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Coventry, United Kingdom

The University of Warwick ) is a public research university in Coventry, England. It was founded in 1965 as part of a government initiative to expand access to higher education. Warwick Business School was established in 1967 and Warwick Medical School was opened in 2000. Warwick merged with Coventry College of Education in 1979 and Horticulture Research International in 2004.Warwick is primarily based on a 290 hectare campus on the outskirts of Coventry with a satellite campus in Wellesbourne and a London base at the Shard in central London. It is organised into four faculties—Arts, Medicine, Science and Social science—within which there are 32 departments. Warwick has around 23,400 full-time students and 1,390 academic and research staff and had a total income of £460 million in 2012/13, of which £84 million was from research grants and contracts. Warwick Arts Centre, a multi-venue arts complex in the university's main campus, is the largest venue of its kind in the UK outside London.Warwick consistently ranks in the top ten of all major national rankings of British universities and is the only multi-faculty institution aside from the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Imperial to have never been ranked outside of the top ten. It is ranked by QS as the world's third best university under 50 years and as the world's 13th best university based on employer reputation. It was ranked 7th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research in the 2014 Research Assessment Exercise. Entrance is competitive, with around 8.25 applicants per place for undergraduate study.Warwick is a member of AACSB, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, EQUIS, the European University Association, the M5 Group, the Russell Group and Universities UK. It is the only European member of the Center for Urban Science and Progress, a collaboration with New York University. The university has extensive commercial activities, including the University of Warwick Science Park and Warwick Manufacturing Group. Wikipedia.

Dalgaard J.Z.,University of Warwick
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2012

Intuitively one would not expect that ribonucleotides are incorporated into nuclear DNA beyond their role in priming Okazaki fragments, nor that such incorporation would be functional. However, several recent studies have shown that not only are ribonucleotides present in the nuclear DNA, but that they can be incorporated by at least two different mechanisms: random 'mis'-incorporation of ribonucleotides, which occurs at a surprisingly high frequency; and site-specific incorporation at a stalled fork. Importantly, in the latter case, the ribonucleotides have been shown to have a biological function - acting to initiate a replication-coupled recombination event mediating a cell type change. Traditionally, it has been thought that 'random' ribonucleotide incorporation causes genetic instability, but new evidence suggests there may be a fine balance between mechanisms preventing and incorporating ribonucleotides into genomic DNA. Indeed, genomic ribonucleotides might have diverse roles affecting genetic stability, DNA damage repair, heterochromatin formation, cellular differentiation, and development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hebenstreit D.,University of Warwick
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2013

Many genes produce mRNA irregularly, resulting in infrequent transcription bursts.Transcriptional bursting is a major source of noise, but its cause is unknown.Gene loops are a possible mechanism for generating bursts.Links between noise, transcription, looping, and polymerase pausing are examined. Expression levels of the same mRNA or protein vary significantly among the cells of an otherwise identical population. Such biological noise has great functional implications and is largely due to transcriptional bursting, the episodic production of mRNAs in short, intense bursts, interspersed by periods of transcriptional inactivity. Bursting has been demonstrated in a wide range of pro- and eukaryotic species, attesting to its universal importance. However, the mechanistic origins of bursting remain elusive. A different type of phenomenon, which has also been suggested to be widespread, is the physical interaction between the promoter and 3' end of a gene. Several functional roles have been proposed for such gene loops, including the facilitation of transcriptional reinitiation. Here, I discuss the most recent findings related to these subjects and argue that gene loops are a likely cause of transcriptional bursting and, thus, biological noise. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rutledge P.J.,University of Sydney | Challis G.L.,University of Warwick
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Microorganisms produce a wealth of structurally diverse specialized metabolites with a remarkable range of biological activities and a wide variety of applications in medicine and agriculture, such as the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer, and the prevention of crop damage. Genomics has revealed that many microorganisms have far greater potential to produce specialized metabolites than was thought from classic bioactivity screens; however, realizing this potential has been hampered by the fact that many specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are not expressed in laboratory cultures. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that have been developed in bacteria and fungi to identify and induce the expression of such silent BGCs, and we briefly summarize methods for the isolation and structural characterization of their metabolic products. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Du J.,Tongji University | O'Reilly R.K.,University of Warwick
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Anisotropic particles, such as patchy, multicompartment and Janus particles, have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their novel morphologies and diverse potential applications. The non-centrosymmetric features of these particles make them a unique class of nano- or micro-colloidal materials. Patchy particles usually have different compositional patches in the corona, whereas multicompartment particles have a multi-phasic anisotropic architecture in the core domain. In contrast, Janus particles, named after the double-faced Roman god, have a strictly biphasic geometry of distinct compositions and properties in the core and/or corona. The term Janus particles, multicompartment particles and patchy particles frequently appears in the literature, however, they are sometimes misused due to their structural similarity. Therefore, in this critical review we classify the key features of these different anisotropic colloidal particles and compare structural properties as well as discuss their preparation and application. This review brings together and highlights the significant advances in the last 2 to 3 years in the fabrication and application of these novel patchy, multicompartment and Janus particles (98 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Troisi A.,University of Warwick
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

The theories developed since the fifties to describe charge transport in molecular crystals proved to be inadequate for the most promising classes of high mobility molecular semiconductors identified in the recent years, including for example pentacene and rubrene. After reviewing at an elementary level the classical theories, which still provide the language for the understanding of charge transport in these systems, this tutorial review outlines the recent experimental and computational evidence that prompted the development of new theories of charge transport in molecular crystals. A critical discussion will illustrate how very rarely it is possible to assume a charge hopping mechanism for high mobility organic crystals at any temperature. Recent models based on the effect of non-local electron-phonon coupling, dynamic disorder, coexistence of localized and delocalized states are reviewed. Additionally, a few more recent avenues of theoretical investigation, including the study of defect states, are discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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