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Washington, DC, United States

American University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts curriculum, doctoral, and research-based university in Washington, D.C., United States, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, although the university's curriculum is secular. The university was chartered by an Act of Congress on February 24, 1893 as "The American University," when the bill was approved by President Benjamin Harrison. Roughly 7,200 undergraduate students and 5,230 graduate students are currently enrolled. AU is a member of the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area. A member of the Division I Patriot League, its sports teams compete as the American University Eagles. AU's 84-acre campus is designated as a national arboretum and public garden that has a rich botanical history.American's main campus is located at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues at Ward Circle in the Spring Valley neighborhood of Northwest Washington. The area is served by the Tenleytown-AU station on the Washington Metro subway line in the nearby neighborhood of Tenleytown.AU was named the "most politically active school" in the nation in The Princeton Review's annual survey of college students in 2008, 2010, and 2012. American University is especially known for promoting international understanding reflected in the diverse student body from more than 150 countries, the university’s course offerings, the faculty's research, and from the regular presence of world leaders on its campus. The university has six unique schools, including the well-regarded School of International Service that is currently ranked 8th in the world for its graduate programs in International Affairs by Foreign Policy. and the Washington College of Law. Wikipedia.


Shiffman J.,American University of Washington
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2016

Globally 2.9 million babies die each year before reaching 28 days of life. Over the past quarter century, neonatal mortality has declined at a slower pace than post-neonatal under-five mortality: in consequence newborns now comprise 44% of all deaths to children under five years. Despite high numbers of newborn deaths, global organizations and national governments paid little attention to the issue until 2000, and resources, while growing since then, remain inadequate. This study examines the factors behind these patterns of policy attention: the delayed emergence of attention, its sudden appearance in 2000, its growth thereafter, but the dearth of resources to date. Drawing on a framework on global health networks grounded in collective action theory, the study finds that a newborn survival network helped to shift perceptions about the problem's severity and tractability, contributing to the rise of global attention. Its efforts were facilitated by pressure on governments to achieve the child survival Millennium Development Goal and by growing awareness that the neonatal period constituted a growing percentage of under-five mortality, a fact the network publicized. The network's relatively recent emergence, its predominantly technical rather than political composition and strategies, and its inability to date to find a framing of the issue that has convinced national political leaders of the issue's urgency, in part explain the insufficiency of resources. However, since 2010 a number of non-health oriented inter-governmental organizations have begun to pay attention to the issue, and several countries with high neonatal mortality have created national plans, developments which augur well for the future. The study points to two broader implications concerning how neglected global health issues come to attract attention: priority emerges from a confluence of factors, rather than any single cause; and growth in priority may depend on the creation of a broader political coalition that extends beyond the largely technically oriented actors who may first press for attention to a problem. © 2015 The Author; all rights reserved. Source


Costanzi S.,American University of Washington
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

The recent boom of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystallography is currently revolutionizing the way modulators of these highly druggable targets are discovered. Not only are these structures directly applicable to computer-aided drug discovery, but they also provide templates for the construction of homology models of other receptors. The study of the binding mode of GPCR modulators through docking experiments remains challenging. In addition to an expert use of advanced modeling tools, the application of experimental knowledge derived from site-directed mutagenesis data is fundamental for the generation of accurate receptor-ligand complexes applicable to drug discovery. We expect that the growing number of experimental and computational GPCR structures will boost the rational discovery of novel modulators in coming years. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sawers L.,American University of Washington
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis - the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. © 2013 Sawers L; licensee International AIDS Society. Source


Harshman N.L.,American University of Washington
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Spectroscopic labels for a few particles with spin that are harmonically trapped in one dimension with effectively zero-range interactions are provided by quantum numbers that characterize the symmetries of the Hamiltonian: permutations of identical particles, parity inversion, and the separability of the center-of-mass. The exact solutions for the noninteracting and infinitely repulsive cases are reduced with respect to these symmetries. This reduction explains how states of single-component and multicomponent fermions and bosons transform under adiabatic evolution from noninteracting to strong hard-core repulsion. These spectroscopic methods also clarify previous analytic and numerical results for intermediate values of interaction strength. Several examples, including adiabatic mapping for two-component fermionic states in the cases N=3-5, are provided. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Riley A.L.,American University of Washington
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2011

In 1991, Woods described the paradoxical nature of eating, specifically, that it produced aversive and negative effects. He noted in this analysis the multiple physiological and behavior adaptations, both learned and unlearned, that were aimed at regulating food intake and reducing its aversive, disruptive effects. From this position, he argued that consumption reflected a balance of the positive and aversive effects of eating. The present review extends this analysis to drug use and abuse, i.e., that drug taking itself also is a balance of reward and aversion. Although traditionally the analysis of drug use and abuse has focused on a drug's positive and negative rewarding effects, the present review highlights the aversive effects of these same drugs, e.g., cocaine, morphine, alcohol, and describes such effects as protective in nature. This balance and the manner by which it can be impacted by subject and experiential factors are described with a focus on genetic models of drug abuse using the Lewis and Fischer inbred rat strains. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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