recombinant protein products. An early recognized disadvantage of filamentous fungi as hosts of recombinant proteins was their common ability to produce homologous proteases which could degrade the heterologous protein product and strategies to prevent proteolysis have met with some limited success. It was also recognized that the protein glycosylation patterns in filamentous fungi and in mammals were quite different, such that filamentous fungi are likely not to be the most suitable microbial hosts for production of recombinant human glycoproteins for therapeutic use. By combining the experience gained from production of single recombinant proteins with new scientific information being generated through genomics and proteomics research, biotechnologists are now poised to extend the biomanufacturing capabilities of recombinant filamentous fungi by enabling them to express genes encoding multiple proteins, including, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for production of new primary or secondary metabolites. It is recognized that filamentous fungi, most species of which have not yet been isolated, represent an enormously diverse source of novel biosynthetic pathways, and that the natural fungal host harboring a valuable biosynthesis pathway may often not be the most suitable organism for biomanufacture purposes. Hence it is expected that substantial effort will be directed to transforming other fungal hosts, non-fungal microbial hosts and indeed non microbial hosts to express some of these novel biosynthetic pathways. But future applications of recombinant expression of proteins will not be confined to biomanufacturing. Opportunities to exploit recombinant technology to unravel the causes of the deleterious impacts of fungi, for example as human, mammalian and plant pathogens, and then to bring forward solutions, is expected to represent a very important future focus of fungal recombinant protein technology. © 2011.
Lamb K.G.,University of Waterloo
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2014
Internal waves are important physical phenomena on the continental shelf/slope. They are often very energetic, and their breaking provides an important dissipation and mixing mechanism, with implications for biological productivity and sediment transport. Internal waves appear in a variety of forms and can break in a variety of ways. A consequence of their dispersion properties is the breaking of waves reflecting from, or being generated at, near-critical slopes. Breaking mechanisms associated with internal solitary waves include bottom boundary layer instabilities, shear instabilities in the interior of the water column, and wave overturning as they shoal. Shoaling can result in the formation of waves with trapped cores either at the surface or at the bottom. Theoretical, numerical, and laboratory studies have largely focused on simple geometries, whereas recent work has shown that the situation in the ocean is often much more complicated because of more complex geometries and the presence of a full hierarchy of fluid motions. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Burkov A.A.,University of Waterloo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in a doped Weyl semimetal, or Weyl metal, including both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurity scattering) contributions. We demonstrate that a Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. © 2014 American Physical Society.