Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Washington, DC, United States

American University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts curriculum, doctoral, and research-based university in Washington, D.C., United States, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, although the university's curriculum is secular. The university was chartered by an Act of Congress on February 24, 1893 as "The American University," when the bill was approved by President Benjamin Harrison. Roughly 7,200 undergraduate students and 5,230 graduate students are currently enrolled. AU is a member of the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area. A member of the Division I Patriot League, its sports teams compete as the American University Eagles. AU's 84-acre campus is designated as a national arboretum and public garden that has a rich botanical history.American's main campus is located at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues at Ward Circle in the Spring Valley neighborhood of Northwest Washington. The area is served by the Tenleytown-AU station on the Washington Metro subway line in the nearby neighborhood of Tenleytown.AU was named the "most politically active school" in the nation in The Princeton Review's annual survey of college students in 2008, 2010, and 2012. American University is especially known for promoting international understanding reflected in the diverse student body from more than 150 countries, the university’s course offerings, the faculty's research, and from the regular presence of world leaders on its campus. The university has six unique schools, including the well-regarded School of International Service that is currently ranked 8th in the world for its graduate programs in International Affairs by Foreign Policy. and the Washington College of Law. Wikipedia.


Peters E.,Decision Research Inc. | Hart P.S.,American University of Washington | Fraenkel L.,Yale University
Medical Decision Making | Year: 2011

Background. Given the importance of effective patient communication, findings about influences on risk perception in nonmedical domains need replication in medical domains. Objective. To examine whether numeracy influences risk perceptions when different information frames and number formats are used to present medication risks. Methods. The authors manipulated the frame and number format of risk information in a 3 (frame: positive, negative, combined) x 2 (number format: frequency, percentage) design. Participants from an Internet sample (N = 298), randomly assigned to condition, responded to a single, hypothetical scenario. The main effects and interactions of numeracy, framing, and number format on risk perception were measured. Results. Participants given the positive frame perceived the medication as less risky than those given the negative frame. Mean risk perceptions for the combined frame fell between the positive and negative frames. Numeracy did not moderate these framing effects. Risk perceptions also varied by number format and numeracy, with less-numerate participants given risk information in a percentage format perceiving the medication as less risky than when given risk information in a frequency format; highly numerate participants perceived similar risks in both formats. The generalizability of the findings is limited due to the use of non-patients, presented a hypothetical scenario. Given the design, one cannot know whether observed differences would translate into clinically significant differences in patient behaviors. Conclusions. Frequency formats appear to increase risk perceptions over percentage formats for less-numerate respondents. Health communicators need to be aware that different formats generate different risk perceptions among patients varying in numeracy. Copyright © 2011 by Society for Medical Decision Making. Source


Silberberg A.,American University of Washington | Fantino E.,University of California at San Diego
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2010

Observing responses are those that produce stimuli correlated with the availability (S+) or non-availability (S-) of reinforcement but that has no influence on the actual delivery or timing of reinforcement. Prior research has shown that observing is maintained by the occasional production of the S+ (" good news" ) and not by production of the equally informative S- (" bad news" ). However, for both humans and rats the S- maintains observing when it is at least implicitly correlated with good news. In the present study, pigeons could obtain both good and bad news by responding during the appropriate key color. In one condition, the bad news was actually more informative about reinforcement than was the good news. Nevertheless, a preponderance of the birds' responses was made on the nominally good-news option. The present results offer further support for the central role of good news in maintaining observing responses and are entirely consistent with the traditional conditioned-reinforcement (or classical conditioning) interpretation of observing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Shapiro A.G.,American University of Washington | Leaver A.M.,Georgetown University
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2010

Recent work in the Shapiro laboratory has suggested that the visual response to changes in chromaticity/luminance can be separated from the visual response to changes in spatial contrast. Here, we examine how spatial edges affect the relative perceptual weighting of these two types of responses. In the experiments, we separate color from color contrast with a 'contrast asynchrony' stimulus in which the luminance of two identical rectangles varies sinusoidally over time. We use two different stimulus configurations: in one configuration, one rectangle is placed on a black background, and the other is placed on a white background; in the other configuration, the two rectangles are placed on a striped background (similar to Munker-White's background), with one rectangle set against a white stripe and the other against a black stripe. Experiment 1 documents that the rectangle placed on the solid white background appears to modulate out of phase with the rectangle placed on the solid black background, and that the two rectangles placed on the striped background appear to modulate in phase with each other. Experiment 2 measured the length the background stripes must be to shift from the perception of in-phase modulation to antiphase modulation (and vice versa). In the solid background configuration, the perceived shift from in-phase to antiphase occurred when edges above and below the rectangles were about 0.5°; and in the striped background configuration, the perceived shift from antiphase to in-phase occurred when the edges were < 10 min of arc. Experiment 3 showed that edges that could engender the perception of the contrast asynchrony in the striped background configuration had no effect on the perceived brightness of the bars. The results indicate that edges placed on opposite sides of the modulating field can inhibit the contrast response but do not necessarily affect the perceived brightness. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists. Source


Smith S.L.,University of New Mexico | Shiffman J.,American University of Washington
Global Public Health | Year: 2014

Deaths to babies in their first 28 days of life now account for more than 40% of global under-5 child mortality. High neonatal mortality poses a significant barrier to achieving the child survival Millennium Development Goal. Surmounting the problem requires national-level political commitment, yet only a few nation-states have prioritised this issue. We compare Bolivia, Malawi and Nepal, three low-income countries with high neonatal mortality, with a view to understanding why countries prioritise or neglect the issue. The three have had markedly different trajectories since 2000: attention grew steadily in Nepal, stagnated then grew in Malawi and grew then stagnated in Bolivia. The comparison suggests three implications for proponents seeking to advance attention to neglected health issues in low-income countries: the value of (1) advancing solutions with demonstrated efficacy in low-resource settings, (2) building on existing and emerging national priorities and (3) developing a strong network of domestic and international allies. Such actions help policy communities to weather political storms and take advantage of policy windows. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


McComas K.A.,Cornell University | Stedman R.,Cornell University | Sol Hart P.,American University of Washington
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Across the United States, universities are grappling with challenges associated with adopting approaches to more sustainable energy use. One approach has been to develop energy-related projects in their local, host communities. Because host communities can play a major role in the successful planning and implementation of these projects, understanding the factors relating to their support is important. Building on research that suggests that procedural fairness is one such key factor, this study examines community members' support of six approaches a local university could implement to work towards a goal of carbon neutrality. The results of a mail survey (N=677) found that perceived fairness of campus decision makers was significantly related to community support for the proposed approaches; however, beliefs about the efficacy of the different approaches to address challenges associated with climate change had the strongest relationship with support. The results also suggest that residents prefer changes in the energy infrastructure, such as the development of wind power, over the purchase of carbon offsets. We discuss the results in terms of actions that universities may take to foster community engagement in decision-making for university-sponsored sustainable energy projects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Calisi R.M.,Barnard College | Saldanha C.J.,American University of Washington
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2015

The definition of a hormone has been in part delineated by its journey to distant receptor targets. Following activation of a receptor, a subsequent reaction facilitates the regulation of physiology and, ultimately, behavior. However, a growing number of studies report that hormones can influence these events at a previously underappreciated high speed. With the potential to act as neurotransmitters, the definition of a hormone and its mechanisms of action are evolving. In this symposium, we united scientists who use contemporary molecular, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to study aspects of rapid hormone action in a broad array of systems across different levels of biological organization. What emerged was an overwhelming consensus that the use of integrative and comparative approaches fuels discovery and increases our understanding of de novo hormone synthesis, local actions of neurohormones, and subsequent effects on neuroplasticity and behavior. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. Source


Kenworthy L.,Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders | Wallace G.L.,National Institute of Mental Health | Powell K.,American University of Washington | Anselmo C.,Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders | And 2 more authors.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders | Year: 2012

Language ability is a known predictor of outcome in children with autism but plays a more controversial role for higher functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied the relationship between early language milestones and later structural language, adaptive functioning and autism symptoms in a sample of 76 children (mean age = 9.1 years) with an ASD, using two different language milestones: first phrase by 24 or 36 months. After controlling for age and nonverbal abilities, retrospectively reported early language milestones were predictive of later structural language abilities, measured by a sentence repetition task, and adaptive communication skills, but not autism symptoms or adaptive social skills. Acquisition of phrase speech by 24 months was sensitive to language and communication impairments in our ASD group, the majority (84%) of which had already acquired phrase speech by 36 months of age. Early available and easily collectable milestone data may be a useful marker of later language performance even in higher functioning, verbal children on the autism spectrum. When a detailed assessment of language is not possible, data on early milestones may be useful for identifying children at-risk in clinical settings and for language phenotyping in the laboratory. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Background: The aim of this study was to assess physicians' perception of their patients' knowledge and opinions regarding regular screening, and the association of their perceptions with physician numeracy and patient education level. Methods: We carried out a survey study of 240 obstetrician-gynecologists. Results: Overall, 99.6% physicians perceive that their patients know that breast cancer is hereditary, 86.5% predicted that there is a gene mutation related to breast cancer, and 79.4% predicted that most breast cancer cases occur in women aged 50 years or greater. Physicians with less educated patients thought that their patients would not know about genetic screening, and physicians with more educated patients thought that their patients would know that mammography does not reduce the risk of getting breast cancer. A total of 66.0% of obstetrician-gynecologists answered all 3 numeracy questions correctly. Less numerate physicians were more likely to indicate that their typical patient would agree with the statement about regular mammography screens than the more numerate physicians. Conclusions: Obstetrician-gynecologists expect that their patients know some things about breast cancer and not others. Some of the physicians' perceptions about patients differ based on numeracy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Harshman N.L.,American University of Washington
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

This contributed conference proceeding reviews some results about a system of a few identical particles with spin trapped in one-dimensional potentials and experiencing two-body interactions. The focus is on how symmetry, integrability, and solvability depend on the trap shape, two-body interaction, the number of particles, and the number of spin components. A series of comments are presented that characterize the minimal symmetries possible for a composite system constructed from interacting single particles, with special focus on the contact interaction. For five and more particles with internal components like spin, a kind of universality called algebraically solvability is lost. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016. Source


Wiley L.F.,American University of Washington
American Journal of Law and Medicine | Year: 2015

Environmental, public health, alternative food, and food justice advocates are working together to achieve incremental agricultural subsidy and nutrition assistance reforms that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. When it comes to targeting food and beverage products for increased regulation and decreased consumption, however, the priorities of various food reform movements diverge. This article argues that foundational legal issues, including preemption of state and local authority to protect the public's health and welfare, increasing First Amendment protection for commercial speech, and eroding judicial deference to legislative policy judgments, present a more promising avenue for collaboration across movements than discrete food reform priorities around issues like sugary drinks, genetic modification, or organics. Using the Vermont Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Labeling Act litigation, the Kauai GMO Cultivation Ordinance litigation, the New York City Sugary Drinks Portion Rule litigation, and the Cleveland Trans Fat Ban litigation as case studies, I discuss the foundational legal challenges faced by diverse food reformers, even when their discrete reform priorities diverge. I also explore the broader implications of cooperation among groups that respond differently to the "irrationalities" (from the public health perspective) or "values" (from the environmental and alternative food perspective) that permeate public risk perception for democratic governance in the face of scientific uncertainty. © 2015 The Author(s). Source


Anderson D.,City University of New York | Pimentel L.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Golden B.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.,American University of Washington | Hirshon J.M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
American Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Study objective The percentage of patients leaving before treatment is completed (LBTC) is an important indicator of emergency department performance. The objective of this study is to identify characteristics of hospital operations that correlate with LBTC rates. Methods The Emergency Department Benchmarking Alliance 2012 and 2013 cross-sectional national data sets were analyzed using multiple regression and k-means clustering. Significant operational variables affecting LBTC including annual patient volume, percentage of high-acuity patients, percentage of patients admitted to the hospital, number of beds, academic status, waiting times to see a physician, length of stay (LOS), registered nurse (RN) staffing, and physician staffing were identified. LBTC was regressed onto these variables. Because of the strong correlation between waiting times measured as door to first provider (DTFP), we regressed DTFP onto the remaining predictors. Cluster analysis was applied to the data sets to further analyze the impact of individual predictors on LBTC and DTFP. Results LOS and the time from DTFP were both strongly associated with LBTC rate (P <.001). Patient volume is not significantly associated with LBTC rate (P =.16). Cluster analysis demonstrates that physician and RN staffing ratios correlate with shorter DTFP and lower LBTC. Conclusion Volume is not the main driver of LBTC. DTFP and LOS are much more strongly associated. We show that operational factors including LOS and physician and RN staffing decisions, factors under the control of hospital and physician executives, correlate with waiting time and, thus, in determining the LBTC rate. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Tang Y.,Oakland University | Chi X.,Oakland University | Zou S.,American University of Washington | Zeng X.,Oakland University
Nanoscale | Year: 2016

Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd nanocrystals has little effect on the oxygen reduction process but significantly affects the oxidation process of the superoxide. It is found that the Pd{110}/IL interface can better stabilize superoxide radicals revealed by a more positive oxidation potential compared to that of Pd{100}. In addition, the analytical characteristic of utilizing both palladium nanocrystals as electrodes for oxygen sensing is comparable with a polycrystal platinum oxygen sensor, in which Pd{110} presents the best sensitivity and lowest detection limit. Our results demonstrate the facet-dependence of oxygen reduction in an ionic liquid medium and provide the fundamental information needed to guide the applications of palladium nanocrystals in electrochemical gas sensor and fuel cell research. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Sofia U.J.,American University of Washington | Parvathi V.S.,University of Calicut | Babu B.R.S.,University of Calicut | Murthy J.,Indian Institute of Astrophysics
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2011

Carbon is arguably the most important element in the interstellar medium, yet its abundance in gas and dust is poorly understood due to a paucity of data.We explore the possibility of substantially increasing our knowledge of interstellar carbon by applying and assessing a new method for determining the column density of the dominant ion of interstellar carbon in diffuse neutral lines of sight. The method relies on profile fitting of the strong transition of Cii at 1334Å in spectra continuum normalized with stellar models. We apply our method to six sight lines for which the carbon abundance has previously been determined with a weak intersystem absorption transition. Our strong-line method consistently shows a significantly lower gas-phase C abundance than the measurements from the weak lines. This result implies that more carbon could reside in dust than was previously thought. This has implications for dust models, which often suffer from a lack of sufficient carbon to plausibly explain extinction. There is no immediately clear explanation for the difference found between the strong- and weak-line C ii determinations, but there are indications that the results from the method presented here have advantages over the weak-line column densities. If this is the case, then the reported oscillator strength for the C ii transition at 2325Å may be too small. Our findings further suggest that damping wings modeled with a single absorption component may not produce accurate abundances. This problem could affect a large number of Hi abundances determined through absorption line analysis that are reported in the literature. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Source


Adeigbe R.T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Baldwin S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Gallion K.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Grier S.,American University of Washington | Ramirez A.G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos’ food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014, © 2014 Society for Public Health Education. Source


Shiffman J.,American University of Washington
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2016

Globally 2.9 million babies die each year before reaching 28 days of life. Over the past quarter century, neonatal mortality has declined at a slower pace than post-neonatal under-five mortality: in consequence newborns now comprise 44% of all deaths to children under five years. Despite high numbers of newborn deaths, global organizations and national governments paid little attention to the issue until 2000, and resources, while growing since then, remain inadequate. This study examines the factors behind these patterns of policy attention: the delayed emergence of attention, its sudden appearance in 2000, its growth thereafter, but the dearth of resources to date. Drawing on a framework on global health networks grounded in collective action theory, the study finds that a newborn survival network helped to shift perceptions about the problem's severity and tractability, contributing to the rise of global attention. Its efforts were facilitated by pressure on governments to achieve the child survival Millennium Development Goal and by growing awareness that the neonatal period constituted a growing percentage of under-five mortality, a fact the network publicized. The network's relatively recent emergence, its predominantly technical rather than political composition and strategies, and its inability to date to find a framing of the issue that has convinced national political leaders of the issue's urgency, in part explain the insufficiency of resources. However, since 2010 a number of non-health oriented inter-governmental organizations have begun to pay attention to the issue, and several countries with high neonatal mortality have created national plans, developments which augur well for the future. The study points to two broader implications concerning how neglected global health issues come to attract attention: priority emerges from a confluence of factors, rather than any single cause; and growth in priority may depend on the creation of a broader political coalition that extends beyond the largely technically oriented actors who may first press for attention to a problem. © 2015 The Author; all rights reserved. Source


Grayson B.E.,University of Cincinnati | Fitzgerald M.F.,University of Cincinnati | Hakala-Finch A.P.,University of Cincinnati | Ferris V.M.,University of Cincinnati | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2014

Background:Much recent evidence suggest that obesity and related comorbidities contribute to cognitive decline, including the development of non age-related dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Obesity is a serious threat to public health, and few treatments offer proven long-term weight loss. In fact, bariatric surgery remains the most effective long-term therapy to reduce weight and alleviate other aspects of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Unlike the demonstrated benefits of caloric restriction to prevent weight gain, few if any studies have compared various means of weight loss on central nervous system function and hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes.Design and Results:Our studies comprise the first direct comparisons of caloric restriction to two bariatric surgeries (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG)) on cognitive function. Weight loss following caloric restriction, RYGB and VSG was associated with generalized improvements in metabolic health and hippocampal-dependent learning, as measured in the radial arm maze and spontaneous alternation tests. However, VSG-treated rats exhibited deficits on spatial learning tasks in the Morris water maze. In addition, whereas VSG animals had elevated hippocampal inflammation, comparable to that of obese controls, RYGB and calorie-restricted (pair-fed, PF) controls exhibited an amelioration of inflammation, as measured by the microglial protein ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1). We also assessed whether GHR (ghrelin) replacement would attenuate hippocampal inflammation in VSG, as post-surgical GHR levels are significantly reduced in VSG relative to RYGB and PF rats. However, GHR treatment did not attenuate the hippocampal inflammation.Conclusion:Although VSG was comparably effective at reducing body weight and improving glucose regulation as RYGB, VSG did not appear to confer an equal benefit on cognitive function and markers of inflammation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Quintiliani L.M.,Boston University | De Jesus M.,American University of Washington | Wallington S.F.,Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Objective: To examine an organizational level perspective of the process of adopting Web-based tailored nutrition and physical activity programs for community college students. Methods: In this qualitative study, 21 individual key informant interviews of community college student services and health center administrators were used to examine organizational-level perceptions of interest in, design characteristics of, and ways to promote health programs. A cross-classification matrix of a priori and emergent themes related to student diversity was created to describe cross-cutting patterns. Results: Findings revealed 5 emergent themes for consideration in program development related to student diversity: (1) multiple roles played by students, (2) limited access to financial resources, (3) varied student demographics, (4) different levels of understanding, and (5) commuting to campus. Conclusions and Implications: Nutrition and physical activity programs for community colleges need to specifically address the diverse nature of their students to increase the potential of adoption. © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Source


Benosa M.E.J.P.V.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Benosa M.E.J.P.V.,American University of Washington
3rd Asian Conference on Intelligent Games and Simulation, GAME-ON ASIA 2011 - 3rd Asian Simulation Technology Conference, ASTEC 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper is an analysis of the Wii Fit Plus experience and Wii Fit Plus player interview videos featured in the official Wii website, which presented the Wii Fit as a highly normative game that disciplines the body in subtle ways via immersion; if not punishing the bad obese body which exceeds its measuring limits, altogether. Using concepts from Whitson's study, this research reevaluates the Wii Fit's inclusion in the category of neo-immersive games, within which it has been lauded for aiding in a new generation of video game consoles presenting solutions to a sedentary lifestyle, and providing a space for mobility to gamers. Source


Nordback E.,Aalto University | Espinosa A.,American University of Washington
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2015

The ability of a single leader to exert direct influence on globally distributed teams diminishes when members are scattered across boundaries. Shared leadership may be necessary to lead such teams more effectively. Earlier research has found contradicting effects of shared leadership on team performance, suggesting the possibility that there may be some interaction effects at play. In this study we use Grounded Theory to explore these effects, such as whether and how shared leadership interacts with global team boundaries and team coordination. We interviewed 58 team members and leaders from 6 teams and found that shared leadership's influence on team performance is moderated by leadership coordination, such that shared leadership has a stronger effect when the distributed leadership activity is effectively coordinated, both cognitively and behaviorally. We also found that team leadership coordination needs to vary depending on the global boundaries spanned by the team. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Xiao C.,American University of Washington | McCright A.M.,Michigan State University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2012

We examine theoretical arguments explaining gender differences in environmental concern using data from six Gallup surveys in the 2000s. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, we examine the direct and indirect effects of gender and other key variables on two factors of environmental concern: worry about health-related environmental problems and worry about global environmental problems. We find weak but consistent support for the safety concerns hypothesis, which expects that women are more concerned than are men about health-related environmental problems. Our results offer no support for various arguments that men's and women's differential performance of key social roles in society account for gender differences in environmental concern. We find consistent support for the claim that risk perception mediates the direct effect of gender on environmental concern. We end with a discussion of fruitful avenues for future research on gender differences in environmental concern. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Casey S.D.,American University of Washington | Cohl H.S.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
2015 International Conference on Sampling Theory and Applications, SampTA 2015 | Year: 2015

Ultra-wide band (UWB) systems require either rapidly changing or very high sampling rates. Conventional analog-to-digital devices have limited dynamic range. We investigate UWB signal processing via a basis projection method and a basis system designed for UWB signals. The method first windows the signal and then decomposes the signal into a basis via a continuous-time inner product operation, computing the basis coefficients in parallel. The windowing systems are key, and we develop systems that have variable partitioning length, variable roll-off and variable smoothness. These include systems developed to preserve orthogonality of any orthonormal systems between adjacent blocks and almost orthogonal windowing systems that are more computable/constructible than the orthogonality preserving systems, built using B-splines. We construct the basis projection method, developing the method with a modified Gegenbauer system designed specifically for UWB signals. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Larkin T.L.,American University of Washington
Proceedings of 2014 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL 2014 | Year: 2015

In the global STEM professional arena, the ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, is a skillset demanded by employers. Unfortunately, typical academic exercises that involve written and oral communication are often just that... Academic exercises. To provide a more authentic and robust experience, a student conference activity has been developed for use in a second-level physics course entitled Physics for a New Millennium (PNM) at American University (AU). This conference paper activity involves writing a formal research paper using professional guidelines. Students then present their papers at a class conference held at the end of the semester. The primary focus of the research paper is to allow students to synthesize a subset of the physics topics that are being studied in class. The secondary focus of the research paper is to make a solid connection between physics and its connection to the overall paper topic. For example, in an earlier semester, one student, with a major in sociology and a minor in applied physics, wrote a paper on the physics associated with the cochlear implant and its impact on the deaf community. A topic such as this allows students the opportunity to connect the physics being studied in class to something that directly relates to their major course of study. Being able to make this type of connection is invaluable to the students and provides the instructor with a unique opportunity to assess their understanding. The research paper and conference presentation take the place of a traditional final exam. Unlike a traditional final exam, the research paper activity provides for multiple points of assessment of student learning. A traditional final exam merely provides a data point regarding student learning after the learning has actually taken place. In fact, most exams do not provide students with an opportunity to correct flaws in their reasoning and make adjustments to their current understanding. The non-traditional research paper activity, however, provides for multiple opportunities to correct one's understanding of key physics concepts and to utilize this adjusted understanding in the next phase of the paper-writing process. To illustrate, students must submit an abstract, as well as a first, second, and final draft of their papers. At each juncture, a carefully crafted rubric is utilized to better capture student learning. This paper will focus on one such evaluative rubric and provide discussion regarding how it was utilized in terms of assessing students' understanding of key physics topics. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Espinosa J.A.,United Information Technology | Nan N.,University of British Columbia | Carmel E.,American University of Washington
Journal of Management Information Systems | Year: 2015

Drawing on theories on dispersed teamwork, computer-mediated communications, and organizations, we examine the direct associations between temporal distance and team performance as well as the mediating role of team interaction. We tested our research model in a laboratory experiment with four temporal distance conditions. Results show that the direct associations between temporal distance and team performance are substantially diminished when we enter the intervening team communication variables (communication frequency and turn-taking) into the analysis model. We find that communication frequency and turn-taking have differentiated effects on conveyance of information and convergence on its meaning. Conveyance is positively associated with production speed, whereas convergence is positively associated with higher product quality (i.e., accuracy). These findings speak to the theoretical significance of communication patterns and information exchange behaviors in dispersed team research. They also transcend the common wisdom that temporal distance is good for speed and bad for quality. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Shapiro A.G.,American University of Washington
i-Perception | Year: 2015

The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion. © The Author(s) 2015. Source


Tanno T.,Keio University | Silberberg A.,American University of Washington | Sakagami T.,Keio University
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior | Year: 2012

In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule; or (c) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate schedule. Completion of a sample-lever schedule, which took approximately the same time regardless of schedule, presented two comparison levers, one associated with each sample-lever schedule. Pressing the comparison lever associated with the schedule just presented produced food, while pressing the other produced a blackout. Conditional-discrimination accuracy was related to the size of the difference in reinforced interresponse times and those that preceded it (predecessor interresponse times) between the variable-ratio and other comparison schedules. In Experiment 2, control by predecessor interresponse times was accentuated by requiring rats to discriminate between a variable-ratio schedule and a tandem schedule that required emission of a sequence of a long, then a short interresponse time in the tandem's terminal schedule. These discrimination data are compatible with the copyist model from Tanno and Silberberg (2012) in which response rates are determined by the succession of interresponse times between reinforcers weighted so that each interresponse time's role in rate determination diminishes exponentially as a function of its distance from reinforcement. Source


Gold A.,American University of Washington | Goo R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Hair L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Arazan N.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference | Year: 2010

Rainwater harvesting has the potential to supplement water supplies, manage stormwater and help mitigate combined sewer overflows (CSOs), decrease water withdrawals, reduce energy consumption and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper contains an analysis of the policies, programs, incentives, rules, regulations, impediments, and other voluntary and regulatory mechanisms that promote or require rainwater harvesting throughout the country at the municipal, state, and national levels. The paper also contains a summary of the benefits of rainwater harvesting. A section on programmatic tools that facilitate the assessment and evaluation of the municipal, state, and national policies also is included to provide insight into trends, future developments, and research gaps regarding the harvest and use of rainwater and snow melt. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Xiao C.,American University of Washington | Hong D.,Renmin University of China
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2012

Little research exists on Chinese people's environmental concern, despite China's great global environmental impacts. This study brings four hypotheses of gendered difference in environmental concern commonly found in Western literature to urban China, using a national data set of the 2003 China General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the interaction effects of gender, employment status, and parental roles, and the intervening effects of environmental knowledge. Results show that, unlike in the West, men in urban China were more concerned with environmental issues than women. However, findings of men's greater environmental knowledge relative to women, higher concerns for pollution issues than other issues among Chinese women, and little effect of employment status and parental role on environmental concern are largely consistent with the Western literature. The applicability of common hypotheses from the West may be less limited than expected in the context of China. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Anderson D.,The New School | Golden B.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.,American University of Washington | Zhang H.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Information Systems and e-Business Management | Year: 2015

We propose a method of diagnosing prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging data. Logistic regression and nearest neighbor classification are combined to identify the risk of cancer. Our method performs well, having 79 % predictive accuracy, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.85. It identifies the most aggressive cancers with 82 % accuracy. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Prado-Oviedo N.A.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Prado-Oviedo N.A.,George Mason University | Bonaparte-Saller M.K.,University of California at Davis | Malloy E.J.,American University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. Source


Volkema R.J.,American University of Washington | Fleck D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Hofmeister A.,Corvinus University of Budapest
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication | Year: 2011

This paper examines the role that initial exchanges play in determining subsequent process and outcome in email-based negotiations, an increasingly popular means of conducting domestic and international negotiations. The results of the study suggest considerable symmetry between parties in terms of the quantity (words) and quality of initial messages. However, informal greetings, introductions, and proposal surfacing in these early exchanges played little role in determining the likelihood of an agreement or an integrative (win-win) outcome. In contrast, the parties' stated intentions of pursuing a mutually beneficial outcome and their exaggeration of initial offers significantly related to the likelihood of reaching an agreement. The implications of these findings for practitioners and future research are discussed. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Stoodley C.J.,American University of Washington
Cerebellum | Year: 2016

Cerebellar dysfunction is evident in several developmental disorders, including autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and developmental dyslexia, and damage to the cerebellum early in development can have long-term effects on movement, cognition, and affective regulation. Early cerebellar damage is often associated with poorer outcomes than cerebellar damage in adulthood, suggesting that the cerebellum is particularly important during development. Differences in cerebellar development and/or early cerebellar damage could impact a wide range of behaviors via the closed-loop circuits connecting the cerebellum with multiple cerebral cortical regions. Based on these anatomical circuits, behavioral outcomes should depend on which cerebro-cerebellar circuits are affected. Here, we briefly review cerebellar structural and functional differences in autism, ADHD, and developmental dyslexia, and discuss clinical outcomes following pediatric cerebellar damage. These data confirm the prediction that abnormalities in different cerebellar subregions produce behavioral symptoms related to the functional disruption of specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits. These circuits might also be crucial to structural brain development, as peri-natal cerebellar lesions have been associated with impaired growth of the contralateral cerebral cortex. The specific contribution of the cerebellum to typical development may therefore involve the optimization of both the structure and function of cerebro-cerebellar circuits underlying skill acquisition in multiple domains; when this process is disrupted, particularly in early development, there could be long-term alterations of these neural circuits, with significant impacts on behavior. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Morrissey T.W.,American University of Washington
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2016

Objective This study examined associations between mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms and their parenting practices relating to gun, fire, and motor vehicle safety. Methods Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children birth to age five, linear probability models were used to examine associations between measures of parents’ depressive symptoms and their use of firearms, smoke detectors, and motor vehicle restraints. Parents reported use of smoke detectors, motor vehicle restraints, and firearm ownership and storage. Results Results suggest mothers with moderate or severe depressive symptoms were 2 % points less likely to report that their child always sat in the back seat of the car, and 3 % points less likely to have at least one working smoke detector in the home. Fathers’ depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of both owning a gun and of it being stored locked. Fathers’ depressive symptoms amplified associations between mothers’ depressive symptoms and owning a gun, such that having both parents exhibit depressive symptoms was associated with an increased likelihood of gun ownership of between 2 and 6 % points. Conclusions Interventions that identify and treat parental depression early may be effective in promoting appropriate safety behaviors among families with young children. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Starik M.,American University of Washington | Stubbs W.,Monash University | Benn S.,UTS Business School
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2016

Over the last decade, increasing research into sustainable business models has produced a number of prototypes that address various dimensions and levels of sustainability. What exists is a patchwork of certification and disconnected frameworks that are less than systematic and comprehensive. This article addresses this lack of integrated, holistic sustainability management research and practice guides by bringing together several salient and strategic sustainability management models. The authors then forward a synthesised, integrated environmental and socio-economic sustainability model that can be used by different types of entities, at different levels of human organisation, to identify, apply, assess, evaluate, and improve processes that advance sustainability values. This article concludes by suggesting future directions for modelling and applying the concepts and practices of multiple levels, systems elements, stages, structures, and cultures to advance sustainability management. © 2016 Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Inc. Source


Haverhals L.M.,U.S. Naval Academy | Foley M.P.,U.S. Naval Academy | Kathryn Brown E.,U.S. Naval Academy | Nevin L.M.,U.S. Naval Academy | And 3 more authors.
ECS Transactions | Year: 2012

Certain ionic liquids (ILs) are known to be efficient solvents for biopolymers. That said, solvent efficacy is strongly impacted by the presence of both adventitious molecular components and purposeful additives. For example, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate often contains water and acetic acid (polar protic) impurities (by-products of IL synthesis) that can have significant effects upon the dissolution of biopolymers. Additionally, ILs can be mixed with solvents such as acetonitrile (polar aprotic) that also impact the dissolution process. Data are presented that explore the effect of IL-based solvent composition on fiber welding: the controlled, partial dissolution of fibrous materials to create composite materials. Results suggest that IL-based solvents can be tailored for specific outcomes. Additionally, the fiber welding processes and material analysis techniques utilized are themselves useful to quantify solvent efficacy. Copyright © 2012 by The Electrochemical Society. Source


Reinhard M.J.,War Related Illness and Injury Study Center | Reinhard M.J.,Georgetown University | Nassif T.H.,War Related Illness and Injury Study Center | Nassif T.H.,American University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2014

Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly seen as an adjunct to traditional plans of care. This study utilized a representative sample of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and OEF/OIF-era veterans to explore the prevalence and characteristics of CAM users.Research Design: The National Health Study for a New Generation of US Veterans (NewGen) is a longitudinal health study of a populationbased cohort of OEF/OIF (deployed) and OEF/OIF-era (nondeployed) veterans. Data from the 2009-2011 NewGen survey (n = 20,563) were analyzed to determine prevalence of CAM use by demographic and military characteristics, the types of CAM modalities used, and where the modalities were sought. Results were weighted to the entire population of OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans.Results: There was no statistically significant association between CAM use and deployment. Those who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care after separation were more likely to be CAM users compared with those who did not use VA care; however, the majority of veterans using CAM are using it outside the VA health care system. Massage was the most prevalent CAM modality followed by chiropractic treatment; males were less likely to use CAM than women.Conclusions: CAM modalities are being utilized by OEF/OIF veterans for health problems mainly outside the VA. Policymakers should determine appropriate use of these modalities. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source


Mount D.M.,University of Maryland University College | Netanyahu N.S.,Bar - Ilan University | Netanyahu N.S.,University of Maryland University College | Piatko C.D.,Johns Hopkins University | And 2 more authors.
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2016

The linear least trimmed squares (LTS) estimator is a statistical technique for fitting a linear model to a set of points. It was proposed by Rousseeuw as a robust alternative to the classical least squares estimator. Given a set of n points in ℝd, the objective is to minimize the sum of the smallest 50% squared residuals (or more generally any given fraction). There exist practical heuristics for computing the linear LTS estimator, but they provide no guarantees on the accuracy of the final result. Two results are presented. First, a measure of the numerical condition of a set of points is introduced. Based on this measure, a probabilistic analysis of the accuracy of the best LTS fit resulting from a set of random elemental fits is presented. This analysis shows that as the condition of the point set improves, the accuracy of the resulting fit also increases. Second, a new approximation algorithm for LTS, called Adaptive-LTS, is described. Given bounds on the minimum and maximum slope coefficients, this algorithm returns an approximation to the optimal LTS fit whose slope coefficients lie within the given bounds. Empirical evidence of this algorithm's efficiency and effectiveness is provided for a variety of data sets. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang X.,University of Maryland College Park | Golden B.,University of Maryland College Park | Wasil E.,American University of Washington | Zhang R.,University of Maryland College Park
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2016

The min-max Split Delivery Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Minimum Service Time Requirement (min-max SDMDVRP-MSTR) is a variant of the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem. Each customer requires a specified amount of service time. The service time can be split among vehicles as long as each vehicle spends a minimum amount of service time at a customer. The objective is to minimize the duration of the longest route (where duration is the sum of travel and service times). We develop a heuristic (denoted by MDS) that solves the min-max SDMDVRP-MSTR in three stages: (1) initialize a feasible solution without splits; (2) improve the longest routes by splitting service times; (3) ensure all minimum service time requirements are satisfied. The first stage of MDS is compared to an existing heuristic to solve the min-max Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem on 43 benchmark instances. MDS produces 37 best-known solutions. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of MDS on 21 new instances whose (near) optimal solutions can be estimated based on geometry. Finally, we investigate the savings from split service and the split patterns as we vary the required service times, the average number of customers per route, and the minimum service time requirement. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cooke R.,Technical University of Delft | Golub A.,American University of Washington | Wielicki B.A.,NASA | Young D.F.,NASA | And 2 more authors.
Climate Policy | Year: 2015

The goal of this study is to show how to quantify the benefits of accelerated learning about key parameters of the climatic system and use this knowledge to improve decision-making on climate policy. The US social cost of carbon (SCC) methodology is used in innovative ways to value new Earth observing systems (EOSs). The study departs from the strict US SCC methodology, and from previous work, in that net benefits are used instead of only damages to calculate the value of information of the enhanced systems. In other respects the US SCC methodology is followed closely. We compute the surfeit expected net benefits of learning the actionable information earlier, with the enhanced system, versus learning later with existing systems. The enhanced systems are designed to give reliable information about climate sensitivity on accelerated timescales relative to existing systems; therefore, the decision context stipulates that a global reduced emissions path would be deployed upon receiving suitable information on the rate of temperature rise with a suitable level of confidence. By placing the enhanced observing system in a decision context, the SCC enables valuing this system as a real option. Policy relevance Uncertainty in key parameters of the climatic system is often cited as a barrier for near-term reductions of carbon emissions. It is a truism among risk managers that uncertainty costs money, and its reduction has economic value. Advancing policy making under uncertainty requires valuing the reduction in uncertainty. Using CLARREO, a new proposed EOS,as an example, this article applies value of information/real option theory to value the reduction of uncertainty in the decadal rate of temperature rise. The US interagency social cost of carbon directive provides the decision context for the valuations. It is shown that the real option value of the uncertainty reduction, relative to existing observing systems, is a very large multiple of the new system's cost. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source


Larkin T.L.,American University of Washington
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Most of us who teach within the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curricular areas expect to have teaching assignments that directly align with these disciplines. A teaching assignment in a curricular area outside of STEM is much less common. One focus of this paper is to describe a course that is taught by our physics faculty entitled Changing Views of the Universe. Changing Views is a course that is part of our general education core of courses in a curricular area entitled Traditions that Shape the Western World. Courses taught within this curricular area are typically taught by such departments as anthropology, art history, communication, government, history, and philosophy. Students who enroll in this course are non-science majors who are looking to fulfill their general education requirements towards graduation in this particular content area. Because the course is filled with non-science majors, the often technical course content must be presented in a non-mathematical way. Since the course content includes just about everything from the Big Bang to our present-day understanding of the cosmos, teaching these topics without much mathematics presents many unique challenges. A brief overview of the curriculum developed for the Changing Views course will be provided. Particular attention will be placed on some of the unique ways a writing-based approach has been implemented with the ultimate goal of enhancing of student learning. Emphasis here will be placed on a short paper activity designed to elicit student understanding of key topics addressed in class. In addition, strategies such as rubric development and time-saving grading techniques related to the use of these writing-based approaches will be shared. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015. Source


Yangwang W.,Carnegie Mellon University | Mayfield E.,Carnegie Mellon University | Naidu S.,Columbia University | Dittmar J.,American University of Washington
50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2012 - Proceedings of the Conference | Year: 2012

We propose a latent variable model to enhance historical analysis of large corpora. This work extends prior work in topic modelling by incorporating metadata, and the interactions between the components in metadata, in a general way. To test this, we collect a corpus of slavery-related United States property law judgements sampled from the years 1730 to 1866. We study the language use in these legal cases, with a special focus on shifts in opinions on controversial topics across different regions. Because this is a longitudinal data set, we are also interested in understanding how these opinions change over the course of decades. We show that the joint learning scheme of our sparse mixed-effects model improves on other state-of-the-art generative and discriminative models on the region and time period identification tasks. Experiments show that our sparse mixed-effects model is more accurate quantitatively and qualitatively interesting, and that these improvements are robust across different parameter settings. © 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics. Source


Glanz K.,University of Pennsylvania | Bader M.D.M.,American University of Washington | Iyer S.,Community Health Program
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Context: In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Evidence acquisition: Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identif?ed from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and2011. Evidence synthesis: Articles were classif?ed in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and f?eld experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key f?ndings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Conclusions: Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientif?c rigor of field studies. © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source


Chintakunta H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Robinson M.,American University of Washington | Krim H.,North Carolina State University
ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Topological Data Analysis (TDA) is a topic which has recently seen many applications. The goal of this special session is to highlight the bridge between signal processing, machine learning and techniques in topological data analysis. In this way, we hope to encourage more engineers to start exploring TDA and its applications. This paper briefly introduces the standard techniques used in this area, delineates the common theme connecting the works presented in this session, and concludes with a brief summary of each of the papers presented. © 2016 IEEE. Source


Heikka T.,University of Jyvaskyla | Heikka T.,American University of Washington
Policy and Internet | Year: 2015

The digitally crowdsourced law for same-sex marriage was passed in Finland in 2014. Activists produced the draft text of the law on digital collaboration platforms, and support for the law was petitioned using strong digital identification. This article analyzes how the campaign for the Equal Marriage Law used new digital tools and created practices that affect democratic citizenship and power making. The campaigners succeeded in introducing to the national political debate the idea of a bill that had been twice rejected in the political process. This article introduces the typology of the mediating citizen to describe civic action that is able to affect representative politics in a constructive way and reprogram power. The radical legal framework, the Citizens' Initiative Act, offered a channel to pursue meaningful civic agency in Finland and counter the legitimacy crisis of representative democracies. In future efforts for enhancing digital civic participation such a channel for real impact should be part of the design. © 2015 Policy Studies Organization. Source


Culver D.C.,American University of Washington | Holsinger J.R.,Old Dominion University | Christman M.C.,University of Florida | Pipan T.,Karst Research Institute
Journal of Crustacean Biology | Year: 2010

The amphipod genus Stygobromus occurs in a variety of subterranean habitats in North America, including caves, phreatic (groundwater) lakes, and superficial subterranean habitats (seeps and epikarst). The habitats share the absence of light but differ in other features, such as pore size of the habitat, available food, and degree of seasonality. Measurements of body size, antennal size, and antennal segment number of type specimens were compared for 56 species occurring in the eastern United States. Except for differences in body size, differences among species in the four different habitats were not significant. Body size was related to relative pore size of the habitat, e.g., epikarst, with the smallest spaces, had the smallest species. However, in all habitats, there was one very large species (> 15mm); these enigmatic species apparently occupy a distinct ecological niche, perhaps being more predatory. Differences in relative antennal size showed no significant differences among habitats, and differences in number of antennal segments were marginally significant (P=0.06) among habitat types and not in the predicted pattern. Differences among habitats in seasonality and available food seemed to be a minor part of the selective environment; absence of light seemed to be a major part of the selective environment. © 2010 The Crustacean Society. Source


Renuse S.,Institute of Bioinformatics | Renuse S.,Johns Hopkins University | Renuse S.,Amrita University | Harsha H.C.,Institute of Bioinformatics | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

Mangifera indica (Mango) is an important fruit crop in tropical countries with India being the leading producer in the world. Substantial research efforts are being devoted to produce fruit that have desirable characteristics including those that pertain to taste, hardiness and resistance to pests. Characterization of the genome and proteome of mango would help in the improvement of cultivars. As the mango genome has not yet been sequenced, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach followed by database searches of mango-derived ESTs and proteins along with proteins from six other closely related plant species to characterize its proteome. In addition to this, de novo sequencing followed by homology-based protein identification was also carried out. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango leaf proteome was performed using an accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This integrative approach enabled the identification of 1001 peptides that matched to 538 proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first high-throughput analysis of mango leaf proteome and could pave the way for further genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Herr N.R.,American University of Washington | Keenan-Miller D.,University of Southern California | Rosenthal M.Z.,Duke University | Feldblum J.,Duke University
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment | Year: 2013

Interpersonal dysfunction and aggression are features that are frequently found in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, few studies have examined the possible causal relationship between aggressive actions and interpersonal problems. In a nonclinical sample of 98 women with a range of BPD features, the present study examined the prospective relationship between aggressive behaviors and negative interpersonal events using a weekly diary method. Results showed that higher BPD symptoms were related to higher aggression and more negative interpersonal events. Furthermore, the aggressive acts endorsed among women with more BPD features were more likely the effect, rather than the cause, of the negative interpersonal events they experienced. Implications for interventions targeting aggression among women with elevated BPD features and suggestions for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved. Source


Szolgayova J.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Szolgayova J.,Comenius University | Golub A.,American University of Washington | Fuss S.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Fuss S.,Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

In a regulated world where government seeks to decarbonize the energy sector, firms face both indirect and direct costs of emitting CO2. This study seeks to take the perspective of the firm, which needs to maximize profits implying minimization of (carbon) cost as well. In this study, the firm can compose the cost-optimal portfolio of (a) investing into carbon-saving technology, which is currently expensive, (b) investing into carbon-saving technology R&D and adopt this technology at a later point, (c) buying allowances per ton of emitted CO2 in a carbon market (alternatively this could be formulated as a tax), and (d) buying offsets traded in the same market, which are based on reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). Uncertainties in the cost of carbon coming from a lack of commitment in policy-making leading to fluctuations in markets and uncertainty in the payoff of R&D activities could provide disincentives to incur large up-front sunk cost and raise the economic value of being flexible. We apply a real options approach with stochastic carbon-saving technology costs and stochastic CO2 costs. Assuming that firms are risk-averse, they will not only value flexibility, but also risk reductions from diversification over the different (carbon mitigation) options. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Singh G.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Robinson C.M.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Dehghan S.,George Mason University | Dehghan S.,American University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2013

Genes within the E3 transcription unit of human adenoviruses modulate host immune responses to infection. A comprehensive genomics and bioinformatics analysis of the E3 transcription unit for 38 viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) revealed distinct and surprising patterns of homologous recombination. Homologous recombination was identified in open reading frames for E3 CR1α, CR1β, and CR1γ, similar to that previously observed with genes encoding the three major structural capsid proteins, the penton base, hexon, and fiber. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Quinn J.W.,The New School | Mooney S.J.,The New School | Sheehan D.M.,The New School | Teitler J.O.,Columbia University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Maps | Year: 2016

Neighborhood physical disorder, or the deterioration of urban environments, is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. Eleven trained raters used CANVAS, a web-based system for conducting reliable virtual street audits, to collect data on nine indicators of physical disorder using Google Street View imagery of 532 block faces in New York City, New York, USA. We combined the block face indicator data into a disorder scale using item response theory; indicators ranged in severity from presence of litter, a weak indicator of disorder, to abandoned cars, a strong indicator. Using this scale, we estimated disorder at the center point of each sampled block. We then used ordinary kriging to interpolate estimates of disorder levels throughout the city. The resulting map condenses a complex estimation process into an interpretable visualization of the spatial distribution of physical disorder in New York City. © 2014 Andrew G. Rundle. Source


Horton D.,American University of Washington | Khare A.,University of Lucknow
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

Four anthracycline analogs synthesized in our laboratory were evaluated in comparison with adriamycin (doxorubicin) for their growth-inhibitory effect against five human-tumor cell lines, including lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and glioblastoma. The compounds included 4-demethoxy-7-O-(2,6-dideoxy-2-fluoro - l-talopyranosyl)daunomycinone (2), its 3′,4′-diacetate (1), its 14-bromo derivative 3, and its 14-hydroxy analog, namely 4-demethoxy-7-O-(2,6-dideoxy-2-fluoro-α-l- talopyranosyl)adriamycinone (4). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed moderate cytotoxic effect in most of the cell lines, while compound 4 had a strong effect, comparable to or better than that of adriamycin in most of the cell lines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


McCutchan P.K.,United Health Centers | McCutchan P.K.,Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc | McCutchan P.K.,American University of Washington | Liu X.,United Health Centers | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Purpose: Multiple physical symptoms (MPS) have historically been observed after deployment to a combat zone and are often disabling in nature. This study examined longitudinal trends in MPS status and its relationship to deployment in U.S. military service members. Methods: Using longitudinal data from panel 1 participants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 76,924), MPS status was assessed at three time points (2001-2008) using the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Probability of reporting MPS was analyzed using mixed-effects multinomial logit regression, with time and deployment experience as main explanatory variables. Results: After adjustment for demographic, military, and health characteristics, service members who deployed with combat were significantly more likely to report MPS at each time point compared with those not deployed (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] for wave 1 = 1.49 [1.47-1.52], wave 2 = 1.73 [1.69-1.78], wave 3 = 2.08 [2.03-2.12]), and those who deployed without combat (OR and CI for wave 1 = 2.66 [2.59-2.74], wave 2 = 1.81 [1.75-1.87]; wave 3 = 1.68 [1.63-1.74]). Conclusions: Longitudinal trends indicate that the probability of reporting MPS has increased consistently over time only for those deployed, regardless of combat experience. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Havekes E.,University Utrecht | Bader M.,American University of Washington | Krysan M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Population Research and Policy Review | Year: 2016

The housing search process is an overlooked mechanism in the scholarly research that seeks to understand the causes of persistent racial residential segregation in the United States. Past research has explored in detail the preferences people hold in terms of the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods, and more recently some have also examined the correspondence between racial and ethnic neighborhood preferences and current neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. But an intermediate stage—the racial/ethnic composition of where people search—has not been investigated. We analyze a subsample (n = 382) from the 2004–2005 Chicago Area Study to demonstrate the value of systematically studying the matches—or mismatches—between preferences, search locations, and neighborhood outcomes. We find that for whites, not only their current neighborhoods but also the neighborhoods in which they search for housing have larger percentages of whites than they say they prefer. In contrast, blacks—and to a lesser extent Latinos—search in neighborhoods that correspond to their preferences, but reside in neighborhoods with a larger percentage own group. Logistic regression analyses reveal that mismatches are associated with both a lack of information and inadequate finances, but also may be due to socially desirable responding for whites in particular. Our results provide suggestive evidence of the importance of unpacking the search process more generally and draw attention to what are likely to be productive new future data collection efforts as well as an area potentially ripe for policy interventions. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Larkin T.L.,American University of Washington
Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL 2015 | Year: 2015

The use of creativity-based assignments to assess student learning is not as common in STEM classrooms as perhaps it is within those of other disciplines. On the other hand, there is a great demand for creative and innovative thinkers in STEM. While scientists and engineers are often perceived as only being concerned about hard facts and numerical data and computations, a great deal of creativity is required. Creativity is not something that normally comes to mind when characterizing a scientist or engineer. The fact that it takes a great deal of creativity when performing tasks within the STEM domains is often overlooked. This fact is overlooked not only in terms of perceptions, but also within the formal STEM curriculum. Perhaps it is because the curriculum is already so over-packed with technical courses that there is just no room for creative projects. In this paper, a strategy developed to incorporate creativity into a science course taken by both majors and non-majors will be outlined. The course is entitled Changing Views of the Universe and is often taken to satisfy the university's general education requirements towards graduation. Following a brief description of the Changing Views course, the creative project activity will be outlined. Next, the mechanism used to assess student learning as a result of the creative project will be shared. Examples of the students' creative projects will be illustrated. One student's end-product will be briefly showcased to help illustrate how student learning can be assessed. This paper aims to demonstrate that a creative project activity can provide an alternative and correspondingly robust assessment of student learning in comparison with more conventional tools such as traditional homework and summative exams. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Scott M.,National University of Ireland | Delone W.,American University of Washington | Golden W.,National University of Ireland
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2016

Measuring the success of eGovernment systems depends on how citizens perceive their value. Our understanding of success has been hampered however by (i) the rapid development and complexity of Internet technologies and (ii) the lack of conceptual bases necessary to represent the ever expanding range of success dimensions. This study proposes Public Value theory to reposition the DeLone and McLean IS Success Model in order to encompass three essential success or value clusters: efficiency, effectiveness and social value. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated by creating a Public Value-based (Net Benefits) construct to measure IS success from the citizens' perspective within the context of eGovernment 2.0 systems. Survey responses from 347 experienced users of U.S. government Web 2.0 websites confirm that the proposed success measure is reliable and valid and that the nine-factor structure (Cost, Time, Convenience, Personalisation, Communication, Ease of Information Retrieval, Trust, Well-Informedness and Participate in Decision-Making) can explain a major portion of citizens' perceptions of eGovernment success. Additionally, the nine-factor Public Value construct was applied to three identified eGovernment user groups: Passive, Active and Participatory, in order to better understand success in specific usage contexts, including Web 2.0. © 2016 Operational Research Society Ltd. Source


Filippova D.,University of Maryland University College | Fitzgerald M.,University of the District of Columbia | Kingsford C.,University of Maryland University College | Benadon F.,American University of Washington
Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012 | Year: 2012

We present a new system for exploring, in an intuitive and interactive way, a large compendium of data about collaborations between jazz musicians. The system consists of an easy-to-use web application that marries an ego-network view of collaborations with an interactive timeline. We develop a new measure of collaboration strength that is used to highlight strong and weak collaborations in the network view. The ego-network is arranged using a novel algorithm for ordering nodes that avoids occlusion even when the network is frequently changing. Finally, the system is applied to a large, unique, hand-curated data set of recorded jazz collaborations. The system can be accessed at http://mapofjazz.com/socialcom. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Christensen J.G.,Colgate University | Olafsson G.,Louisiana State University | Casey S.D.,American University of Washington
2015 International Conference on Sampling Theory and Applications, SampTA 2015 | Year: 2015

Inspired by recent work on the connection between representation theory and atomic decompositions, we take a look at convolution operators on non-unimodular amenable groups as well as non-compact semi-simple Lie groups. We then discuss this in context of sampling. Furthermore, we look at sampling and optimal sampling sets for some often studied spaces. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Keuthen N.J.,Harvard University | Rothbaum B.O.,Emory University | Fama J.,Harvard University | Altenburger E.,Harvard University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Behavioral Addictions | Year: 2012

Background and aims: Limited treatment options are available for trichotillomania (TTM) and most have modest outcomes. Suboptimal treatment results may be due to the failure of existing approaches to address all TTM styles. Methods: Thirty-eight DSM-IV TTM participants were randomly assigned across two study sites to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) -enhanced cognitive-behavioral treatment (consisting of an 11-week acute treatment and 3-month maintenance treatment) or a minimal attention control (MAC) condition. MACparticipants had active treatment after the 11-week control condition. Follow-up study assessments were conducted three and six months after the maintenance period. Results: Open trial treatment resulted in significant improvement in TTM severity, emotion regulation (ER) capacity, experiential avoidance, anxiety and depression with changes generally maintained over time. In the randomized controlled trial, those with active treatment had greater improvement than those in the MAC condition for both TTM severity and ER capacity. Correlations between changes in TTM severity and ER capacity were not reported at post-treatment but did occur in maintenance and follow-up indicating reduced TTM severity with improved ER capacity. Conclusions: DBT-enhanced cognitive-behavioral treatment is a promising treatment for TTM. Future studies should compare this approach to other credible treatment interventions and investigate the efficacy of this approach in more naturalistic samples with greater comorbidity. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó. Source


This paper investigates seed politics through the case study of a native potato repatriation and related livelihood projects at the Parque de la Papa (Parque) in the Peruvian Andes. This in situ oriented agrobiodiversity initiative launches a compelling critique-framed in distinctly spatial terms-of standard ex situ conservation paradigms and policies. Specifically, it works to decentralize seed conservation and to re-situate agrobiodiversity within in situ sites and situations. This spatial reconfiguration has political and epistemological implications: it recontextualizes agricultural expertise and the fruits thereof in the farms and daily lives of Andean communities; it grounds political interventions, which recently led to Peru's decade-long moratorium on transgenics; and it offers a decolonizing vision of genetic resource value. Through a variety of practices and discourses the Parque is articulating and actualizing a critical geography of agrobiodiversity and its conservation. © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd. Source


Weishaar H.,University of Glasgow | Trevisan F.,American University of Washington | Hilton S.,University of Glasgow
Addiction | Year: 2016

Background and aims: Regulation of electronic cigarettes has moved to the top of the addiction policy agenda, as demonstrated by the recent focus across the United Kingdom on introducing age-of-sale restrictions. However, the views of those affected by such regulation remain largely unexplored. This paper presents the first detailed qualitative exploration of adolescents' perceptions of existing, and opinions about potential e-cigarette regulation. Methods: Sixteen focus groups, including a total of 83 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 17 years, were conducted in deprived, mixed and affluent urban areas in Scotland and England between November 2014 and February 2015. Transcripts were imported into Nivivo 10, coded thematically and analysed. Results: Participants critically considered existing evidence and competing interests in regulatory debates and demonstrated sophisticated understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of regulation. They overwhelmingly supported strong e-cigarette regulation and endorsed restrictions on sales to minors, marketing and e-cigarette use in public places. Concern about potential health harms of e-cigarette use and marketing increasing the acceptability of vaping and smoking led these adolescents to support regulation. Conclusions: In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e-cigarettes supported strict regulation of e-cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction. Source


Tubman J.G.,American University of Washington | Des Rosiers S.E.,University of Miami | Schwartz S.J.,University of Miami | O'Hare T.,Boston College
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the use of the Risky Sex Scale (RSS; T. O'Hare, 2001) among youth in outpatient treatment for substance use problems. An ethnically diverse sample of 394 adolescents (280 males; Mage = 16.33 years, SDage = 1.15) was recruited from 2 treatment sites. The study was guided by two aims. First, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on RSS item responses. Findings replicated the factor structure identified in previous studies of undergraduate students cited for campus alcohol violations. Second, structural equation modeling was used to document associations between RSS subscales and self-reported substance use and sexual risk behaviors. The risky sex expectancies subscale was significantly associated with co-occurring alcohol use and sex, alcohol use at last intercourse, and alcohol use during the prior 30 days. The risky sexual behaviors subscale was significantly associated with co-occurring drug use and sex, condom use at last intercourse, and unprotected intercourse during the prior 30 days. The factor structure of the RSS was consistent across age group (12-16 and 16-18 years) and across gender, and the links between the RSS subscales and health risk behaviors varied somewhat by gender but not by age group. These findings suggest that the RSS is an appropriate brief screening tool for predicting health risk behaviors among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Carpenter K.M.,Ohio State University | Eisenberg S.,University of Southern California | Weltfreid S.,American University of Washington | Low C.A.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Objective: This study evaluated associations of cancer-related cognitive processing with BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status, personal cancer history, age, and election of prophylactic surgery in women at high risk for breast cancer. Method: In a 2 (BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status) × 2 (personal cancer history) matchedcontrol design, with age as an additional predictor, participants (N = 115) completed a computerized cancer Stroop task. Dependent variables were response latency to cancer-related stimuli (reaction time [RT]) and cancer-related cognitive interference (cancer RT minus neutral RT). RT and interference were tested as predictors of prophylactic surgery in the subsequent four years. Results: RT for cancer-related words was significantly slower than other word groups, indicating biased processing specific to cancer-related stimuli. Participants with a cancer history evidenced longer RT to cancer-related words than those without a history; moreover, a significant Cancer History × Age interaction indicated that, among participants with a cancer history, the typical advantage associated with younger age on Stroop tasks was absent. BRCA mutation carriers demonstrated more cancer-related cognitive interference than noncarriers. Again, the typical Stroop age advantage was absent among carriers. Exploratory analyses indicated that BRCA+ status and greater cognitive interference predicted greater likelihood of undergoing prophylactic surgery. Post hoc tests suggest that cancer-related distress does not account for these relationships. Conclusions: In the genetic testing context, younger women with a personal cancer history or who are BRCA1/2 mutation carriers might be particularly vulnerable to biases in cancer-related cognitive processing. Biased processing was associated marginally with greater likelihood of prophylactic surgery. © 2013 American Psychological Association. Source


Black M.,American University of Washington | Bard G.,University of Wisconsin - Stout
Proceedings - 2011 12th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid Computing, Grid 2011 | Year: 2011

BOINC is a well-known middleware application for distributing projects over a volunteer grid. Most popular BOINC projects are designed for a specific research problem. Lacking is a general-purpose project that allows researchers, with no experience with the BOINC API and little means of hosting a server, to dispatch their own parallel computations to the volunteer grid. This paper describes a BOINC boolean satisfiability (SAT) solver that accepts equations submitted by external contributers via a Python module or a web interface. It parallelizes the SAT equation, dispatches sub problems to volunteer clients, assembles the result, and returns it to the researcher. The solver is shown scale with the number of nodes, and outperforms serial SAT solvers, even with the BOINC overhead, for SAT equations of 40 variables or more. The project uses a flexible framework so that future solvers can be built with it. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Hu J.,Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry | Hu K.,Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry | Liu T.,Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry | Stern M.K.,Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

ClassAGprotein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are able to form homodimers and/or oligomeric arrays. We recently proposed, based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies with the M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R), a prototypic class A GPCR, that the M3R is able to form multiple, structurally distinct dimers that are probably transient in nature (McMillin, S. M., Heusel, M., Liu, T., Costanzi, S., and Wess, J. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 28584-28598). To provide more direct experimental support for this concept, we employed a disulfide cross-linking strategy to trap various M3R dimeric species present in a native lipid environment (transfected COS-7 cells). Disulfide cross-linking studies were carried out with many mutant M3Rs containing single cysteine (Cys) substitutions within two distinct cytoplasmic M3R regions, the C-terminal portion of the second intracellular loop (i2) and helix H8 (H8). The pattern of cross-links that we obtained, in combination with molecular modeling studies, was consistent with the existence of two structurally distinct M3R dimer interfaces, one involving i2/i2 contacts (TM4-TM5-i2 interface) and the other one characterized by H8-H8 interactions (TM1-TM2-H8 interface). Specific H8-H8 disulfide cross-links led to significant impairments in M3R-mediated G protein activation, suggesting that changes in the structural orientation or mobility of H8 are critical for efficient receptor-G protein coupling. Our findings provide novel structural and functional insights into the mechanisms involved inM3Rdimerization (oligomerization). Because theM3Rshows a high degree of sequence similarity with many other class A GPCRs, our findings should be of considerable general interest. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Strong E.E.,Smithsonian Institution | Colgan D.J.,Australian Museum Evolutionary Biology Unit | Healy J.M.,Queensland Museum Biodiversity Program | Lydeard C.,American University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011

The Cerithioidea is an ecologically important superfamily of basal Caenogastropoda with speciose marine, brackish water, and freshwater lineages primarily in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions of the world. They often represent significant components of the communities where they occur and have given rise to several spectacular endemic radiations in rivers and ancient lakes. Earlier attempts to resolve the phylogenetic history of the group have been based on smaller taxon and character subsets with incongruent results. Here the monophyly and phylogeny of the group is evaluated with expanded morphological and molecular (16S, 28S rRNA) data sets. For morphological analyses, 151 characters (shell, operculum, radula, alimentary tract, kidney, nervous system, reproductive anatomy, and sperm ultrastructure) were scored for 47 cerithioideans (representing 17 families) and nine outgroup taxa. To test monophyly of the Cerithioidea, extended molecular data sets of 16S and 28S sequences for 57 and 44 taxa, respectively, were compiled using new and previously published sources. For combined analyses, a pruned molecular data set was combined with the morphological partition. The morphological data were analysed alone using only parsimony; molecular and simultaneous analyses were performed using both parsimony and Bayesian inference. The effect of excluding unconserved regions of the alignments was also explored. All analyses, with the exception of the individual 16S and 28S data sets, support monophyly of the Cerithioidea as currently formulated. Of the 12 families represented by more than one terminal, only two (Planaxidae, Potamididae) are always supported as monophyletic; Batillariidae, Cerithiidae, Pachychilidae, Pleuroceridae, Semisulcospiridae, Thiaridae, and Turritellidae are monophyletic in most but not all topologies. The combination of diverse data sources (morphology, 16S and 28S sequences) and inclusion of unconserved regions of the alignments improved the recovery of monophyletic families. At deeper levels, a consensus is beginning to emerge in the recognition of three main assemblages, but whether these represent clades or grades is still unclear; the resolution of these assemblages and the branching order within them are sensitive to exclusion of unconserved regions and choice of optimality criterion. No clear conclusion is reached with respect to the number of freshwater invasions, with two invasions supported on some topologies and three supported on others. Progress toward a robust and stable resolution of cerithioidean relationships will require (1) strategically coordinated sampling for additional morphological and molecular data; (2) comprehensive anatomical treatments for several poorly documented limnic lineages (e.g. Melanopsidae, Thiaridae) and comparative data for poorly understood organ systems (e.g. renal system); (3) the addition of poorly known, minute, and/or rare marine taxa, to provide novel character combinations, insight into putative homologies, and to help anchor basal nodes and break up long branches. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London. Source


Zezza A.,The World Bank | Carletto C.,The World Bank | Davis B.,UNICEF | Winters P.,American University of Washington
Food Policy | Year: 2011

Migration has become a key component in the livelihood strategies of an increasing number of households across the developing world and remittances have expanded dramatically in the last decade. This has come at a time when an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing malnutrition to achieve Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets. While this is the case, there has been little attention on the interface between migration and nutrition even though migration can influence nutrition through a number of channels. The objective of this special issue is to present state-of-the-art analyses of the link between migration and nutrition in developing countries. In this paper, an overview of the conceptual and empirical issues in identifying the link between migration and nutrition are considered. Further, the results from seven country case studies are synthesized and policy implications are drawn. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Purpose: In almost all modern societies, police forces are at the forefront of ongoing activities to reduce and prevent crime. Both in practice and in popular belief, police forces are the visible presence for maintaining security and safety to citizens in municipalities, towns and cities, and from cities to local neighborhoods. This paper aims to investigate how efficiently the police in Guatemala are in combating crime using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Design/methodology/approach: The study used DEA to measure the efficiency of police stations in fighting crime in Guatemala based on their inputs and outputs. Findings: The analyses showed that only four out of 22 police departments were considered efficient. The average efficiency score for the 22 police departments was 62 percent. Research limitations/implications: Data on crime and police are limited in Guatemala. Further research using DEA would be particularly relevant if the methodology included: a wider range of inputs/outputs, longer panel data, and more precise estimates of the effect of contextual variables. The findings of the study can inform police managers and policymakers to allocate security resources more efficiently. Practical implications: Given the low levels of inefficiency of police departments in Guatemala, police management would have to ensure that clearance rates increase significantly by either increasing the human resource capacity of the police departments according to the needs so that clearance rates can be improved and be more effective and efficient in combating crime. Originality/value: This is the first in depth study of police efficiency in Central America. In an increasingly resource strapped environment employing DEA might be a useful tool to improve human and financial resource allocation. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Cheavens J.S.,Ohio State University | Lazarus S.A.,Ohio State University | Herr N.R.,American University of Washington
Journal of Personality Disorders | Year: 2014

Theoretical accounts and clinical conceptualizations of borderline personality disorder (BPD) highlight pervasive interpersonal dysfunction. Recent investigations have found differences in the interpersonal interactions and social networks of individuals with BPD compared to healthy controls.However, there are few laboratory investigations of these processes and the interpersonal choices made by individuals with BPD. The authors aimed to determine if participants with elevated BPD symptoms made different interpersonal choices than others in a behavioral laboratory task. The authors found that in a condition with no constraint on future time available, participants with elevated BPD symptoms were more likely to choose novel partners (compared to familiar partners) than other participants. In an effort to understand interpersonal constructs related to differential partner choice, the authors tested the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity and interpersonal aggression in the full sample. Interpersonal aggression was associated with an increased likelihood of choosing a novel partner, but interpersonal sensitivity was not related to partner choice. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. © 2014 The Guilford Press. Source


Rennison C.M.,University of Colorado at Denver | Addington L.A.,American University of Washington
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse | Year: 2014

Over the past 25 years, our understanding about violence against college women has greatly expanded, but it has been concentrated in particular areas. As a result, despite this increased attention, significant gaps in our knowledge still exist. One is a failure to take stock in how "violence" is defined and assess whether its current use adequately covers the variety of risks to which college women are exposed. We identify limitations in how the current literature operationalizes violence against college women and illustrate how addressing these limitations can inform and advance the field by identifying new patterns and correlates. We also propose a research agenda to explicitly examine the definition and scope of "violence" as considered in the study of college women. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Levin D.M.,American University of Washington | Richards J.,University of Maryland College Park
Learning in the Disciplines: ICLS 2010 Conference Proceedings - 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences | Year: 2010

In this paper, we explore how candidates in a science teacher preparation cohort attend to the substance of student thinking while watching classroom videos or reviewing students' written work. Our findings suggest that the teacher candidates are able to attend to specific student ideas and reasoning from the beginning of their pre-service preparation, but their practices of attending become more sophisticated over time. We also consider participation dynamics within the cohort, as participants assume different roles and begin to regulate their discussions. Source


Bacon T.,American University of Washington
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2015

Despite the threat posed by international terrorist alliances, the conditions that foster and inhibit these relationships remain poorly understood. When seeking allies outside of their primary conflict and political market, groups struggle to forge credible commitments, particularly the requisite ‘shadows of the future’ and reputations conducive to cooperation, without third-party enforcers. Given their suspicious nature and strong in-group identities, terrorist groups sometimes balk at relinquishing independence for security. Alliances risk precipitating counterterrorism pressure, alienating constituents, and increasing the risk of betrayal. Even groups that enjoy alliance success, like al Qaeda, experience these hurdles in their alliance. What helped to set al Qaeda apart from most groups was its ability to navigate these obstacles, though some bedeviled its alliances efforts. This offers under-utilized opportunities for alliance disruption. 2015 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source


De Jesus M.,American University of Washington
Psychology, Health and Medicine | Year: 2016

The study examines how religiosity shapes the health perceptions and health-related behaviors of 50 Latina immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Bolivia. Between May and August 2011, focus groups were conducted with participants representing each country of origin. Qualitative content analysis was the analytic strategy adopted in the study. The meta-theme, Religiosity Contributes to Positive Perceptions of Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors, is associated with six emerging themes: (1) Religiosity promotes a sense of personal responsibility for ones health; (2) Religiosity promotes a holistic view of health; (3) Religiosity promotes the view that health is a priority; (4) Religiosity promotes the view that health enables one to perform necessary tasks; (5) Religiosity promotes health-seeking behavior; and (6) Religiosity provides intrinsic health benefits. Findings do not follow the clear-cut dichotomy of the health locus of control model and challenge simplified notions that Latinas hold a purely external health locus of control toward their health and health care. Latinas rely on both God and themselves in managing their health and engaging in health-promoting actions, which are prompted in large part by their religiosity. Implications for culturally appropriate health communication and interventions are discussed. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Kirchoff J.F.,East Carolina University | Omar A.,American University of Washington | Fugate B.S.,University of Arkansas
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2016

Empirical evidence shows that investments in sustainable supply chain management can improve economic-based performance. Thus, based on standard economic theory, rational business decision makers should and will implement sustainable supply chain management practices. However, through inductive research methods, we uncovered an intriguing theme that runs counter to both the existing empirical evidence and such economic-based assumptions. We find that managers operating in firms without exemplary sustainable supply chain management practices face immense hurdles in developing a business case for implementing sustainability initiatives. Despite the lack of such practices-and in tension with the prevailing empirical evidence and theory-the firms within which these managers operate were performing well on economic-based performance metrics. Departing from the neoclassical economic theory of the firm, we apply the Behavioral Theory of the Firm's theoretical assumptions to findings which suggest four segments of managers in non-exemplary firms who vary based primarily on how they perceive strategic vulnerability, evaluate choices, and utilize sustainability knowledge. © 2016 Institute for Supply Management, Inc. Source


Johnson K.,McGill University | Scott J.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Scott J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Sasyniuk T.,McGill University | And 9 more authors.
Conflict and Health | Year: 2014

Background: Following the contested national elections in 2007, violence occurred throughout Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and health consequences of the 2007-2008 election-related violence. Methods. A cross-sectional, national, population-based cluster survey of 956 Kenyan adults aged ≥ 18 years was conducted in Kenya in September 2011 utilizing a two-stage 90 x 10 cluster sample design and structured interviews and questionnaires. Prevalence of all forms of violence surrounding the 2007 election period, symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and morbidity related to sexual and physical violence were assessed. Results: Of 956 households surveyed, 916 households participated (response rate 95.8%). Compared to pre-election, election-related sexual violence incidents/1000 persons/year increased over 60-fold (39.1-2370.1; p <.001) with a concurrent 37-fold increase in opportunistic sexual violence (5.2-183.1; p <.001). Physical and other human rights violations increased 80-fold (25.0-1987.1; p <.001) compared to pre-election. Overall, 50% of households reported at least one physical or sexual violation. Households reporting violence were more likely to report violence among female household members (66.6% vs. 58.1%; p =.04) or among the Luhya ethnic group (17.0% vs. 13.8%; p = 0.03). The most common perpetrators of election-related sexual violence were reported to be affiliated with government or political groups (1670.5 incidents/1000 persons per year); the Kalenjin ethnic group for physical violations (54.6%). Over thirty percent of respondents met MDD and PTSD symptom criteria; however, symptoms of MDD (females, 63.3%; males, 36.7%; p =.01) and suicidal ideation (females, 68.5%; males, 31.5%; p =.04) were more common among females. Substance abuse was more common among males (males, 71.2%; females, 28.8%; p <.001). Conclusion: On a national level in Kenya, politically-motivated and opportunistic sexual and physical violations were commonly reported among sampled adults with associated health and mental health outcomes. © 2014 Johnson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Groer C.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Golden B.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.,American University of Washington
Mathematical Programming Computation | Year: 2010

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a difficult and well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Real-world instances of the VRP can contain hundreds and even thousands of customer locations and can involve many complicating constraints, necessitating the use of heuristic methods. We present a software library of local search heuristics that allows one to quickly generate solutions to VRP instances. The code has a logical, object-oriented design and uses efficient data structures to store and modify solutions. The core of the library is the implementation of seven local search operators that share a similar interface and are designed to be extended to handle additional options with minimal code change. The code is well-documented, straightforward to compile, and is freely available online. The code contains several applications that can be used to generate solutions to the capacitated VRP. Computational results indicate that these applications are able to generate solutions that are within about one percent of the best-known solution on benchmark problems. © Springer and Mathematical Programming Society 2010. Source


Shavers V.L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Jackson M.C.,American University of Washington | Sheppard V.B.,Georgetown University
Journal of the National Medical Association | Year: 2010

Background: Lower access and/or utilization of colorectal screening are thought to be major contributors to the higher proportion of cancers among African Americans and Hispanics that are diagnosed at advanced stages of disease and the poorer outcomes observed among Hispanics and African Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites. We examine rates of initiation, utilization of specific screening modalities, adherence to colorectal screening guidelines, and rate of uptake of colonoscopy among age-eligible African Americans, Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Methods: Data on 46 145 African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white survey respondents to the 2000 and 2005 Cancer Control Modules and the 2003 and 2008 Sample Adult Cores of the National Health Interview Surveys are examined in these analyses. Results: There was a modest increase in the initiation of colorectal screening among non-Hispanic whites, only and racial/ethnic disparities colorectal screening utilization persisted. The proportion of respondents for whom colonoscopy was the most complete guideline consistent exam received increased over time, while use of other modalities decreased among all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion: More effort must be made to increase colorectal screening among the US population in general but particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. With the increased attention on prevention, there is also a need to increase knowledge of the strengths and limitations of specific screening modalities and the need to receive screening exams within recommended time intervals among both patients and providers making screening recommendations. Source


Cerezo L.,American University of Washington
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2016

Research shows that computer-generated corrective feedback can promote second language development, but there is no consensus about which type is the most effective. The scale is tipped in favor of more explicit feedback that provides metalinguistic explanations, but counterevidence indicates that minimally explicit feedback of the right/wrong type may promote comparable learning outcomes. Addressing these conflicting findings, the present study investigated the effects of different types and amounts of practice as variables that may moderate the effectiveness of computerized right/wrong feedback. Fifty-two learners of intermediate Spanish completed either 28 or 56 items of an input-based task with 2 or 4 options targeting Spanish past counterfactual conditional sentences. Quantitative results on achievement scores showed that differences in amount of practice might contribute to explaining the conflicting findings in the literature. Additionally, a qualitative analysis of participant mouse-click histories illustrated participant use of elimination strategies to redefine the 4-option tasks, while participant think-alouds revealed the increased boredom and fatigue induced by the extra amount of practice. This study thus contributes to the debate on the effects of different types of computerized feedback and the development of hybrid and online language learning programs, while underscoring the importance of triangulating data from multiple sources. © Luis Cerezo. Source


Barnes S.,University of Maryland University College | Golden B.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.,American University of Washington
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2010

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant ongoing problem in health care, posing a substantial threat to hospitals and communities as well. Its spread among patients causes many downstream effects, such as a longer length of stay for patients, higher costs for hospitals and insurance companies, and fatalities. An agent-based simulation model is developed to investigate the dynamics of MRSA transmission within a hospital. The simulation model is used to examine the effectiveness of various infection control procedures and explore more specific questions relevant to hospital administrators and policy makers. Simulation experiments are performed to examine the effects of hand-hygiene compliance and efficacy, patient screening, decolonization, patient isolation, and health-care worker-to-patient ratios on the incidence of MRSAtransmission and other relevant metrics. Experiments are conducted to investigate the dynamic between the number of colonizations directly attributable to nurses and physicians, including rogue health-care workers who practice poor hygiene. We begin to explore the most likely threats to trigger an outbreak in hospitals that practice high hand-hygiene compliance and additional preventive measures. © 2010 INFORMS. Source


Vassallo S.,American University of Washington
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties | Year: 2015

Self-regulated learning (SLR) is a socially embedded process in which individuals use strategies to influence thoughts, behaviours and environments in ways that enable them to achieve their academic goals. As a form of engagement that is almost exclusively associated with academic success, empowerment and agency, researchers are committed to improving conceptualisations of, measurements for and pedagogical interventions related to SLR. However, there is little attention to critical issues that underpin this discourse. Against this trend, I explore an alignment between SLR and neoliberalism, which is a contentious ideology that is implicated in reproducing inequality, promoting radical individualism and eroding democratic responsibility. From this alignment, taking up the aim to teach students to regulate their learning is implicated in: (1) creating manageable workers; (2) endorsing a view of self and personhood that is class-based; and (3) contributing to efficiently and effectively reproducing a class hierarchy. Environments that teach and reward SLR may pose greater disadvantages for working-class students than their middle-class counterparts. © 2014, © 2014 SEBDA. Source


Mohamed A.E.M.,American University of Washington
International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Proceedings, ICONE | Year: 2010

Every day thousands of shipments of radioactive materials are transported on international and national routes. These consignments, which are carried by road, rail ,sea, air and inland waterway, can range from smoke detectors and cobalt sources for medical uses to reprocessed fuel for use in electricity generation. The transport of radioactive materials worldwide is governed by stringent regulatory regime, which includes standards, codes and regulations that have been continuously revised and updated over the past four decades. The safety measures have been developed to protect the general public, transport workers, emergency response teams and the environment against the risks posed by the cargoes. These risks include the radioactivity itself and other chemical risks that the cargoes may pose, such as toxicity or corrosivity. In addition to the safety regulations, the regulatory regime addresses other, related issues such as physical protection and liability. It was recognized that these standards should provide a uniform, global regime to ensure that all parties apply the same provisions. Since 1961, the UN (United Nations )has published and periodically reviewed and updated the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. These regulations are used today by more than 60 countries as the basic for their national regulations. In addition, the main international modal organizations responsible for the safe transport of dangerous goods by road ,rail, sea ,air and inland waterways have incorporated the relevant parts of the UN regulations into their own instruments. This paper will discuss and outline the principal regulations that apply to the transport of radioactive materials such as the UN regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials, The UN regime governing the international transport of dangerous goods, the principal modal regulations governing the transport of dangerous goods and achievement of a more harmonized regime. and the international organizations responsible for their development and implementation. Copyright © 2010 by ASME. Source


Gardner J.R.,University of Cambridge | Gardner J.R.,Duke University | Fisher T.R.,University of Cambridge | Jordan T.E.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Knee K.L.,American University of Washington
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2016

Denitrification is critical for removal of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from ecosystems. However, measuring realistic, scalable rates and understanding the role of denitrification and other dissimilatory processes in watershed nitrogen (N) budgets remains a significant challenge in biogeochemistry. In this study, we focused on the stream reach and network scale in three Mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. We applied open channel methods to measure biogenic N2 and N2O gas fluxes derived from both in-stream and terrestrial nitrogen processing. A large portion of biogenic N2 flux through streams (33–100 %, mean = 74 %) was a result of groundwater delivery of biogenic N2 with the remaining portion due to in-stream N2 production. In contrast, N2O was largely produced in-stream, with groundwater delivery contributing on average 12 % of the total biogenic N2O flux. We scaled these measurements across one stream network and compared them to hydrologic Nr export and net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI) to a 4.8 km2 watershed. The N budget revealed that, during the study period, the biogenic N2 flux through streams was comparable to the difference between NANI and hydrologic Nr export (i.e. the “missing” N). This study provides a methodological and conceptual framework for incorporating terrestrial and in-stream derived biogenic N gas fluxes into watershed N budgets and supports the hypothesis that denitrification is the primary fate of NANI that is not exported in streamflow. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source


Whiting W.L.,Washington and Lee University | Sample C.H.,Washington and Lee University | Sample C.H.,American University of Washington | Hagan S.E.,Washington and Lee University
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition | Year: 2014

The present study examined older and younger adults ability to use top-down processes to mitigate the effects of display noise during simple feature, visual search. As display noise levels increased, older adults (age 60-74 years, n = 32) exhibited greater top-down search reaction time (RT) benefits (bottom-up minus top-down search RT), compared to younger adults (age 18-27, n = 32). Older adults ability to mitigate the effects of noise was further assessed with RT variability, as measured by intra-individual standard deviations across trials. Older adults again exhibited larger top-down benefits (i.e., less RT variability) compared to younger adults, and more so when display noise was present vs. absent. These results suggest a sparing of top-down processes with age (Madden, Whiting, Spaniol, & Bucur, 2005; Psychology and Aging, 20, 317), and that top-down processes in older adults enhance search efficiency by optimizing signal-to-noise ratios. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Chiragh F.L.,Sigma Space Corporation | Konoplev O.A.,Sigma Space Corporation | Vasilyev A.A.,Sigma Space Corporation | Poulios D.,American University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

In this paper, we present laser damage threshold testing performed on Un-Coated Fused Silica (SiO2) substrates after multiple laser pulse irradiation. We will outline our methods of testing and observation of laser damage. Using carefully prepared 1" optical flats with 0.25" thickness, we observe competition between laser damage on the surface and in the bulk of the optic. Damage in the bulk is observed at the level of approximately 40-50 J/cm2 when irradiated with 1,000- 3,000 shots per site. Damage appears initially on the back surface of the substrate (without visible damage to the front/focused surface) and propagates slowly in time through the bulk towards the front of the optic. We believe this is due to self-focusing of the laser beam in the bulk material. An understanding of surface damage threshold has important consequences for applications, such as LIDAR, laser machining, and the lifetime of optical components. This work was done within the laser mission testing for NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-II) program at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Source


Allen J.D.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Allen J.D.,Harvard University | De Jesus M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | De Jesus M.,American University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Objective: To describe parents' knowledge, attitudes, and decision-making with regard to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their daughters. Methods: White, Black, and Hispanic parents of daughters who were age eligible to receive the HPV vaccine (9-17 years) were recruited from community settings to participate in focus groups. Parents were asked about knowledge and awareness of HPV, decision-making about HPV vaccine, as well as preferred and actual sources of HPV information. Results: Seven focus groups (n = 64 participants) were conducted. Groups were segmented by gender (women = 72%) and race/ethnicity (Black = 59%; White = 23%; Hispanic = 19%). Prevalent themes included: insufficient information to make informed decisions; varied preferences for involvement in decision-making; concerns about vaccine safety; mistrust of medical providers and pharmaceutical companies; and mismatch between actual and preferred sources of information. Discussion: Improving communication between providers and caregivers and helping parents to access information necessary for informed decision-making, while alleviating concerns about vaccine safety, may help to improve vaccine acceptance. Copyright © 2012 Jennifer D. Allen et al. Source


Dreger A.,Northwestern University | Feder E.K.,American University of Washington | Tamar-Mattis A.,Advocates for Informed Choice
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry | Year: 2012

Following extensive examination of published and unpublished materials, we provide a history of the use of dexamethasone in pregnant women at risk of carrying a female fetus affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This intervention has been aimed at preventing development of ambiguous genitalia, the urogenital sinus, tomboyism, and lesbianism. We map out ethical problems in this history, including: misleading promotion to physicians and CAH-affected families; de facto experimentation without the necessary protections of approved research; troubling parallels to the history of prenatal use of diethylstilbestrol (DES); and the use of medicine and public monies to attempt prevention of benign behavioral sex variations. Critical attention is directed at recent investigations by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP); we argue that the weak and unsupported conclusions of these investigations indicate major gaps in the systems meant to protect subjects of high-risk medical research. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Carroll M.W.,American University of Washington
PLoS Biology | Year: 2015

Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security laws that regulate sharing certain types of data, this Perspective explains how to work through the general intellectual property and contractual issues for all research data. © 2015 Michael W. Carroll. Source


Salazar L.,Environment | Winters P.,American University of Washington
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2012

Using data from Bolivia, this paper analyzes seed market participation and how transaction costs in these markets influence intracrop biodiversity and the influence of biodiversity on yields. Results indicate that seed market attributes such as distance and market-level biodiversity have a crucial effect on a farmer's market choice, suggesting that farmers are willing to sacrifice time and income to travel further distances in order to reach markets with a broader range of varieties. This study finds that farmers from this sample who have access to seed markets are more likely to have higher levels of intracrop biodiversity. In addition, for market-integrated farmers, intracrop biodiversity does not seem to have a negative effect on yields, which suggests that improved market access does not threaten biodiversity in contexts with similar characteristics to the study site. © Copyright 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source


DeNardis L.,American University of Washington
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing | Year: 2015

In an effort to examine the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks, this article focuses on one foundational Internet design community, the Internet Engineering Task Force. Cases during this period indicate that the IETF has consistently staked out a consensus position that pushes back against technologically based indiscriminate government surveillance. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Starr M.A.,American University of Washington | Drake K.,The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed requiring tobacco companies to add graphic warning labels (GWLs) to cigarette packs. GWLs are large prominently placed warnings that use both text and photographic images to depict health risks of smoking. The companies challenged FDA's authority on First Amendment grounds; the courts accepted that FDA could compel companies to add GWLs, but argued that FDA had not established that GWLs would significantly reduce smoking. Objective This paper adds new evidence on the question of whether GWLs would have reduced cigarette demand, by examining whether tobacco companies' share prices fell unusually after news indicating a higher likelihood of having GWLs, and rose on the opposite news. Such findings would be expected if investors viewed GWLs as likely to reduce cigarette demand. Methods An event-study approach is used to determine whether the stock prices of US tobacco companies rose or fell unusually after news events in the period when GWLs were proposed, finalised, challenged and withdrawn. Findings Tobacco companies' stock prices indeed realised significant abnormal returns after GWL news, consistent with expected negative effects on cigarette demand. Our estimates suggest investors expected GWLs to reduce the number of smokers by an extra 2.4-6.9 million in the 10 years after the rule took effect. Conclusions These findings support the view that the GWLs proposed by FDA would have curbed cigarette consumption in the USA in an appreciable way. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Source


Poulios D.,American University of Washington | Konoplev O.,Sigma Space Corporation | Chiragh F.,Sigma Space Corporation | Vasilyev A.,Sigma Space Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

The effects of long-term exposure to high intensity 532 nm radiation on various dielectric-coated optics are studied. To investigate potential photodarkening effects on optical surfaces, an accelerated life test platform was constructed where optics were exposed to 532 nm radiation from a short-pulse, high repetition rate fiber amplifier at total doses up to 1 trillion shots. The first run of trillion-shot tests were conducted on e-beam deposited and ion beam sputtering (IBS) coated high reflecting mirrors with onsurface intensities ranging from 1.0-1.4 GW/cm2. It was found that the e-beam coated mirrors failed catastrophically at less than 150 billion shots, while the IBS coated mirror was able to complete the trillionshot test with no measurable loss of reflectivity. Profiling the IBS mirror surface with a high-resolution white light interferometer post-irradiation revealed a ∼10 nm high photocontamination deposit at the irradiation site that closely matched the intensity profile of the laser spot. Trillion-shot surface exposure tests were also conducted at multiple surface sites of an LBO frequency doubling crystal at ∼1.5 GW/cm2 at multiple surface sites. The transmitted power and on-surface beam size were monitored throughout the tests, and periodic measurements of the beam quality and waist location of the transmitted light were also made using an M2 meter. No changes in transmitted power or M2 were observed in any of the tests, but 3D surface profiling revealed laser-induced contamination deposits at each site tested. Source


Choi K.-H.,American University of Washington | Buskey W.,Independent Practic | Johnson B.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Journal of Counseling Psychology | Year: 2010

The main purpose of this study was to investigate how receiving personal counseling at a university counseling center helps students deal with their personal problems and facilitates academic functioning. To that end, this study used both clinical and academic outcome measures that are relevant to the practice of counseling provided at a counseling center and its unique function in an institution of higher education. In addition, this study used the clinical significance methodology (N. S. Jacobson & P. Truax, 1991) that takes into account clients' differences in making clinically reliable and significant change. Pre-intake and post-termination surveys, including the Outcome Questionnaire (M. J. Lambert, K. Lunnen, V. Umphress, N. Hansen, & G. Burlingame, 1994), were completed by 78 clients, and the responses were analyzed using clinical significance methodology. The results revealed that those who made clinically reliable and significant change (i.e., the recovered group) reported the highest level of improvement in academic commitment to their educational goals and problem resolution, compared with those who did not make clinically significant change. The implications of the findings on practice for counseling at university counseling centers and for administrators in higher education institutions are discussed. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source


Raglan G.B.,The American College | Raglan G.B.,American University of Washington | Anderson B.L.,The American College | Lawrence H.,The American College | And 2 more authors.
Women's Health Issues | Year: 2013

Background: Despite research on health disparities based on insurance status, little is known about the differences in practice patterns among physicians who cater to privately and non-privately insured patients. The aim of this study was to assess how obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) who primarily see patients with private insurance differ from those who see mainly uninsured or publicly insured patients. This could be informative of the needs of these two groups of physicians and patients. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed or emailed to 1,000 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 600 of whom participate in the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Findings: A 56.4% response rate was obtained. Of the valid responders, the 335 reported providing care to a majority of patients with private insurance (" private group" ) and the 105 reported providing care to mostly publicly insured or uninsured patients (" non-private group" ) were included in our analyses. Differences between groups included that the private group was more likely to see patients before their becoming pregnant and spent more time on well-woman care. The private group was more likely to see patients who are White, Asian, or between the ages of 45 and 64. The non-private group was more likely to see Hispanic patients and those under age 18. Conclusion: Results reveal that ob-gyns who see mostly privately insured patients have different clinical experiences than those who see mainly uninsured or publicly insured patients in terms of patient characteristics, preconception care, distribution of time on activities, and the of likelihood performing certain procedures and screening tests. © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Source


McMahon S.,Rutgers University | Peterson N.A.,Rutgers University | Winter S.C.,Rutgers University | Palmer J.E.,American University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2015

Bystander intervention has been increasingly applied to prevent sexual violence on college campuses. Its underlying theory assumes unidirectional relationships between variables, predicting that bystander behaviors (i.e., actions taken to intervene in sexual violence situations) will be influenced by bystander intentions (BI; i.e., likelihood to intervene in the future), which in turn will be affected by bystander efficacy (BE; i.e., confidence to intervene). One question for theory is whether a reciprocal relationship exists between BI and BE. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) with longitudinal data to test unidirectional and reciprocal causal relations between BI and BE. Participants (n = 1390) were students at a northeastern US university. Four models were examined using SEM: (1) a baseline model with autoregressive paths; (2) a model with autoregressive effects and BI predicting future BE; (3) a model with autoregressive effects and BE predicting future BI; and, (4) a fully cross-lagged model. Results indicated that reciprocal causality was found to occur between BI and BE. In addition, a final model demonstrated indirect effects of a bystander intervention program on bystander behaviors through both BI and BE at different time points. Implications for theory and practice are described, and directions for future research discussed. © 2015, Society for Community Research and Action. Source


Leddy M.A.,ACOG | Farrow V.A.,American University of Washington | Joseph Jr. G.F.,ACOG | Schulkin J.,ACOG
Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions | Year: 2012

Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an essential component of professional development. Research indicates a continued need for understanding how and why physicians select certain CME courses, as well as the differences between CME course takers and nontakers. Purpose: Obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are health care providers for women, and part of their purview includes mental health, such as postpartum depression (PPD) and psychosis (PPP). This study evaluated OB-GYNs' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) regarding PPD/PPP, and compared characteristics of CME course takers and nontakers. Method: A survey was sent to 400 OB-GYNs. Results: Response rate was 56%. One-third had taken a CME course on PPD/PPP. Those who consider themselves a "specialist" were less likely to have taken a CME course on postpartum mental health than those who consider themselves "both primary care provider and specialist." Non-CME course takers rely on clinical judgment more. They also are less likely to track patients' psychiatric histories and they utilize validated assessments less frequently. However, CME course takers and nontakers did not differ on knowledge or belief items. Conclusion: CME courses on PPD/PPP were associated with increased screening and utilization of validated assessments. There was no association between having taken a course and several knowledge questions. It is unclear if CME courses are effective in disseminating information and altering KAB. © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education. Source


Persaud R.B.,American University of Washington
Globalizations | Year: 2016

This article argues that the neo-Gramscian theory of hegemony is not as useful in explaining the rise and consolidation of the modern world system. In particular, while the force-consensus approach may indeed be relevant in examining relations among the Western countries, it is fundamentally wanting when applied to the third world. The two main reasons concern the persistent violence against the third world, and the dominance of race and racism as social forces in the production and maintenance of successive world orders. Neo-Gramscian theory needs to be broadened perhaps by paying attention to the relevant thinking in postcolonialism. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source


Saldanha C.J.,American University of Washington | Burstein S.R.,The New School | Duncan K.A.,Vassar College
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

Studies on birds have long provided landmarks and touchstones in the fields of neuroendocrinology, immunology and neuroplasticity. The passerine brain is an excellent model for studying the actions of hormones, including steroids, on a diversity of behavioural endpoints. Oestrogens, for example, have profound effects on avian neuroanatomy and neurophysiology throughout life and, importantly, are synthesised at high levels within neurones of the songbird brain. More recently, aromatisation in another set of neural cells has been identified. Specifically, aromatase expression is induced in astrocytes and radial glia following disruption of the neuropil by multiple forms of perturbation. The avian brain, therefore, can be provided with high levels of oestrogens constitutively or via induction, by aromatisation in neurones and glia, respectively. In this review, we begin with the initial discovery of aromatisation by non-neuronal cells and discuss the mechanisms underlying the induction of aromatase expression in glial cells. We then focus on the emerging interactions between the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems with respect to brain injury. Next, we briefly review the extensive literature on the influence of glial aromatisation on neuroplasticity, and end with some recent data on sex differences in the induction of glial aromatase in the zebra finch. Throughout this review, we consider the unanswered questions and future studies that may emerge from these findings. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Source


Larkin T.L.,American University of Washington
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Assessment of student learning is of critical importance in terms of revealing effective pedagogical learning tools and strategies. This paper reports on a study of student learning of basic mechanics concepts in an introductory physics course. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment strategies were employed. Free-writing activities were used to qualitatively assess student understanding throughout the learning process. Writing has long been shown to serve as an effective tool to improve the quality of student engagement and learning. In this paper, the free-writing approach is described and one exercise from the spring 2010 semester will be presented as it relates to basic concepts in mechanics. A brief summary of student responses to this exercise will be shared. To quantitatively address the question of whether deeper understanding was achieved, results from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) are presented. The FCI is a widely used multiple-choice, survey-type instrument used to assess student understanding of basic mechanics concepts in physics. The analysis includes a presentation of pre- and post-test gains from the same population of students. The data analysis also includes a discussion of learning gains for the class a whole as well as a comparison of gains between the males and females within the overall student population. Preliminary results suggest that while females have, on average, higher overall grades in the course as well as higher overall GPAs, their gains as measured by the FCI are lower than those achieved by male students. A discussion of the significance of these results will be presented and possible issues related to this apparent gender discrepancy will be proposed. © 2011 American Society for Engineering Education. Source


Freelon D.,American University of Washington | Wells C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Bennett W.L.,University of Washington
Journal of Information Technology and Politics | Year: 2013

Concerns over youth disengagement from conventional politics mixed with perceptions of youth aptitude for digital media have led scholars and practitioners to investigate civic Web sites as locations of potential youth learning and participation. Over the past few years, the scholarly literature on youth civic Web sites has developed a number of conceptual vocabularies for, and catalogued the nature of, the civic engagement opportunities offered by such sites. But the extant literature lacks documentation of a critically important step in this research logic: the extent to which young users actually take advantage of the opportunities to offered them. This study addresses this gap by presenting a theoretically driven investigation of specific participatory features in the youth civic Web and the quantity of user contributions they attract. Drawing from untested assumptions found in recent work, we test hypotheses concerning the impact on user activity of (a) citizenship orientations communicated by sites and (b) the organizational background of sites. We find that how sites communicate citizenship plays a significant role in determining the quantity of user participation, while the type of organization sponsoring a site makes little difference. We also document the existence of certain "superstar" sites that attract disproportionate amounts of user content. Directions for future research and methodological issues related to the coding of diverse activity on complex sites and challenges to causal inference are also discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Espinosa J.A.,American University of Washington | Armour F.,United Information Technology | Boh W.F.,Nanyang Technological University
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2010

Enterprise architecture (EA) models the desired relationships between business processes and technology. While the conceptual benefits of EA are many, experience shows that managing the EA can be daunting because of the complex interdependencies among business, technology and the people involved. Having sound EA frameworks and programs are necessary but insufficient conditions for EA success. Effective coordination and governance of the EA practice are also necessary, but this has received little attention in the literature. In this paper we begin to fill this gap by providing a reference framework, theoretical foundations and preliminary evidence from semi-structured interviews on coordination and governance in "enterprise architecting." © 2010 IEEE. Source


Kirkey C.,State University of New York College at Plattsburgh | Ostroy N.,American University of Washington
American Review of Canadian Studies | Year: 2010

Canada's military engagement in Afghanistan can be fully explained, according to many academic accounts, government officials, and media commentators, by exclusively examining domestic or state-level factors specific to the Canadaian nation, most notably the political priorities of successive governments. This essay instead finds that Canadian external behavior must be analyzed in the context of the current unipolar international political system. The presence of only one great power, and the fact that the power in question is the United States, has and will continue to play a significant role in the formulation and execution of Canadian foreign policy pursuits, including Afghanistan. © 2010 ACSUS. Source


Robinson M.,American University of Washington
2014 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, GlobalSIP 2014 | Year: 2014

This article explains how homology theory can be applied to simplicial complex models of wireless communication networks to study their vulnerability to jamming. It develops two classes of invariants (one local and one global) for studying which nodes and links present more of a liability to the network's performance when under attack. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Gefen D.,Drexel University | Carmel E.,American University of Washington
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2013

Electronic markets are ruled by price and reputation, and, at least in the case of Online Sourcing Markets (OSM), also by preference for providers the buyer already contracted with. OSM are online markets for software development. Adding Fukuyama's notion of a low trust culture, an argument is advanced why buyers in OSM may give absolute preference to providers with whom they had previous contracts, presenting a special case of neoclassical contracting. Examining all the transactions in one calendar year at a leading OSM supports this proposition. All it took to be given the tender was to be the only bidding provider with at least one successful previous contract with the buyer, rendering pricing and ratings immaterial to bid choice. Only when none of the bidding providers had previous successful projects with the buyer did pricing and rating affect bid choice. The proposition is also consistent with the buyers' comments about their providers. Implications are discussed about how a low trust culture affects OSM behavior. © 2013 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mulawa M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Yamanis T.J.,American University of Washington | Balvanz P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kajula L.J.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Maman S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2016

Men have lower rates of HIV testing and higher rates of AIDS-related mortality compared to women in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess whether there is an opportunity to increase men’s uptake of testing by correcting misperceptions about testing norms, we compare men’s perceptions of their closest friend’s HIV testing behaviors with the friend’s actual testing self-report using a unique dataset of men sampled within their social networks (n = 59) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the accuracy and bias of perceptions among men who have tested for HIV (n = 391) and compare them to the perceptions among men who never tested (n = 432). We found that testers and non-testers did not differ in the accuracy of their perceptions, though non-testers were strongly biased towards assuming that their closest friends had not tested. Our results lend support to social norms approaches designed to correct the biased misperceptions of non-testers to promote men’s HIV testing. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Knee K.L.,American University of Washington | Knee K.L.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Jordan T.E.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2013

The Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay's largest eastern-shore tributary, is experiencing increasing nutrient loading and eutrophication. Productivity in the Choptank is predominantly nitrogen-limited, and most nitrogen inputs occur via discharge of high-nitrate groundwater into the river system's surface waters. However, spatial patterns in the magnitude and quality of groundwater discharge are not well understood. In this study, we surveyed the activity of 222Rn, a natural groundwater tracer, in the Choptank's main tidal channel, the large tidal tributary Tuckahoe Creek, smaller tidal and non-tidal tributaries around the basin, and groundwater discharging into those tributaries, measuring nitrate and salinity concurrently. 222Rn activities were <100 Bq m-3 in the main tidal channel and 100-700 Bq m-3 in the upper Choptank River and Tuckahoe Creek, while the median Rn activities of fresh tributaries and discharging groundwater were 1,000 and 7,000 Bq m-3, respectively. Nitrate-N concentrations were <0.01 mg L-1 throughout most of the tidal channel, 1.5-3 mg L-1 in the upper reaches, up to 13 mg L-1 in tributary samples, and up to 19.6 mg L-1 in groundwater. Nitrate concentrations in tributary surface water were correlated with Rn activity in three of five sub-watersheds, indicating a groundwater nitrate source. 222Rn and salinity mass balances indicated that Rn-enriched groundwater discharges directly into the Choptank's tidal waters and suggested that it consists of a mixture of fresh groundwater and brackish re-circulated estuarine water. Further sampling is necessary to constrain the Rn activity and nitrate concentration of discharging groundwater and quantify direct discharge and associated nitrogen inputs. © 2013 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA). Source


Wang Y.,Fudan University | Zou S.,American University of Washington | Cai W.-B.,Fudan University
Catalysts | Year: 2015

The ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) has drawn increasing interest in electrocatalysis and fuel cells by considering that ethanol as a biomass fuel has advantages of low toxicity, renewability, and a high theoretical energy density compared to methanol. Since EOR is a complex multiple-electron process involving various intermediates and products, the mechanistic investigation as well as the rational design of electrocatalysts are challenging yet essential for the desired complete oxidation to CO2. This mini review is aimed at presenting an overview of the advances in the study of reaction mechanisms and electrocatalytic materials for EOR over the past two decades with a focus on Pt- and Pd-based catalysts. We start with discussion on the mechanistic understanding of EOR on Pt and Pd surfaces using selected publications as examples. Consensuses from the mechanistic studies are that sufficient active surface sites to facilitate the cleavage of the C–C bond and the adsorption of water or its residue are critical for obtaining a higher electro-oxidation activity. We then show how this understanding has been applied to achieve improved performance on various Pt- and Pd-based catalysts through optimizing electronic and bifunctional effects, as well as by tuning their surface composition and structure. Finally we point out the remaining key problems in the development of anode electrocatalysts for EOR. © 2015, by the authors, licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Leon P.G.,Carnegie Mellon University | Cranshaw J.,Carnegie Mellon University | Cranor L.F.,Carnegie Mellon University | Graves J.,Carnegie Mellon University | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security | Year: 2012

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA), the practice of tailoring ads based on an individual's online activities, has led to privacy concerns. In an attempt to mitigate these privacy concerns, the online advertising industry has proposed the use of OBA disclosures: icons, accompanying taglines, and landing pages intended to inform users about OBA and provide opt-out options. We conducted a 1,505-participant online study to investigate Internet users' perceptions of OBA disclosures. The disclosures failed to clearly notify participants about OBA and inform them about their choices. Half of the participants remembered the ads they saw but only 12% correctly remembered the disclosure taglines attached to ads. When shown the disclosures again, the majority mistakenly believed that ads would pop up if they clicked on disclosures, and more participants incorrectly thought that clicking the disclosures would let them purchase advertisements than correctly understood that they could then opt out of OBA. "AdChoices," the most commonly used tagline, was particularly ineffective at communicating notice and choice. A majority of participants mistakenly believed that opting out would stop all online tracking, not just tailored ads. We discuss challenges in crafting disclosures and provide suggestions for improvement. Copyright 2012 ACM. Source


Tirelli T.,University of Turin | Gamba M.,University of Turin | Pessani D.,University of Turin | Tudge C.C.,American University of Washington | Tudge C.C.,Smithsonian Institution
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2013

The ultrastructure of the spermatophores and spermatozoa of the Mediterranean hermit crab Pagurus excavatus are described, using transmission electron microscopy. The size of the different parts of the spermatophore and spermatozoa are given and their ultrastructure described and compared to similar data already present in the literature for other hermit crabs. The morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatophore and spermatozoa of P. excavatus are species-specific, clearly distinguishing the species from the others already described. The spermatophore and spermatozoa show some similarities with those produced by other representatives of the genus. In particular, the tripartite spermatophore is divided into two halves by the lateral ridge and, as with the spermatophores produced by other species belonging to the genus Pagurus, it is morphologically very different from any other Paguroidea. The spermatozoa are composed of an ovoidal acrosomal vesicle capped by the operculum; the acrosome has a length:width ratio of approximately 1.75, therefore larger than 1 as reported for all anomurans studied to date. At the base of the acrosomal vesicle, there is the thin cytoplasm, the large nucleus and three arms positioned to form a 120° angle between each other. The present description is an important additional step allowing for better understanding of the relationships among the different hermit crab taxa. © 2012 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Source


Rundle A.,Columbia University | Richards C.,Columbia University | Bader M.D.M.,American University of Washington | Schwartz-Soicher O.,Columbia University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

To identify student-and school-level sociodemographic characteristics associated with overweight and obesity, the authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 624,204 public school children (kindergarten through 12th grade) who took part in the 2007-2008 New York City Fitnessgram Program. The overall prevalence of obesity was 20.3, and the prevalence of overweight was 17.6. In multivariate models, the odds of being obese as compared with normal weight were higher for boys versus girls (odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95 confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 1.42), for black (OR 1.11, 95 CI: 1.07, 1.15) and Hispanic (OR 1.48, 95 CI: 1.43, 1.53) children as compared with white children, for children receiving reduced-price (OR 1.17, 95 CI: 1.13, 1.21) or free (OR 1.12, 95 CI: 1.09, 1.15) school lunches as compared with those paying full price, and for US-born students (OR 1.54, 95 CI: 1.50, 1.58) as compared with foreign-born students. After adjustment for individual-level factors, obesity was associated with the percentage of students who were US-born (across interquartile range (75th percentile vs. 25th), OR 1.10, 95 CI: 1.07, 1.14) and the percentage of students who received free or reduced-price lunches (across interquartile range, OR 1.13, 95 CI: 1.10, 1.18). The authors conclude that individual sociodemographic characteristics and school-level sociodemographic composition are associated with obesity among New York City public school students. © 2012 The Author. Source


Ranganathan M.,American University of Washington
Antipode | Year: 2015

Cities around the world are increasingly prone to unequal flood risk. In this paper, I "materialize" the political ecology of urban flood risk by casting stormwater drains-a key artifact implicated in flooding-as recombinant socionatural assemblages. I examine the production of flood risk in the city of Bangalore, India, focusing on the city's informal outskirts where wetlands and circulations of global capital intermingle. Staging a conversation between Marxian and Deleuzian positions, I argue, first, that the dialectics of "flow" and "fixity" are useful in historicizing the relational politics of storm drains from the colonial to the neoliberal era. Second, flood risk has been heightened in the contemporary moment because of an intensified alignment between the flow/fixity of capital and storm drains. Storm drains-and the larger wetlands that they traverse-possess a force-giving materiality that fuels urban capitalism's risky "becoming-being". This argument raises the need for supplementing political-economic critiques of the city with sociomaterialist understandings of capitalism and risk in the post-colonial city. The paper concludes with reflections on how assemblage thinking opens up a more distributed notion of agency and a more relational urban political ecology. © Antipode Foundation. Source


Glasofer D.R.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | Glasofer D.R.,Columbia University | Haaga D.A.F.,American University of Washington | Hannallah L.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Eating Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. Method: One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years; BMI: 27.1 ± 2.6 kg/m2) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. Results Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p <.01). Only the WEL availability subscale score, but not the other WEL subscales, was inversely related to total energy, snack, and dessert intake (ps < 0.05). Discussion General self-related agency beliefs may be important in relation to energy consumption. Among girls susceptible to disordered eating and obesity, the domain-specific belief in one's ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Nassif T.H.,American University of Washington | Hull A.,War Related Illness and Injury Study Center | Holliday S.B.,War Related Illness and Injury Study Center | Sullivan P.,War Related Illness and Injury Study Center | Sandbrink F.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Pain Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

Objective: The purpose of this report is to investigate the concurrent validity of the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) with other validated self-report measures in U.S. veterans. Design: This correlational study was conducted using two samples of outpatients at the Washington, DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center who completed self-report measures relevant to pain conditions, including pain disability, quality of life, and mental health. Study 1 and 2 consisted of n=204 and n=13 participants, respectively. Methods: Bivariate Spearman correlations were calculated to examine the correlation among total scores and subscale scores for each scale of interest. Multiple linear regressions were also computed in Study 1. Results: In Study 1, the DVPRS interference scale (DVPRS-II) was significantly correlated with the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) (ρ=0.69, P<0.001) and the Veterans RAND 36-item Health Survey physical and mental component scales (ρ=-0.37, P<0.001; ρ=-0.46, P<0.001, respectively). When controlling for sex, age, and other self-report measures, the relationship between the DVPRS-II and PDQ remained significant. In Study 2, pain interference on the DVPRS and Brief Pain Inventory were highly correlated (ρ=0.90, P<0.001); however, the intensity scale of each measure was also highly associated with the interference summary scores. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the concurrent validity of the DVPRS as a brief, multidimensional measure of pain interference that make it a practical tool for use in primary care settings to assess the impact of pain on daily functioning and monitor chronic pain over time. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. Source


Anderson B.L.,American University of Washington | Obrecht N.A.,William Paterson University | Chapman G.B.,Rutgers University | Driscoll D.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Schulkin J.,Georgetown University
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2011

Purpose: We investigated three questions: (1) How do obstetrician- gynecologists communicate positive and negative test results? (2) When reporting screening test results, do obstetrician-gynecologists use quantitative or qualitative information? and (3) Is physician numeracy (i.e., the ability to use and understand numbers) associated with use of quantitative or qualitative information? Method: Obstetrician-gynecologists (N = 203; 55.6% response rate) who were members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists completed a survey about their communication of Down syndrome screening test results, an Objective Numeracy Scale, and the Subjective Numeracy Scale. Results: Higher scores on the Subjective Numeracy Scale and younger age predicted obstetrician-gynecologists' use of numbers to explain testing results. The Objective Numeracy Scale did not predict use of numbers. Gender was correlated with scores on the Subjective Numeracy Scale (r = 0.2) and the Subjective Numeracy Scale-Ability Subscale (r = 0.3), with men scoring higher than women when controlling for age. Open-ended questions revealed that communication strategies vary, with approximately one in three obstetrician-gynecologists providing numerical information, and frequency format being the commonly used numerical format. Conclusion: Although physicians are often overlooked in the problem of low health literacy, it is important that we continue to investigate the impact of physician numeracy on patient care. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Golub A.,American University of Washington | Golub A.,Academy of Public Administration | Narita D.,Kiel Institute for The World Economy | Schmidt M.G.W.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2014

Uncertainty plays a key role in the economics of climate change, and research on this topic has led to a substantial body of literature. However, the discussion on the policy implications of uncertainty is still far from being settled, partly because the uncertainty of climate change comes from a variety of sources and takes diverse forms. To reflect the multifaceted nature of climate change uncertainty better, an increasing number of analytical approaches have been used in the studies of integrated assessment models of climate change. The employed approaches could be seen as complements rather than as substitutes, each of which possesses distinctive strength for addressing a particular type of problems. We review these approaches-specifically, the non-recursive stochastic programming, the real option analysis, and the stochastic dynamic programming-their corresponding literatures and their respective policy implications. We also identify the current research gaps associated with the need for further developments of new analytical approaches. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Montgomery K.C.,American University of Washington
Telecommunications Policy | Year: 2015

Facebook's meteoric rise-from a small Harvard-based website that began in 2004, to a global digital platform with a membership of 1.2 billion people a decade later-has made it one of the most profitable and high-profile corporations in today's contemporary digital culture. Its aggressive marketing and data collection practices, however, have placed Facebook at the center of public policy debates over consumer privacy in the Big Data era. This paper explores those controversial practices, focusing especially on their effects on youth.More than 80% of teens use social media, which have become an essential arena for personal and social development, and which may well be altering some of young peoples' behavior patterns. But except for a handful of studies (mostly published in marketing journals) the growing body of academic literature on social media and youth has ignored the role of marketplace forces. Yet economic imperatives and powerful e-commerce business models are fueling the growth of these new platforms, shaping their structures and operations, and both responding to and influencing user behaviors.The driving force behind the growth of social media-and, indeed, all digital media-is a complex set of data collection, tracking, and targeting systems that monitor and monetize individual users' behaviors as well as their interactions with friends and acquaintances. Facebook's marketing, data collection, tracking, and targeting operations are specially attuned to key aspects of adolescent development, both tapping into young peoples' needs and taking advantage of their unique vulnerabilities. Because of adolescents' emotional volatility and their tendency to act impulsively, they are more vulnerable than adults to such techniques as real-time bidding, location targeting (especially when the user is near a point of purchase), and "dynamic creative" ads tailored to their individual profile and behavioral patterns.Given the unique role that digital media play in the lives of young people, new strategies will be required to ensure that their privacy is enshrined as a fundamental right. One way to accomplish this is to develop a set of "Fair Information and Marketing Principles for Children and Teens," drawn from the long-established and well-recognized Fair Information Privacy Practices. These principles should take into account the unique needs and vulnerabilities of youth, and be designed to balance the ability of young people to participate fully in the contemporary media culture-as producers, consumers, and citizens-with the governmental and industry obligation to ensure they are not subjected to unfair, manipulative, and deceptive data collection and marketing practices. In order to achieve these goals, advocacy organizations, educators, parents, scholars, and youth need to work together as part of a broad, social movement, making privacy for children and youth part of the larger policy agenda on behalf of all consumers and citizens. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


McCright A.M.,Michigan State University | Dunlap R.E.,Oklahoma State University | Xiao C.,American University of Washington
Weather, Climate, and Society | Year: 2014

Since the mid-2000s, U.S. conservative leaders and Republican politicians have stepped up efforts to challenge the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic climate change (ACC). Especially with the rise of the Tea Party in 2009, ACC denial has become something of a litmus test for Republican politicians to prove their conservative bona fides. Two recent studies find that misperception of scientific agreement on ACC is associated with lower levels of support for government action to deal with ACC. Using nationally representative survey data from 2006 and 2012, the analytical model developed in those two studies was applied to investigate whether the effect of political orientation on perceived scientific agreement and support for government action to reduce emissions has increased since the heightened ACC denial by Republican politicians beginning in 2009. The results indicated that political ideology and party identification are moderately strong predictors of perceived scientific agreement; beliefs about the timing, human cause, seriousness, and threat of global warming; and support for government action in both 2006 and 2012. Further, as expected, the effect of party identification on perceived scientific agreement and support for government action increased from 2006 and 2012, evidence that rank-and-file Republicans in the general public are more strongly embracing theACC denial espoused by Republican politicians in recent years. Such increased partisanship poses a formidable barrier to public understanding of ACC. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source


Laubach M.,American University of Washington | Caetano M.S.,Federal University of ABC | Narayanan N.S.,University of Iowa
Journal of Physiology Paris | Year: 2015

Studies in rats, monkeys and humans have established that the medial prefrontal cortex is crucial for the ability to exert adaptive control over behavior. Here, we review studies on the role of the rat medial prefrontal cortex in adaptive control, with a focus on simple reaction time tasks that can be easily used across species and have clinical relevance. The performance of these tasks is associated with neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex that reflects stimulus detection, action timing, and outcome monitoring. We describe rhythmic neural activity that occurs when animals initiate a temporally extended action. Such rhythmic activity is coterminous with major changes in population spike activity. Testing animals over a series of sessions with varying pre-stimulus intervals showed that the signals adapt to the current temporal demands of the task. Disruptions of rhythmic neural activity occur on error trials (premature responding) and lead to a persistent encoding of the error and a subsequent change in behavioral performance (i.e. post-error slowing). Analysis of simultaneously recorded spike activity suggests that the presence of strong theta rhythms is coterminous with altered network dynamics, and might serve as a mechanism for adaptive control. Computational modeling suggests that these signals may enable learning from errors. Together, our findings contribute to an emerging literature and provide a new perspective on the neuronal mechanisms for the adaptive control of action. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Prikladnicki R.,Grande Rio University | Marczak S.,Grande Rio University | Carmel E.,American University of Washington | Ebert C.,Vector Consulting Services
IEEE Software | Year: 2012

Time zone differences are a challenge to global software engineering. This column surveys the key technologies and tools that support collaboration across time zones. The insights on technologies derive from a meta-analysis of the 2010 and 2011 IEEE-sponsored International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE), among others. © 1984-2012 IEEE. Source


Maman S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kajula L.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Balvanz P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kilonzo M.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2015

Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source


Knee K.L.,American University of Washington | Knee K.L.,San Francisco de Quito University | Encalada A.C.,San Francisco de Quito University
River Research and Applications | Year: 2014

The Intag cloud forest region of northwestern Ecuador is characterized by exceptional biodiversity, large known and unknown deposits of copper and other valuable minerals, and a high level of environmental awareness and concern among the human population. Its 1000km of rivers and streams are essential for household use, crop irrigation, livestock production and sustaining unique ecosystems. However, no published data exist on water quality in the region. This study characterizes water quality in five river systems in Intag and relates it to land use (protected forest, agriculture/pasture, urban development or mining) upstream of the sampling point. Additionally, we sampled 15 community water supply systems. Parameters measured included turbidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Cr, discharge and aquatic invertebrate diversity. Significant differences in pH, aquatic invertebrate diversity, and the concentrations of FIB, nutrients and dissolved metals were observed between land use groups. Forested streams consistently had the lowest pollutant concentrations, whereas those flowing past population centres or mining areas showed the greatest impairment. Elevated As concentrations were observed in association with abandoned mining boreholes, hot springs and wastewater discharges. FIB, nutrient and metal concentrations in water systems were similar to those in forested streams, indicating that these systems maintain water in an unpolluted condition. To preserve and enhance Intag's generally good water quality, we recommend installing wastewater treatment systems in larger towns and approaching all mining activity, including exploration, with extreme caution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Barnes S.L.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Harris A.D.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Golden B.L.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.A.,American University of Washington | Furuno J.P.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2011

objectives. The effect of patient movement between hospitals and long-termcare facilities (LTCFs) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence levels is unknown. We investigated these effects to identify scenarios that may lead to increased prevalence in either facility type. methods. We used a hybrid simulation model to simulate MRSA transmission among hospitals and LTCFs. Transmission within each facility was determined by mathematical model equations. The model predicted the long-term prevalence of each facility and was used to assess the effects of facility size, patient turnover, and decolonization. results. Analyses of various healthcare networks suggest that the effect of patients moving from a LTCF to a hospital is negligible unless the patients are consistently admitted to the same unit. In such cases, MRSA prevalence can increase significantly regardless of the endemic level. Hospitals can cause sustained increases in prevalence when transferring patients to LTCFs, where the population size is smaller and patient turnover is less frequent. For 1 particular scenario, the steady-state prevalence of a LTCF increased from 6.9% to 9.4% to 13.8% when the transmission rate of the hospital increased from a low to a high transmission rate. conclusions. These results suggest that the relative facility size and the patient discharge rate are 2 key factors that can lead to sustained increases in MRSA prevalence. Consequently, small facilities or those with low turnover rates are especially susceptible to sustaining increased prevalence levels, and they become more so when receiving patients from larger, high-prevalence facilities. Decolonization is an infectioncontrol strategy that can mitigate these effects. © 2011 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved. Source


Adams J.,Arizona State University | Adams J.,American University of Washington | Moody J.,Duke University | Morris M.,University of Washington
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objectives. We examined how risk behaviors differentially connect a population at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Methods. Starting from observed networks representing the full risk network and the risk network among respondents only, we constructed a series of edge-deleted counterfactual networks that selectively remove sex ties, drug ties, and ties involving both sex and drugs and a comparison random set. With these edge-deleted networks, we have demonstrated how each tie type differentially contributes to the connectivity of the observed networks on a series of standard network connectivity measures (component and bicomponent size, distance, and transitivity ratio) and the observed network racial segregation. Results. Sex ties are unique from the other tie types in the network, providing wider reach in the network in relatively nonredundant ways. In this population, sex ties are more likely to bridge races than are other tie types. Conclusions. Interventions derived from only 1 mode of transmission at a time (e.g., condom promotion or needle exchange) would have different potential for curtailing sexually transmitted infection spread through the population than would attempts that simultaneously address all risk-relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2012 by the American Public Health Association®. Source


Nigg J.T.,Oregon Health And Science University | Holton K.,American University of Washington
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Food elimination diets are defined and the history of their investigation in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. After noting that a consensus has emerged that an elimination diet produces a small but reliable aggregate effect, the present review provides updated quantitative estimates of effect size and clinical response rates to elimination diets. It then highlights key issues that require research attention, in particular characterization of dietary responders. Finally, because some children may benefit, clinical guidelines at the present state of knowledge are summarized. It is concluded that updated trials of elimination diets are sorely needed for ADHD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Fox D.M.,American University of Washington | Fox D.M.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Harris Jr. R.H.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Bellayer S.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | And 9 more authors.
Polymer | Year: 2011

A polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) tethered imidazolium surfactant was used to exchange montmorillonite for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites in polystyrene, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), and polyamide-6 using a melt blending technique. Simultaneous temperature resolved small angle X-ray scattering and wide angle X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the surfactant stability and phase behavior of the polyamide-6 nanocomposites. Good thermal stability of the surfactant was in agreement with thermogravimetric analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a mixed intercalated/ exfoliated structure, with the presence of small tactoids exhibiting gallery spacings greater than 3.8 nm in all three polymers. Fluorescently tagged organically exchanged montomorillonite was used to assess the quality of nanoparticle dispersion. Exchanging the montmorillonite with lower loadings of the POSS surfactant slightly increased the size of clay tactoids, but did not significantly alter the gallery spacing or overall dispersion. The results suggest that the bulky and rigid structure of POSS, as well as its tendency to aggregate into ordered crystals, form a bilayer structure in the clay galleries and prevent montmorillonite from completely exfoliating, even in polyamide-6. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Grace L.,American University of Washington | Janssen D.R.,NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences | Coyle J.R.,Miami University Ohio
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2014

The effects of embedding advertising in digital games has been explored in only a few controlled studies. This research provides results of an efficacy analysis of in-game advertising within the controlled environment of a racing car game, an environment in which advertising blends in naturally. The experiment was designed to understand the effectiveness of in-game advertising for both players and onlookers. Examining players in both Europe and the United States, this study measured how in-game advertising works on those who participate in electronic entertainment and those who watch it. The results indicate that such advertising is more effective for onlookers than for players. Implications for designers and researchers is discussed. Copyright © 2014 ACM. Source


Darmstadt G.L.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Shiffman J.,American University of Washington | Lawn J.E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2015

Remarkable advances have been made over the past decade in defining the burden of newborn mortality and morbidity and stillbirths, and in identifying interventions to address the major risk factors and causes of deaths. However, progress in saving newborn lives and preventing stillbirths in countries lags behind that for maternal mortality and for children aged 1-59 months. To accelerate progress, greater focus is needed on improving coverage, quality and equity of care at birth - particularly obstetric care during labour and childbirth, and care for small and sick newborns, which gives a triple return on investment, reducing maternal and newborn lives as well as stillbirths. Securing nationallevel political priority for newborn health and survival and stillbirths, and implementation of the Every Newborn Action Plan are critical to accomplishing the unfinished global agenda for newborns and stillbirths beyond 2015. Source


Zagmajster M.,University of Ljubljana | Culver D.C.,American University of Washington | Christman M.C.,University of Florida | Sket B.,University of Ljubljana
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

We investigated the pattern of species richness of obligate subterranean (troglobiotic) beetles in caves in the northwestern Balkans, given unequal and biased sampling. On the regional scale, we modeled the relationship between species numbers and sampling intensity using an asymptotic Clench (Michaelis-Menten) function. On the local scale, we calculated Chao 2 species richness estimates for 20 × 20 km grid cells, and investigated the distribution of uniques, species found in only one cave within the grid cell. Cells having high positive residuals, those with above average species richness than expected according to the Clench function, can be considered true hotspots. They were nearly identical to the observed areas of highest species richness. As sampling intensity in a grid cell increases the expected number of uniques decreases for any fixed number of species in the grid cell. High positive residuals show above average species richness for a certain level of sampling intensity within a cell, so further sampling has the most potential for additional species. In some cells this was supported by high numbers of uniques, also indicating insufficient sampling. Cells with low negative residuals have fewer species than would be expected, and some of them also had a low number of uniques, both indicating sufficient sampling. By combining different analyses in a novel way we were able to evaluate observed species richness pattern as well as identify, where further sampling would be most beneficial. Approach we demonstrate is of broad interest to study of biota with high levels of endemism, small distribution ranges and low catchability. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Harshman N.L.,American University of Washington
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Using the quantum two-body system as a familiar model, this talk will describe how entanglement can be used to select preferred observables for interrogating a physical system. The symmetries and dynamics of the quantum two-body system provide a backdrop for testing the relativity of entanglement with respect to observable-induced tensor product structures. We believe this exploration leads us to a general statement: the physically-meaningful observable subalgebras are the ones that minimize entanglement in typical states. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Clements J.M.,Michigan State University | McCright A.M.,Michigan State University | Xiao C.,American University of Washington
Organization and Environment | Year: 2014

Since the mid-1960s, many scholars have characterized Western Christianity as at odds with environmentalism and ecological values. Yet since the mid-1990s, many observers claim there has been a "greening of Christianity" in the United States. Using nationally representative data from the 2010 General Social Survey, we analyzed how pro-environmental self-identified Christians in the U.S. general public are in their self-reported environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, we find that self-identified Christians report lower levels of environmental concern than do non-Christians. Among Christians, religiosity relates positively to pro-environmental behaviors but not to pro-environmental attitudes or beliefs. These results suggest that this presumed greening of Christianity has not yet translated into a significant greening of pro-environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rank-and-file Christians in the U.S. general public. © 2013 SAGE Publications. Source


Gratz K.L.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Breetz A.,American University of Washington | Tull M.T.,University of Mississippi Medical Center
Personality and Mental Health | Year: 2010

This study examined the associations between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and key emotion-related factors thought to underlie this behaviour (i.e. emotional dysregulation, avoidance and inexpressivity) among a nonclinical sample of individuals with clinically-relevant levels of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms (high BPD) and those without signifi cant BPD pathology (low BPD), and explored the moderating role of BPD status in these associations. Participants were 392 undergraduates who completed questionnaires assessing DSH, BPD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance and emotional inexpressivity. Consistent with theories emphasizing the centrality of emotion dysregulation to DSH, overall emotion dysregulation and the particular dimension related to perceived diffi culties modulating emotional arousal were associated with DSH status among both the high-BPD and low-BPD groups. However, other correlates of DSH differed as a function of BPD status, with emotional inexpressivity associated with DSH among the high-BPD group and non-judging of inner experience (negatively) associated with DSH among the low-BPD group. Experiential avoidance was associated with DSH frequency among self-harming individuals in the low-BPD group. The results provide support for the role of emotion-related factors (in particular, emotion dysregulation) in DSH among both high-BPD and low-BPD individuals, and highlight the need to control for BPD pathology when examining the correlates of DSH within non-clinical samples. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Block L.G.,Bernard M Baruch College, CUNY | Grier S.A.,American University of Washington | Childers T.L.,Iowa State University | Davis B.,Baylor University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Public Policy and Marketing | Year: 2011

The authors propose a restructuring of the "food as health" paradigm to "food as well-being." This requires shifting from an emphasis on restraint and restrictions to a more positive, holistic understanding of the role of food in overall well-being. The authors propose the concept of food wellbeing (FWB), defined as a positive psychological, physical, emotional, and social relationship with food at both individual and societal levels. The authors define and explain the five primary domains of FWB: food socialization, food literacy, food marketing, food availability, and food policy. The FWB framework employs a richer definition of food and highlights the need for research that bridges other disciplines and paradigms outside and within marketing. Further research should develop and refine the understanding of each domain with the ultimate goal of moving the field toward this embodiment of food as well-being. © 2011, American Marketing Association. Source


Joslyn C.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Hogan E.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Robinson M.,American University of Washington
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2014

In this position paper we argue for the role that Topological Data Modeling (TDM) principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. Given pairwise information source integration principles, TDM can measure overall consistency, and most importantly, reveal cyclic dependencies amongst data sources where conflicts might not be able to be identified. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward. Source


Asfaw S.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Davis B.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Dewbre J.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Handa S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Winters P.,American University of Washington
Journal of Development Studies | Year: 2014

This paper reports the analysis of the impact of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomised experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock, and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to reduce child labour, an important objective of the programme. However, we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Heasly B.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Cottaris N.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Lichtman D.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Xiao B.,American University of Washington | Brainard D.H.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Vision | Year: 2014

RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/ RenderToolbox3. © 2014 ARVO. Source


Baker D.M.,University of Hong Kong | Baker D.M.,Smithsonian Institution | Baker D.M.,Carnegie Institution of Washington | Freeman C.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 4 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2015

Many cnidarians host endosymbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. It is generally assumed that the symbiosis is mutualistic, where the host benefits from symbiont photosynthesis while providing protection and photosynthetic substrates. Diverse assemblages of symbiotic gorgonian octocorals can be found in hard bottom communities throughout the Caribbean. While current research has focused on the phylo- and population genetics of gorgonian symbiont types and their photo-physiology, relatively less work has focused on biogeochemical benefits conferred to the host and how these benefits vary across host species. Here we examine this symbiosis among 11 gorgonian species collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. By coupling light and dark bottle incubations (P/R) with 13 C-bicarbonate tracers, we quantified the link between holobiont oxygen metabolism with carbon assimilation and translocation from symbiont to host. Our data show that P/R varied among species, and was correlated with colony morphology and polyp size. Sea fans and sea plumes were net autotrophs (P/R>1.5), while nine species of sea rods were net heterotrophs with most below compensation (P/R<1.0). 13 C assimilation corroborated the P/R results, and maximum δ 13 C host values were strongly correlated with polyp size, indicating higher productivity by colonies with high polyp SA:V. A survey of gorgonian-Symbiodinium associations revealed that productive species maintain specialized, obligate symbioses and are more resistant to coral bleaching, whereas generalist and facultative associations are common among sea rods that have higher bleaching sensitivities. Overall, productivity and polyp size had strong phylogenetic signals with carbon fixation and polyp size showing evidence of trait covariance. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology. Source


Espinosa J.A.,American University of Washington | Armour F.,United Information Technology | Boh W.F.,Nanyang Technological University
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2011

Enterprise architecture (EA) models the desired relationships between business processes and technology. Enterprise "architecting" is the process of developing and maintaining the EA. The goal of EA is to align business process and IT for the effective execution of business strategy and the efficient implementation of the associated systems. Thus, the architecting process involves many stakeholders (e.g., architects, IT staff, and business staff) with very diverse perspectives, making coordination of architecting work daunting. Despite their critical importance to EA success, coordination and governance in EA have received very little attention in the literature. In this paper we report on a study based on semi-structured interviews of CIO's, chief architects, technical architects, IT staff, business stakeholders and EA consultants. The focus of the study was to better understand the coordination challenges and best practices leading to EA success. Our results show that various forms of group cognition play a critical role in the effective coordination of architecting. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Hingley P.,European Patent office | Park W.,American University of Washington
World Patent Information | Year: 2015

An econometric model is applied to forecast future levels of patent filings at the European Patent Office out to 2019, using historical data from 1990 to 2013 with 28 source country terms. Descriptors include Research and Development expenditures and Gross domestic product, where the latter is split into trend and business cycles components. The model is applied to logarithmically standardised data.The effects on the forecasts of additional future positive and negative stimuli to the GDP components are considered. Reasonable forecasting accuracy is found. Using a series of shorter historical data windows may give improved accuracy for short term forecasts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Quissell K.,American University of Washington | Walt G.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2016

Where once global health decisions were largely the domain of national governments and the World Health Organization, today networks of international organizations, governments, private philanthropies and other entities are actively shaping public policy. However, there is still limited understanding of how global networks form, how they create institutions, how they promote and sustain collective action, and how they adapt to changes in the policy environment. Understanding these processes is crucial to understanding their effectiveness: whether and how global networks influence policy and public health outcomes. This study seeks to address these gaps through the examination of the global network to stop tuberculosis (TB) and the factors influencing its effectiveness over time. Drawing from ∼200 document sources and 16 interviews with key informants, we trace the development of the Global Partnership to Stop TB and its work over the past decade. We find that having a centralized core group and a strategic brand helped the network to coalesce around a primary intervention strategy, directly observed treatment short course. This strategy was created before the network was formalized, and helped bring in donors, ministries of health and other organizations committed to fighting TB - growing the network. Adaptations to this strategy, the creation of a consensus-based Global Plan, and the creation of a variety of participatory venues for discussion, helped to expand and sustain the network. Presently, however, tensions have become more apparent within the network as it struggles with changing internal political dynamics and the evolution of the disease. While centralization and stability helped to launch and grow the network, the institutionalization of governance and strategy may have constrained adaptation. Institutionalization and centralization may, therefore, facilitate short-term success for networks, but may end up complicating longer-term effectiveness. © 2015 The Author; all rights reserved. Source


Pipan T.,Karst Research Institute | Culver D.C.,American University of Washington
International Journal of Speleology | Year: 2013

Epikarst is not only an important component of the hydrogeology of karst and an active site of speleogenesis, it is habitat for a number of species adapted to subterranean life. Water in epikarst, with a residence time of days to months, is a highly heterogeneous habitat, and the animals are primarily sampled from continuously sampling dripping water or collecting from residual drip pools. While the subterranean fauna of cracks and crevices has been known for over 100 years, it is only in the past several decades that epikarst has been recognized as a distinct habitat, with reproducing populations of stygobionts. Dissolved organic carbon in epikarst drip water is a primary and sometimes the only source of organic matter for underlying caves, especially if there are not sinking streams that enter the cave. Typical concentrations of organic carbon are 1 mg L-1. The fauna of epikarst is dominated by copepods, but other groups, including some terrestrial taxa, are important in some areas. Most of the diversity is β-diversity (between drips and between caves). In Slovenia, an average of nearly 9 stygobiotic copepod species were found per cave. In studies in Romania and Slovenia, a number of factors have been found to be important in determining species distribution, including ceiling thickness, habitat connectivity and habitat size. In addition to eye and pigment loss, epikarst copepod species may show a number of specializations for life in epikarst, including adaptations to avoid displacement by water flow. Several geoscientists and biologists have challenged the uniqueness and importance of epikarst, but on balance the concept is valid and useful. Fruitful future research directions include development of better sampling techniques, studies to explain differences among nearby epikarst communities, phylogeographic studies, and assessing the possible role of copepods as tracers of vadose water. Source


Parvathi V.S.,University of Calicut | Parvathi V.S.,University Graduate Center | Sofia U.J.,American University of Washington | Murthy J.,Indian Institute of Astrophysics | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We report previously undetermined interstellar gas and dust-phase carbon abundances along 15 Galactic sight lines based on archival data of the strong 1334.5323 Å transition observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. These are combined with previously reported carbon measurements along six sight lines to produce a complete sample of interstellar C II measurements determined with the 1334 Å transition. Our data set includes a variety of Galactic disk environments characterized by different extinctions and samples paths ranging over three orders of magnitude in average density of hydrogen (〈n(H)〉). Our data support the idea that dust, specifically carbon-based grains, are processed in the neutral interstellar medium. We, however, do not find that the abundance of carbon in dust or the grain-size distribution is related to the strength of the 2175 Å bump. This is surprising, given that many current models have polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the bump-producing dust. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Robinson M.,SRC Inc. | Robinson M.,American University of Washington
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2014

We examine the problem of interpolating antenna radiation patterns from a small number of measurements and propose an algorithm to perform the interpolation when naïve methods fail, often due to multipath corruption of the pattern. This algorithm exploits constraints on the antenna's underlying design to avoid ambiguities but is sufficiently general to address many different antenna types. A theoretical basis for the robustness of this algorithm is developed, and its performance is verified in simulation using a number of popular antenna designs and with a controlled laboratory experiment. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Costanzi S.,American University of Washington
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

The recent boom of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystallography is currently revolutionizing the way modulators of these highly druggable targets are discovered. Not only are these structures directly applicable to computer-aided drug discovery, but they also provide templates for the construction of homology models of other receptors. The study of the binding mode of GPCR modulators through docking experiments remains challenging. In addition to an expert use of advanced modeling tools, the application of experimental knowledge derived from site-directed mutagenesis data is fundamental for the generation of accurate receptor-ligand complexes applicable to drug discovery. We expect that the growing number of experimental and computational GPCR structures will boost the rational discovery of novel modulators in coming years. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lombardi S.A.,University of Maryland University College | Lombardi S.A.,American University of Washington | Hicks R.E.,University of Maryland University College | Thompson K.V.,University of Maryland University College | Marbach-Ad G.,University of Maryland University College
American Journal of Physiology - Advances in Physiology Education | Year: 2014

This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or plastic models). Each group received a 15-min lecture followed by a 45-min activity with one of the treatments. Immediately after the lesson and then 2 mo later, students were tested on anatomy and physiology knowledge and completed an attitude survey. Students who used plastic models achieved significantly higher overall scores on both the initial and followup exams than students who performed organ or virtual dissections. On the initial exam, students in the plastic model and organ dissection treatments scored higher on anatomy questions than students who performed virtual dissections. Students in the plastic model group scored higher than students who performed organ dissections on physiology questions. On the followup exam, when asked anatomy questions, students in the plastic model group scored higher than dissection students and virtual dissection students. On attitude surveys, organ dissections had higher perceived value and were requested for inclusion in curricula twice as often as any other activity. Students who performed organ dissections were more likely than the other treatment groups to agree with the statement that "science is fun," suggesting that organ dissections may promote positive attitudes toward science. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of multiple types of hands-on activities in anatomy laboratory courses. © 2014 The American Physiological Society. Source


Foley T.,American University of Washington | Varadarajan U.,Princeton University | Caperton R.,Pomona College
Electricity Journal | Year: 2013

Driving down the financing cost for capital-intensive energy infrastructure can go a long way to save consumers money. This article describes the size and nature of the investment opportunities, the basic principles for minimizing financing costs, and the ways in which good policies, regulation, and market structures can help the money flow. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Torrez M.,American University of Washington
Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation | Year: 2013

The USDA's decision to bow to pressure from the animal agricultural industry raises a number of questions about the role of the USDA in promoting certain foods and whether consumers are adequately protected by current law and existing USDA duties, obligations, and practices. Meatless Monday was originally started during World War I and was revived during World War II as one of a myriad of campaigns urging Americans to forgo certain agricultural products to preserve resources as part of the war effort. In 2003, Meatless Monday was reinvigorated by a public health advocate who worked with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to develop a campaign urging people to eliminate animal flesh from their diets one day a week. One of the most comprehensive studies of nutrition ever conducted, the so-called China Study, funded by Cornell University, Oxford University, and the government of China, built on previous research and documented that eating animal products increased the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases substantially. Source


Groer C.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Golden B.,University of Maryland University College | Wasil E.,American University of Washington
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2011

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a difficult and well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. We develop a parallel algorithm for the VRP that combines a heuristic local search improvement procedure with integer programming. We run our parallel algorithm with as many as 129 processors and are able to quickly find high-quality solutions to standard benchmark problems. We assess the impact of parallelism by analyzing our procedure's performance under a number of different scenarios. © 2011 INFORMS. Source


Wylie L.,American University of Washington | Sutton-Grier A.E.,National United University | Moore A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Marine Policy | Year: 2016

Ecosystem services such as protection from storms and erosion, tourism benefits, and climate adaptation and mitigation have been increasingly recognized as important considerations for environmental policymaking. Recent research has shown that coastal ecosystems such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves provide climate mitigation services because they are particularly effective at sequestering and storing carbon dioxide, referred to as "coastal blue carbon". Unfortunately, degradation of blue carbon ecosystems due to anthropogenic impacts contributes to anthropogenic carbon emissions from land use impacts and prevents these ecosystems from continuing to sequester and store carbon. Given the impressive carbon sequestration and storage in coastal ecosystems, many countries with blue carbon resources are beginning to implement blue carbon restoration projects using carbon financing mechanisms. This study analyzed four case studies of projects in Kenya, India, Vietnam, and Madagascar, evaluating the individual carbon financing mechanisms, the project outcomes, and the policy implications of each. Strengths and challenges of implementing blue carbon projects are discussed and considerations that all projects should address are examined in order to develop long-term sustainable climate mitigation or adaptation policies. This analysis can help to inform future project design considerations as well as policy opportunities. © 2016 The Authors. Source


Morrissey T.W.,American University of Washington | Dagher R.K.,University of Maryland University College
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective Maternal depressive symptoms negatively impact mothers' parenting practices and children's development, but the evidence linking these symptoms to children's obesity is mixed. Design We use a large sample to examine contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's BMI, obesity and food consumption, controlling for background characteristics. Setting Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study of children from infancy through kindergarten in the USA, were collected at four waves from 2001 to 2007, when children were 9 months, 2 years, 4 years and 5years of age, through surveys, child assessments and observations. Subjects A sub-sample of children from the ECLS-B is used (n 6500). Results Between 17 % and 19 % of mothers reported experiencing depressive symptoms; 17 % to 20 % of children were obese. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with a small decrease in the likelihood her child was obese (0·8 percentage points) and with lower consumption of healthy foods. The duration of maternal depressive symptoms was associated with higher BMI (0·02 sd) among children whose parents lacked college degrees. Conclusions Results indicate that mothers' depressive symptoms have small associations with children's food consumption and obesity. Among children whose parents lack college degrees, persistent maternal depressive symptoms are associated with slightly higher child BMI. Findings highlight the need to control for depression in analyses of children's weight. Interventions that consider maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy weight outcomes and eating habits among children. © The Authors 2014. Source


Hachiga Y.,Keio University | Sakagami T.,Keio University | Silberberg A.,American University of Washington
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior | Year: 2014

Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Source


Bruno J.F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ellner S.P.,Cornell University | Vu I.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kim K.,American University of Washington | Harvell C.D.,Cornell University
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

Little is known about how epizootics in natural populations affect vital rates and population structure, or about the process of recovery after an outbreak subsides. We investigated the effects of aspergillosis, an infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii, on the demography of a gorgonian coral, Gorgonia ventalina. Caribbean sea fans were affected by a seven-year epizootic, marked by an initial period in 1994 of high infection prevalence, high mortality rates, and almost complete reproductive failure of infected fans. Post epizootic, in 2005, host populations were relatively healthy, with low disease prevalence. Using longitudinal data from populations on coral reefs in the Florida Keys (USA) and the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), we documented changes in the epidemiology of sea fan aspergillosis over the course of the epizootic. We developed an "integral projection model" that scales disease impacts from individual to population levels using direct estimates of vital rates. Within-colony lesion growth rate and host mortality were higher during the peak of the epizootic. Effects on individuals and populations changed substantially post-epizootic; recruitment increased, mortality of infected adults decreased, and the size dependence of infection was reduced. Elasticity analysis indicated that population growth is more sensitive to changes in the growth and survival of established colonies than to recruitment, due to slow colony growth and the longevity and fecundity of large adults. Disease prevalence in our monitored populations decreased from ∼50% in 1997 to <10% by 2003 and <1% in 2007 and was accompanied by very high mortality during the early stages of the epizootic. The population model suggested that host evolution (due to selection for higher disease resistance through differential mortality) could proceed quickly enough to explain the observed changes in prevalence and in the size independence of infection risk. Our model indicates that the time required for population recovery following an outbreak is largely determined by the percentage of healthy tissue lost from the population. However, recovery following an especially severe outbreak (i.e., 80% or more tissue loss) is much faster if the affected population receives an external supply of recruits from unaffected areas. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America. Source


Groves A.K.,American University of Washington | McNaughton-Reyes H.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Foshee V.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Moodley D.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Maman S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. © 2014 Groves et al. Source


Culver D.C.,American University of Washington | Pipan T.,Karst ResearchInstitute at ZRC SAZU
Acta Carsologica | Year: 2010

Climate, and more generally the physical conditions in caves and other subterranean habitats have a profound influence on the biota. At longer time scale (centuries), climate change can force and/or isolate species in subterranean habitats. Not only Pleistocene climate changes, but earlier ones as well, such as the Messinian salinity crisis were important in this regard. While many speleobiologists assume that caves are nearly constant environmentally and with scarce organic carbon, this is not the case, especially in non-cave subterranean habitats. Many shallow subterranean habitats, suchas epikarst, seepage springs, and talus harbor highly modified organisms, ones without eyes and pigment and with elongated appendages. Yet these habitats are highly variable with respect to temperature and other environmental factors, and often have high levels of organic carbon. Overall, the role of these shallow subterranean habitats in the evolution and biogeography of subterranean species may be crucial. On smaller spatial scales, environmental differences, suchas differences in chemistry of epikarst water, may be important in allowing large numbers of species to coexist. Source


Cavatassi R.,Wageningen University | Gonzalez-Flores M.,Inter American Development Bank | Winters P.,American University of Washington | Andrade-Piedra J.,International Potato Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Development Studies | Year: 2011

This article examines the challenges of linking smallholders to high-value food markets by looking at the experience of the Plataformas programme in the Ecuadorian Sierra. Multiple evaluation methods are employed to ensure identification of program impact. The findings suggest that the programme successfully improved the welfare of beneficiary farmers, as measured by yields and gross margins. These benefits are achieved through improving the efficiency of agricultural production and through selling at higher prices. No significant secondary health or environmental effects were found. Overall, the programme provides clear evidence that combining production support with facilitating market access can be successful. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Chimonas S.,Columbia University | Rozario N.M.,American University of Washington | Rothman D.J.,Columbia University
Health Services Research | Year: 2010

Objective. To assess legislation requiring drug companies to report gifts to providers, and to evaluate the information obtained. Data Sources. Data included legislation in Vermont, Minnesota, Maine, Massachusetts, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, and company disclosure data from Vermont. Study Design. We evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of state legislation. We also analyzed 4 years of company disclosures from Vermont, assessing the value and distribution of industry-provider exchanges and identifying emerging trends in companies' practices. Data Collection Methods. State legislation is publically available. We obtained Vermont's data through requests to the state's Attorney General's office. Principal Findings. Of the state laws, only Vermont's yielded robust, publically available data. These data show gifting was dominated by a few major corporations, and <2 percent of Vermont's prescribers received 69 percent of gifts and payments. Companies were especially generous to specialists in psychiatry, endocrinology/diabetes/metabolism, internal medicine, and neurology. Companies increasingly used loopholes in the law to avoid public scrutiny. Conclusions. Disclosure laws are an important first step in bringing greater transparency to physician-industry relationships. But flaws and weaknesses limit the states' ability to render physician-industry exchanges fully transparent. Future efforts should build on these lessons to render physician-industry relationships fully transparent. © 2010 Health Research and Educational Trust. Source


Akerlof K.,George Mason University | Debono R.,Ministry for Health | Berry P.,Health Canada | Leiserowitz A.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the human health consequences associated with climate change. © 2010 by the authors. Source


Wiley L.F.,American University of Washington | Parmet W.E.,Northeastern University | Jacobson P.D.,University of Michigan
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2015

This article presents a summary of recent collaborative efforts to understand and respond to nanny state rhetoric. Instead of summarily rejecting the libertarian critique of paternalism, public health advocates must develop a forceful response that exposes its weak legal basis and reframes the debate in terms of democratic collective action. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc. Source


Pierce M.W.,American University of Washington | Runyan C.W.,Piper Inc | Bangdiwala S.I.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Journal of School Violence | Year: 2014

To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to complete an online survey between November 2010 and January 2011. We linked survey data to publicly available institutional data. Sixty-one percent of institutions collected criminal justice information. Respondents cited many reasons for obtaining this information with reducing violence most frequently cited as "very important." Thirty-five percent of institutions denied admission or enrollment in fall 2010 to at least one individual based on criminal history. Institutions that collect criminal history information expressed greater reluctance to admit applicants with criminal histories and a higher proportion reported having denied admission based on criminal history. The results raise several concerns about how criminal history information is being used in college admissions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Sawers L.,American University of Washington
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis - the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. © 2013 Sawers L; licensee International AIDS Society. Source


Kakoudaki D.,American University of Washington
Anatomy of a Robot: Literature, Cinema, and the Cultural Work of Artificial People | Year: 2014

Why do we find artificial people fascinating? Drawing from a rich fictional and cinematic tradition, Anatomy of a Robot explores the political and textual implications of our perennial projections of humanity onto figures such as robots, androids, cyborgs, and automata. In an engaging, sophisticated, and accessible presentation, Despina Kakoudaki argues that, in their narrative and cultural deployment, artificial people demarcate what it means to be human. They perform this function by offering us a non-human version of ourselves as a site of investigation. Artificial people teach us that being human, being a person or a self, is a constant process and often a matter of legal, philosophical, and political struggle. By analyzing a wide range of literary texts and films (including episodes from Twilight Zone, the fiction of Philip K. Dick, Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel Never Let Me Go, Metropolis, The Golem, Frankenstein, The Terminator, Iron Man, Blade Runner, and I, Robot), and going back to alchemy and to Aristotle’s Physics and De Anima, she tracks four foundational narrative elements in this centuries-old discourse— the fantasy of the artificial birth, the fantasy of the mechanical body, the tendency to represent artificial people as slaves, and the interpretation of artificiality as an existential trope. What unifies these investigations is the return of all four elements to the question of what constitutes the human. This focused approach to the topic of the artificial, constructed, or mechanical person allows us to reconsider the creation of artificial life. By focusing on their historical provenance and textual versatility, Kakoudaki elucidates artificial people’s main cultural function, which is the political and existential negotiation of what it means to be a person. © 2014 by Despina Kakoudaki. All rights reserved. Source


Briggs K.,Creighton University | Park W.G.,American University of Washington
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2014

Previous work has focused on how intellectual property rights affect inward technology transfer. This paper is among the first to study whether patent rights contribute to outward technology transfers. Patent protection can affect the ability of firms to be sources of technology through its effects on innovation and commercialization. Using micro data, this paper finds that patent rights and innovation are positively associated with the exporting and licensing of firms, controlling for other determinants of technological capacity, although the effect is not symmetric across firms in all countries. Patent rights have a strong impact on the export and licensing activities of firms in developed countries, and only on the licensing activities of firms in developing countries. Moreover, transfers of technology develop sequentially – namely, exporting before licensing – due to the differing sunk costs of each type of entry. The results have implications for how innovation policies and activities contribute to the outward orientation of firms. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Kuhns J.B.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Maguire E.R.,American University of Washington
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology | Year: 2012

This paper examines toxicology results from homicide victims in Trinidad and Tobago to explore patterns in pre-mortem drug and alcohol use. Toxicology test results were obtained for 1,780 homicide victims. Toxicology data from the coroner's office were linked with police data on homicide incidents to examine patterns in drug use and homicide. Trinidad and Tobago homicide victims tested positive for cannabis at a significantly higher rate (32%) than the average rate among other drug toxicology studies. Victims tested positive for alcohol (29%), cocaine (7%), and opioids (1. 5%) at rates that were either comparable with or lower than those of homicide victims examined in other studies. The proportion of victims testing positive for cannabis grew significantly from 2001 to 2007; the proportions for alcohol and other drugs were fairly stable over time. Toxicology results also varied by homicide motive, weapon type, and the demographic characteristics of the victim. Toxicology data are a useful source for understanding patterns in drug use and homicide. Though such data have limitations, when combined with other types of data, they can often provide unique insights about a community's drug and violence problems. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Cassidy O.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Sbrocco T.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Vannucci A.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Nelson B.,University of Maryland Eastern Shore | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Year: 2013

Objective To obtain focus group data regarding the perspectives of rural African American (AA) girls, parents/guardians, and community leaders on obesity, loss of control (LOC) eating, relationships, and interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Methods 7 focus groups (N = 50 participants) were moderated and the transcripts analyzed by Westat researchers using widely accepted methods of qualitative and thematic analysis. A session was held with experts in health disparities to elucidate themes. Results Participants understood LOC eating; however, they had culturally specific perceptions including usage of alternative terms. Relationships were highly valued, specifically those between mothers and daughters. IPT-WG program components generally resonated with participants, although modifications were recommended to respect parental roles. Experts interpreted focus group themes and discussed potential barriers and solutions to recruitment and participation. Conclusion Findings suggest that adapting IPT-WG may be acceptable to rural AA families. This research is the first step in developing a sustainable excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder prevention program for rural AA adolescents. © 2013 Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Slotnick B.,American University of Washington | Coppola D.M.,Randolph-Macon College
Chemical Senses | Year: 2015

In odor-cued taste avoidance (OCTA), thirsty mice, offered either an odorized nonaversive fluid (S+) or an odorized aversive fluid (S-), quickly learn to use odor to avoid drinking the S- Acquisition of both odor detection and odor discrimination tasks is very rapid with learning evidenced in most cases by either long response times or total avoidance on the second presentation of the S- stimulus. OCTA is perhaps one of the simplest conditioning procedures for assessing olfaction in mice; it requires only a test box, drinkometer circuit, and thirsty mice accustomed to drinking in the apparatus. Its advantages over the most commonly used alternatives, habituation-dishabituation, and the mouse dig test, are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Jacobson K.A.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Jayasekara M.P.S.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Costanzi S.,American University of Washington
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling | Year: 2012

There are eight subtypes of P2Y receptors (P2YRs) that are activated, and in some cases inhibited, by a range of extracellular nucleotides. These nucleotides are ubiquitous, but their extracellular concentration can rise dramatically in response to hypoxia, ischemia, or mechanical stress, injury, and release through channels and from vesicles. Two subclasses of P2YRs were defined based on clustering of sequences, second messengers, and receptor sequence analysis. The numbering system for P2YR subtypes is discontinuous; i.e., P2Y1-14Rs have been defined, but six of the intermediate-numbered cloned receptor sequences (e.g., P2y3, P2y5, and P2y7-10) are not functional mammalian nucleotide receptors. Of these two clusters, the P2Y12-14 subtypes couple via Gαi to inhibit adenylate cyclase, whereas the remaining subtypes couple through Gαq to activate phospholipase C. Collectively, the P2YRs respond to both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in the form of 5′-mono- and dinucleotides and nucleoside-5′-diphosphosugars. In recent years, the medicinal chemistry of P2YRs has advanced significantly to provide selective agonists and antagonists for many but not all of the subtypes. Ligand design has been aided by insights from structural probing using molecular modeling and mutagenesis. Currently, the molecular modeling of the receptors is effectively based on the X-ray structure of the CXCR4 receptor, which is the closest to the P2YRs among all the currently crystallized receptors in terms of sequence similarity. It is now a challenge to develop novel and selective P2YR ligands for disease treatment (although antagonists of the P2Y12R are already widely used as antithrombotics). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Xiao C.,American University of Washington | McCright A.M.,Michigan State University
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2014

Compared with men, women often express stronger proenvironmental attitudes and values and more frequently engage in private environmental behaviors (e.g., recycling), but not in public environmental behaviors (e.g., joining a protest about an environmental issue). This study uses the 2010 General Social Survey data to test whether this pattern is driven by the differing biographical availability of men and women. Do women's time constraining commitments, such as having a paid job, living in multi-adult households, or parenting, relate to fewer public environmental behaviors but not fewer private behaviors? Results show that living with other adults while parenting increases the odds that a woman rather than a man performs no public behavior, but having a paid job does not. Living with other adults and not having a paid job also increase women's participation in private behaviors. This study offers partial support for the biographical availability thesis, while also discovering a link between biographical availability and private environmental behaviors. © 2012 SAGE Publications. Source


Harrison G.F.,Smithsonian Institution | Kim K.,American University of Washington | Collins A.G.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington | Year: 2013

Despite first being described from Virginia, the widely distributed brackish water hydrozoan Blackfordia virginica is often hypothesized to have been introduced from the Black Sea to the United States. However, the alternative view that B. virginica was introduced to the Black Sea also persists in the literature. This study investigates the population structure of B. virginica in the United States to assess the directionality and/or the number of introduction events. During 2009 and 2010, estuaries were sampled from Delaware to Louisiana for brackish water hydromedusae. Nineteen samples of Blackfordia virginica were collected from four localities, including a channel running between St. Catherines Island and Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, a region for which it had not been reported prior to this study. We PCR amplified and sequenced two mitochondrial markers (COI & 16S), and one nuclear marker (ITS1). We compared data from individuals collected on the east coast of the United States with individuals collected in California. This revealed low diversity (two haplotypes with a maximal p-difference of 0.03% for COI and just a single haplotype for 16S) and no unique haplotypes at any locality. Low genetic variability, shared haplotypes in disparate localities, and a lack of unique haplotypes in any population are consistent with a founder effect, suggesting a single introduction and subsequent spread throughout the United States. Source


Harshman N.L.,American University of Washington | Ranade K.S.,University of Ulm
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We show that, for a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, there exist observables that induce a tensor product structure such that the entanglement properties of any pure state can be tailored. In particular, we provide an explicit, finite method for constructing observables in an unstructured d-dimensional system so that an arbitrary known pure state has any Schmidt decomposition with respect to an induced bipartite tensor product structure. In effect, this article demonstrates that, in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, entanglement properties can always be shifted from the state to the observables and all pure states are equivalent as entanglement resources in the ideal case of complete control of observables. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Tanno T.,Bunkyo Gakuin University | Silberberg A.,American University of Washington | Sakagami T.,Keio University
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2015

The strengthening view of reinforcement attributes behavior change to changes in the response strength or the value of the reinforcer. In contrast, the shaping view explains behavior change as shaping different response units through differential reinforcement. In this paper, we evaluate how well these two views explain: (1) the response-rate difference between variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules that provide the same reinforcement rate; and (2) the phenomenon of matching in choice. The copyist model (Tanno and Silberberg, 2012) - a shaping-view account - can provided accurate predictions of these phenomena without a strengthening mechanism; however, the model has limitations. It cannot explain the relation between behavior change and stimulus control, reinforcer amount, and reinforcer quality. These relations seem easily explained by a strengthening view. Future work should be directed at a model which combine the strengths of these two types of accounts. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Groffman P.M.,Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Stylinski C.,University of Maryland College Park | Nisbet M.C.,American University of Washington | Duarte C.M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2010

The exchange of information between researchers, resource managers, decision makers, and the general public has long been recognized as a critical need in environmental science. We examine the challenges in using ecological knowledge to inform society and to change societal actions, and identify a set of options and strategies to enhance this exchange. Our objectives are to provide background information on societal knowledge and interest in science and environmental issues, to describe how different components of society obtain information and develop their interests and values, and to present a framework for evaluating and improving communication between science and society. Our analysis strongly suggests that the interface between science and society can only be improved with renewed dedication to public outreach and a wholesale reconsideration of the way that scientists communicate with society. Ecologists need to adopt new models of engagement with their audiences, frame their results in ways that are more meaningful to these audiences, and use new communication tools, capable of reaching large and diverse target groups. © The Ecological Society of America. Source


Breckenridge L.M.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Bruns G.L.,American University of Washington | Todd B.L.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Feuerstein M.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Feuerstein M.,Georgetown University
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2012

Objectives: Previous research has suggested that endocrine therapy is associated with cognitive limitations in breast cancer survivors (BCS); this study examined the relationship in employed BCS, an average of three years post-primary treatment. Methods: 77 BCS with past or current exposure to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors and 56 BCS with no history of endocrine therapy completed self-report measures of cognitive function, anxiety, depression, and fatigue as well as an online neurocognitive battery. Results: Exposure to endocrine therapy was not related to scores on the objective measures, but moderately related to perceived attentional problems at work (β = -0.20; CI 0.95 = -2.75, -0.25) and perceived cognitive functioning in overall life (β = 0.17; CI 0.95 = 0.33, 11.47) in excess of what could be explained by symptom burden measures. No differences were reported between groups on symptom burden measures. Symptoms of physical fatigue, depression, and anxiety were positively associated with self-report of general cognitive limitations (R 2 change range: 0.28-0.37), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were positively associated with perceived cognitive limitations at work (R 2 change range: 0.21-0.28). Discussion: Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue should be screened for and treated in BCS, as an approach to mitigating perceived cognitive limitations. However, healthcare providers should be aware that cognitive limitations exist in excess of what can be associated with symptom burden, and may be related to endocrine therapy and other cancer treatments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Hecox D.,FHWAs Office of Public Affairs | Hecox D.,American University of Washington
Public Roads | Year: 2011

The new Hoover Dam bridge reaffirms that American engineering can build great infrastructure despite the current economic challenges. Once the new bridge began carrying thousands of vehicles and trucks every day over Black Canyon, the structure became one of the most awesome anywhere. Towering nearly 900 feet above the Colorado River, the bridge sits atop the world's tallest pre-cast concrete columns. Federal Highway Administrator Victor Mendez, the event's master of ceremonies, enjoys a unique perspective on the project. As director of the Arizona Department of Transportation from 2001 until 2009, Mendez played a critical role in ensuring the project had the funds it needed from Arizona and Nevada. A narrow two-lane highway running across the dam's crest connected Arizona and Nevada on either side of Black Canyon. After extensive research, FHWA selected the Sugarloaf Mountain alternative, which included a 1,900-foot river crossing about 1,500 feet downstream from the dam. Source


Maniatis L.M.,American University of Washington
Perception | Year: 2010

In order to convert a 2-D image to a 3-D percept, the visual system must apply constraints that maximize the chances that the result will be unique and veridical. Previously proposed constraints include one that maximizes the symmetry of the percept, and one that maximizes its compactness (Li et al, 2009 Vision Research 49 979-991). Analysis of the 3-D percepts elicited by certain 2-D forms suggests the action of an additional constraint, favoring the alignment of the surfaces and/or axis of symmetry of the perceived object with the horizontal plane. © 2010 a Pion publication. Source


Slavchevska V.,American University of Washington
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

The article examines gender differences in agricultural productivity using panel data for Tanzania. At the national level, there is weak evidence of mean differences in productivity between male and female plots, but conditional on manager characteristics, plot characteristics, inputs, and crop choice, plots managed solely by a woman are consistently found less productive than all other plots. An Oaxaca-Blinder-type decomposition reveals that important factors explaining the gender differential are plot area and family labor. Women are able to obtain higher yields on smaller plots farmed with less male labor and more female labor and thus cover the gender gap in productivity at the aggregate level, but there are still significant unobservable factors which contribute to widening the gap. © 2015 International Association of Agricultural Economists. Source


Tiesinga E.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Johnson P.R.,American University of Washington
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We develop an interferometric technique for making time-resolved measurements of field-quadrature operators for nonequilibrium ultracold bosons in optical lattices. The technique exploits the internal state structure of magnetic atoms to create two subsystems of atoms in different spin states and lattice sites. A Feshbach resonance turns off atom-atom interactions in one spin subsystem, making it a well-characterized reference state, while atoms in the other subsystem undergo nonequilibrium dynamics for a variable hold time. Interfering the subsystems via a second beam-splitting operation, time-resolved quadrature measurements on the interacting atoms are obtained by detecting relative spin populations. The technique can provide quadrature measurements for a variety of Hamiltonians and lattice geometries (e.g., cubic, honeycomb, superlattices), including systems with tunneling, spin-orbit couplings using artificial gauge fields, and higher-band effects. Analyzing the special case of a deep lattice with negligible tunneling, we obtain the time evolution of both quadrature observables and their fluctuations. As a second application, we show that the interferometer can be used to measure atom-atom interaction strengths with super-Heisenberg scaling n̄-3/2 in the mean number of atoms per lattice site, and standard quantum limit scaling M-1/2 in the number of lattice sites. In our analysis, we require M1 and for realistic systems n̄ is small, and therefore the scaling in total atom number N=n̄M is below the Heisenberg limit; nevertheless, measurements testing the scaling behaviors for interaction-based quantum metrologies should be possible in this system. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Maldonado J.K.,American University of Washington | Shearer C.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Bronen R.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Peterson K.,University of New Orleans | Lazrus H.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Tribal communities in the United States, particularly in coastal areas, are being forced to relocate due to accelerated rates of sea level rise, land erosion, and/or permafrost thaw brought on by climate change. Forced relocation and inadequate governance mechanisms and budgets to address climate change and support adaptation strategies may cause loss of community and culture, health impacts, and economic decline, further exacerbating tribal impoverishment and injustice. Sovereign tribal communities around the US, however, are using creative strategies to counter these losses. Taking a human rights approach, this article looks at communities' advocacy efforts and strategies in dealing with climate change, displacement, and relocation. Case studies of Coastal Alaska and Louisiana are included to consider how communities are shaping their own relocation efforts in line with their cultural practices and values. The article concludes with recommendations on steps for moving forward toward community-led and government-supported resettlement programs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


McCright A.M.,Michigan State University | Dunlap R.E.,Oklahoma State University | Xiao C.,American University of Washington
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Given the well-documented campaign in the USA to deny the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic climate change (a major goal of which is to "manufacture uncertainty" in the minds of policy-makers and the general public), we examine the influence that perception of the scientific agreement on global warming has on the public's beliefs about global warming and support for government action to reduce emissions. A recent study by Ding et al. (Nat Clim Chang 1:462-466, 2011) using nationally representative survey data from 2010 finds that misperception of scientific agreement among climate scientists is associated with lower levels of support for climate policy and beliefs that action should be taken to deal with global warming. Our study replicates and extends Ding et al. (Nat Clim Chang 1:462-466, 2011) using nationally representative survey data from March 2012. We generally confirm their findings, suggesting that the crucial role of perceived scientific agreement on views of global warming and support for climate policy is robust. Further, we show that political orientation has a significant influence on perceived scientific agreement, global warming beliefs, and support for government action to reduce emissions. Our results suggest the importance of improving public perception of the scientific agreement on global warming, but in ways that do not trigger or aggravate ideological or partisan divisions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Savage J.,American University of Washington
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2014

In the present paper a comprehensive review of studies of the association between indicators of attachment or its proxy, and physical aggression or violence is presented. The review includes both early developmental studies and criminological studies of older children and adolescents. The studies fall into five categories: studies of separation from parents or parent death; studies using attachment categories (such as secure or insecure-avoidant) conducted with very young children; studies of continuous measures of attachment and violent delinquency conducted with adolescents and young adults; studies of parental bonding and violence; and studies of parental sensitivity. The findings overall suggest a very consistent association between indicators of attachment and violent behavior. This association withstands a host of conservative control variables in multivariate models, including those for "child effects" and abuse. It is reported in both male and female samples and across cultures. The findings remain consistent in longitudinal analyses and in studies of attachment bonds to fathers. Nuances of the findings and suggestions for further research are presented as well as a summary of findings from studies of incarcerated samples. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bader M.D.M.,American University of Washington | Mooney S.J.,Columbia University | Lee Y.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Sheehan D.,Columbia University | And 3 more authors.
Health and Place | Year: 2015

Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Espinosa J.A.,American University of Washington | Cummings J.N.,Duke University | Pickering C.,Intel Corporation
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management | Year: 2012

Technical teams are often distributed across geographic locations and across time zones. While spatial and time separation are often correlated, most prior studies have only focused on one or the other. As a consequence, their respective effects may be confounded when teams have both spatial and time separation. We argue that bridging spatial and time separation pose very different coordination challenges, thus their respective impacts need to be examined together to fully understand how geographic configuration influences team performance. We report on a field study of 123 technical teams conducted at a large semiconductor manufacturing company where we investigated how spatial and time separation influenced team performance. Our results show that time separation, in the form of maximum time zone difference spanned by members, has a stronger negative impact on team performance than spatial separation. We also show that this impact is indirect, i.e., large time zone spans create coordination problems, which in turn impact team performance. Put differently, when coordination problems are reduced, the negative association between maximum time zone span and performance disappears. We describe our findings and discuss implications for global team managers and collaboration tool designers. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Maniatis L.M.,American University of Washington
Perception | Year: 2010

Past efforts to determine whether orientation-dependent sensitivity to right angles is due to retinal or environmental/gravitational frames of reference have produced conflicting conclusions. I attempt to show that the chief factor underlying this phenomenon is, rather, the shape of the object containing the angle. This shape mediates the typical orientation of the object in a ground-gravity context and the consequent force-structure of the incorporated angleo-a force structure that is reflected in the percept. Source


Kuhns J.B.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Wilson D.B.,George Mason University | Clodfelter T.A.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Maguire E.R.,American University of Washington | Ainsworth S.A.,George Mason University
Addiction | Year: 2011

Aim To synthesize the results of alcohol toxicology reports for homicide victims and examine variations in these results across person and setting characteristics.Methods We meta-analyzed 61 independent studies from 57 published manuscripts which met the study inclusion criteria and reported alcohol toxicology test results for homicide victims. A total of 71031 toxicology test results, derived from 78265 homicide victims across 13 countries (most from the United States), were examined.Results On average, 48% of homicide victims tested positive for alcohol and 33% (using the 0.08 threshold) or 35% (using the 0.10 threshold) were determined to be intoxicated. The proportion of homicide victims testing positive for alcohol appeared to be decreasing over time. Further, the proportion testing positive increased with age is higher for female than for male victims, and differs by race. Finally, the overall estimates were relatively stable across study sites.Conclusion Alcohol toxicology test results remain an important method for measuring the success of efforts to manage the consequences of alcohol. However, future toxicology studies should focus upon collecting information on evidence processing time, establishing measurement standards for reporting data and ensuring that subgroup estimates are included for purposes of cross-site comparisons. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source


Bergin T.J.T.,American University of Washington
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing | Year: 2014

The definition of the computer has changed over time as it has increased in capacity and capability. This articles contains one of the earliest definitions by J. Presper Eckert, one of the fathers of the computer field. The purpose of this contribution to the Annals is to record in the published literature a press release on the EDVAC II effort from March 1947 when no stored-program computers existed anywhere. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Findley M.G.,University of Texas at Austin | Young J.K.,American University of Washington
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2012

We examine and test the logic that outbidding among insurgent groups results in more suicide terrorism specifically and more terrorism of any type, which has become a popular argument in recent years. A global analysis of terrorism from 1970-2004 provides scant support for the notion that outbidding increases suicide terrorism. An extension of the argument to all types of terrorist attacks provides even less support. The logic of outbidding has received considerable attention in academic and policy circles in recent years. 1 Similar to the argument that democratic occupation increases suicide terror, 2 our lack of empirical support suggests that considerable cross-national work is still needed to understand suicide terror adequately. We suggest some reasons why this may be the case, drawing particular attention to the problem of overgeneralizing from a limited set of cases. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Shenson D.,SPARC Sickness Prevention Achieved Through Regional Collaboration | Shenson D.,Yale University | Moore R.T.,American University of Washington | Benson W.,Health Benefits ABCs | Anderson L.A.,Emory University
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients. © 2015, American Public Health Association Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Davis C.S.,Network for Public Health Law | Pierce M.,American University of Washington | Dasgupta N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives. We sought to collect and characterize all laws governing the operation of prescription monitoring programs (PMPs), state-level databases that collect patient-specific prescription information, which have been suggested as a tool for reducing prescription drug overdose fatalities. Methods. We utilized a structured legal research protocol to systematically identify, review, and code all PMP statutes and regulations effective from 1998 through 2011. These laws were then abstracted along eleven domains, including reporting provisions, data sharing, and data access. Results. PMP characteristics vary greatly among states and across time. We observed an increase in the types and frequency of data required to be reported, the types of individuals permitted to access PMP data, and the percentage of PMPs authorized to proactively identify outlier prescribers and patients. As of 2011, 10 states required PMPs to report suspicious activity to law enforcement, while only 3 required reporting to the patient's physician. None required linkage to drug treatment or required all prescribers to review PMP data before prescribing. Few explicitly address data retention. Conclusions. State PMP laws are heterogeneous and evolving. Future studies of PMP effectiveness should take these variations into accoun. Source


Biradavolu M.,American University of Washington | Jia Y.,Washington DC HIV AIDS | Withers K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kapetanovic S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kapetanovic S.,University of Southern California
Psychosomatics | Year: 2016

Background: Individuals with severe mental illnesses (SMI) are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV infection but are not consistently engaged in HIV-related services. Objective: To understand factors influencing implementation of HIV-related services to individuals with SMI, we conducted a series of focus groups with multidisciplinary clinicians and staff serving individuals with SMI in outpatient, emergency, acute inpatient, and chronic inpatient levels of care. Method: Six focus groups with 30 participants were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Our qualitative analysis drew on Grounded Theory. Using NVivo Version 9, coding was conducted by the first and senior authors; interrater reliability was verified by running Coding Comparison queries. Results: The providers' narratives highlighted (1) patient-related factors, (2) stigma, and (3) administrative factors as themes particularly relevant to the delivery of HIV-related services to individuals with SMI. The reported relevance of these factors ranged across levels of care, from creating multiple barriers in the outpatient care to relatively seamless and effective delivery of full continuum of HIV-related services in the chronic inpatient environment, where adequate structural support is provided. Conclusion: Providers' narratives suggest that effective delivery of HIV-related services for individuals with SMI requires sustained structural support that is coordinated across levels of psychiatric care and tailored to individual patient's needs. The narratives also suggest that such support is currently not available. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Harshman N.L.,American University of Washington
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Spectroscopic labels for a few particles with spin that are harmonically trapped in one dimension with effectively zero-range interactions are provided by quantum numbers that characterize the symmetries of the Hamiltonian: permutations of identical particles, parity inversion, and the separability of the center-of-mass. The exact solutions for the noninteracting and infinitely repulsive cases are reduced with respect to these symmetries. This reduction explains how states of single-component and multicomponent fermions and bosons transform under adiabatic evolution from noninteracting to strong hard-core repulsion. These spectroscopic methods also clarify previous analytic and numerical results for intermediate values of interaction strength. Several examples, including adiabatic mapping for two-component fermionic states in the cases N=3-5, are provided. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Rohan K.J.,University of Vermont | Nillni Y.I.,University of Vermont | Mahon J.N.,University of Vermont | Roecklein K.A.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2011