Al Kut, Iraq
Al Kut, Iraq

University of Wasit is one of the Iraqi Universities established in 2003 in Al Kut, Wasit, Iraq. Wikipedia.

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Pasqua A.,University of Trieste | Assaf K.A.,University of Wasit | Aly A.A.,Damnhour University
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

In this work, we study the power-law and the logarithmic entropy corrected versions of the Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in the framework of the Brans-Dicke cosmology non-minimally coupled with a chameleon scalar field φ{symbol}. Considering the presence of interaction between Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM), we derived the expressions of some relevant cosmological parameters, i.e. the equation of state parameter ω D, the deceleration parameter q and the evolution of the energy density parameter Ω′D. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Hussanan A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ismail Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | Khan I.,Majmaah University | Hussein A.G.,University of Wasit | Shafie S.,University of Technology Malaysia
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2014

In this article, the unsteady boundary layer magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with constant mass diffusion and Newtonian heating condition is analysed. By considering the effects of thermal radiation in the energy equation, the problem is first modeled and then written in dimensionless form, which is then solved by using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained and plotted graphically to see the influence of embedded parameters. The results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also shown in tables. Further a table is included for the comparison of our results with those present in the literature. © Società Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2014.

Al-Defae A.H.,University of Dundee | Al-Defae A.H.,University of Wasit | Knappett J.A.,University of Dundee
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2014

An extensive program of centrifuge testing was conducted to quantify the improvements to seismic slope performance that can be achieved by installing a row of discretely spaced vertical precast RC piles. A key novelty of the work presented is the use of recently developed microreinforced concrete to produce realistically damageable model piles. Pile-reinforced slopes are a good example of a problem in which relative soil-pile strength is important in determining whether the soil or pile yields first, and in which the performance of a slope with structurally damaged piles may be of interest. The new model RC allows these factors to be properly accounted for in a reduced-scale physical model for the first time. Two different reinforcement layouts were considered, representing (1) a section specifically detailed to carry the bending moments induced by the slipping soil mass, and (2) a nominally reinforced section with low moment capacity. These were supported by further tests on conventional elastic piles that were instrumented to measure seismic soil-pile interaction. It was demonstrated that dynamic ground motions at the crest can be significantly reduced in amplitude by up to 20% with elastic piles spaced at s/B=3.5, both in terms of the peak acceleration and across the full response spectrum. Permanent deformations at the slope crest (e.g., settlement) were also reduced by up to 35% at s/B=3:5. These findings are consistent with previous suggestions made for the optimal s/B ratio for encouraging soil arching between piles at maximum spacing both under monotonic conditions and from numerical investigations of the seismic problem. The improvements to slope performance were reduced slightly using the designed microreinforced concrete piles owing to deterioration in the bending properties arising from fatigue under the cyclic kinematic loading. This suggests that idealization of RC piles as elastic elements will likely be only an approximation of their true behavior. The importance of reinforcement detailing was also highlighted, with the nominally reinforced section yielding early in the earthquake, and the damaged piles subsequently only offering a small (although measureable) reduction in seismic slope performance compared with the unreinforced case. In addition to these findings, the data presented will be useful in validating future improved numerical models for predicting the performance of piled slopes and for the aseismic design of pile-reinforcing schemes. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Al-Defae A.H.,University of Wasit | Knappett J.A.,University of Dundee
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

Recent studies have demonstrated that the use of a discretely-spaced row of piles can be effective in reducing the deformations of slopes in earthquakes. In this paper, an approximate strain-dependant Newmark sliding-block procedure for pile-reinforced slopes has been developed, for use in analysis and design of the piling scheme, and the model is validated against centrifuge test data. The interaction of the pile within the slipping soil was idealised using a non-linear elasto-plastic (. P-y) model, while the interaction within the underlying stable soil was modelled using an elastic response model in which (degraded) soil stiffness is selected for an appropriate amount of shear strain. This combined soil-pile interaction model was incorporated into the improved Newmark methodology for unreinforced slopes presented by Al-defae et al. [1], so that the final method additionally incorporates strain-dependent geometric hardening (slope re-grading). When combined with the strain-dependent pile resistance, the method is therefore applicable to analysis of both the mainshock and subsequent aftershocks acting on the deformed slope. It was observed that the single pile resistance is mobilised rapidly at the start of a strong earthquake and that this and the permanent slope deformation are therefore strongly influenced by pile stiffness properties, pile spacing and the depth of the slip surface. The model shows good agreement with the centrifuge test data in terms of the prediction of permanent deformation at the crest of the slope (important in design for selecting an appropriate pile layout/spacing i.e. S/. B) and in terms of the maximum permanent bending moments induced in the piles (important for appropriate structural detailing of the piles), so long as the slip surface depth can be accurately predicted. A method for doing this, based on limit analysis, is also presented and validated. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Al-Defae A.H.,University of Dundee | Al-Defae A.H.,University of Wasit | Caucis K.,University of Dundee | Knappett J.A.,University of Dundee
Geotechnique | Year: 2013

Shallow embankment slopes are commonly used to support elements of transport infrastructure in seismic regions. In this paper, the seismic performance of such slopes in non-liquefiable granular soils is considered, focusing on permanent movement and dynamic motion at the crest, which would form key inputs into the aseismic design of supported infrastructure. In contrast to previous studies, the evolution of this behaviour under multiple sequential strong ground motions is studied through dynamic centrifuge, numerical (finite-element, FE) and analytical (sliding-block) modelling, the centrifuge tests being used to validate the two non-physical approaches. The FE models focus on the specification of model parameters for existing non-linear constitutive models using routine site investigation data, allowing them to be used routinely in design and analysis. Soil-specific constitutive parameters are derived from shearbox and oedometer test data, and are found to significantly outperform existing empirical correlations based on relative density, highlighting the importance of specifying a suitably detailed site investigation. An improved sliding-block ('Newmark') approach is also developed for estimating permanent deformations during preliminary design, in which the formulation of the yield acceleration is fully strain-dependent, incorporating both material hardening/ softening and geometric hardening (re-grading). The site-specific (improved) FE models and the new sliding-block approach are shown to outperform considerably existing FE parameters and sliding-block models in capturing the permanent deformations of the slope under virgin conditions, and further, only the improved FE and sliding-block models are found to capture correctly the behaviour of the 'damaged' slope under subsequent earthquakes (e.g. strong aftershocks). The FE models can additionally accurately replicate the settlement profile at the crest and quantify the dynamic motions that would be input to supported structures, although these were generally overpredicted. The FE procedures and sliding-block models are therefore complementary, the latter being useful for preliminary design and the former for later detailed design and analysis.

Ismail Z.Z.,University of Baghdad | Jaeel A.J.,University of Wasit
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Giant reed is an aggressive agricultural species with remarkable reproductive abilities allow it to out compete native species of plants for land and food resources. This paper reports a novel application of giant reed ash (GRA) and air-dried giant reed fibers (GRF) to partially replace sand in concrete mixes by 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%. Ten concrete mixes were prepared with giant reed, 5 mixes prepared with GRA and 5 with GRF. Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, compressive strength, and flexural strength. Curing ages of 7, 14, and 28 days were applied in this study. Results revealed that at 28 days curing, the compressive strength increased up to 7.96% and 2.47% using GRA and GRF, respectively to replace sand by 7.5% by weight. The results confirm that using giant reed offers a sustainable approach to solve the pollution problems that arise from an accumulation of this excessive aggressive species in the production sites; in the meantime modified properties are added to the concrete. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Al-Mayahie S.M.G.,University of Wasit
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

Vaginal (61) and fecal (61) Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and nonpregnant women (18-45 years old) were surveyed for papG alleles by PCR technique. papG allele II was the most prevalent among both vaginal (32.7%) and fecal (3.2%) isolates, whereas other alleles were found only among vaginal isolates (1.6% for alleles I and III and 3.2% for alleles II + III). papG + pregnant women's isolates did not differ significantly from those of nonpregnant in possession of papG allele II (90% versus 73.3%), whereas both (32.7%) differed significantly (P≤0.05) in comparison with fecal isolates (3.2%). The vast majority of papG allele II+ vaginal isolates were clustered in group B2 (81.8%) and much less in group D (18.1%). Also, most of them were positive for fimH (100%), papC (100%), iucC (90.9%), and hly (72.7%), and about half of them were positive for sfa/foc (45.4%). In addition, the mean of VFs' gene possession was 3.5 (range from 2 to 5). It can be concluded that vaginal colonization by papG allele II+ E. coli is possibly one of the predisposing factors of both pregnant and nonpregnant women to pyelonephritis, but its potential may be modified by other factors especially host factors. © 2013 Sareaa Maseer Gatya Al-Mayahie.

Ismail Z.Z.,University of Baghdad | Jaeel A.J.,University of Wasit
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively. © 2013 Zainab Z. Ismail and Ali Jwied Jaeel.

Al-Mayahie S.M.G.,University of Wasit
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2013

Background: Vaginal Escherichia coli is a reservoir along the fecal-vaginal-urinary/neonatal course of transmission in extraintestinal E. coli infections. They also causes genital tract infections especially vaginitis, so that detection of their antibiotic resistance is an important approach to control these infections. One important mechanism of resistance is ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae especially Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, which is now a worldwide problem that limits therapeutic options.Methods: Sixty one vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women, were detected phenotypically and genotypically for ESBL production.Results: Most of pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates, were resistant to cefotaxime (100% vs. 81.5%, respectively) and more than half of them to ceftazidime (56.5% vs. 71.0%, respectively). One hundred percent each, 52.1% vs. 68.4%, and 73.9% vs. 60.5%%, were ESBL producers by screening, confirmatory, and PCR tests, respectively. Pregnant women's isolates had: CTX-M- (69.5%), SHV- and OXA-type (each 4.3%) ESBLs. Only one isolate (4.3%) had two types of ESBLs. All 16 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Non-pregnant women's isolates were predominated by SHV and CTX-M -type (44.7% vs. 39.4%, respectively), followed by OXA- (15.7%), and TEM-type (2.6%). Of these isolates, 42.1% had two types of ESBL genes. All 15 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) regarding the expression of SHV- (4.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively) and CTX-M-type (69.5% vs. 39.4%, respectively) ESBLs. In both, CTX-M-1 was the predominant CTX-M group (each 100%). All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, while the highest rate of resistance was against β-lactams. Multidrug resistance was noted in 56.2% of ESBL-producing isolates.Conclusions: Ggenital tracts of pregnant and non-pregnant women represent different environments for propagation of ESBL-producing E. coli. In Iraq, nationwide study is required to make a precise estimation of this widespread of ESBL-producing bacteria. © 2013 Al-Mayahie; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sadiq A.K.,University of Wasit
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2014

The white-rot basidomycete, Trametes versicolor was tested for the decolourisation ability of treated wool scour effluent. Isolates HR131 and HR 154 were tested with HR 131 displaying a slight superiority. Inocula from both liquid and solid formulations were tested but no difference on decolourisation was observed. Killed fungi controls displayed 6 - 11% colour removal. The maximum additional biological colour removal achieved for undiluted, treated effluent was 44% by T. versicolor isolate HR131 after 48 h by two sequential inoculations of mycelia grown in malt extract broth sucrose liquid formulation. The rate of biological colour removal on a dry mycelia weight basis was 0. 274% (g L-1)-1 h-1 ± 0. 032 (□= 0. 025, R2 = 0. 97). No manganese peroxidase and low laccase levels were detected. Colour reversion was noted after initial decolourisation, which was thought to be linked to low co-substrate levels. © Research India Publications.

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