The University of Wales was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK. It was founded in 1893, and in 2011 it merged with University of Wales Trinity Saint David.During its existence it accredited institutions throughout Wales, and validated courses at institutions in Britain and abroad, with over 100,000 students. Wikipedia.
Rayment R.,University of Wales
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011
Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the formation of antibodies by the mother which are directed against a fetal platelet alloantigen inherited from the father. The resulting fetal thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet numbers) may cause bleeding, particularly into the brain, before or shortly after birth. Antenatal treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia includes the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and/or corticosteroids to the mother to prevent severe fetal thrombocytopenia. IVIG and corticosteroids both have short-term and possibly long-term side effects. IVIG is also costly and optimal regimens need to be identified. To determine the optimal antenatal treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia to prevent fetal and neonatal haemorrhage and death. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2011) and bibliographies of relevant publications and review articles. Randomised controlled studies comparing any intervention with no treatment, or comparing any two interventions. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility, trial quality and extracted data. We included four trials involving 206 people. One trial involving 39 people compared a corticosteroid (prednisone) versus IVIG alone. In this trial, where analysable data were available, there was no statistically significant differences between the treatment arms for predefined outcomes. Three trials involving 167 people compared IVIG plus a corticosteroid (prednisone in two trials and dexamethasone in one trial) versus IVIG alone. In these trials there was no statistically significant difference in the findings between the treatment arms for predefined outcomes (intracranial haemorrhage; platelet count at birth and preterm birth). Lack of complete data sets and important differences in interventions precluded the pooling of data from these trials. The optimal management of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia remains unclear. Lack of complete data sets for two trials and differences in interventions precluded the pooling of data from these trials which may have enabled a more developed analysis of the trial findings. Further trials would be required to determine optimal treatment (the specific medication and its dose and schedule). Such studies should include long-term follow up of all children and mothers.
Morris R.J.,University of Wales |
Woodcock J.P.,University of Cardiff
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2010
Objective: To review the relative efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and graduated compression stockings (GCS) stated in direct clinical comparisons. Summary Background Data: Both IPC and GCS are recommended for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although both are known to be effective, guidance is less clear on the clinical grounds for choosing between the 2 devices. Methods: Major medical databases were searched for trial reports published between January 1970 and August 2008. All trials comprising a direct clinical comparison between IPC and GCS were reviewed. Results: Ten direct comparisons were found, 9 of which were with surgical patients. The difference in DVT outcome only reached statistic significance in 3, all of which showed IPC to have the lower DVT rate. Five of the trials that did not produce statistic significance included fewer than 40 patients in each study group. The crude cumulated DVT rate for all the trials was 5.9% for GCS and 2.8% for IPC. Conclusion: There is only weak evidence to show a difference in performance between the devices, however, given the many influential factors, caution should be taken in assuming equivalence. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lazarus J.H.,University of Wales
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012
The incidence of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is 16/100,000 in females and 2.9/100,000 in males as studied in Olmsted county. It can be calculated that the approximate prevalence is 0.25%. There is a gender bimodal distribution. Go usually occurs at the time of onset of the hyperthyroidism but may present up to a year before that time or as long as 5 years afterwards. Around 10-15% of patients have never been hyperthyroid and some are hypothyroid at GO presentation. Although the incidence of GO has probably been decreasing during the last 2 decades definite figures for this assertion are not available. Risk factors that may influence the incidence of GO include cigarette smoking and radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. There are also complex genetic factors with multiple susceptibility alleles that contribute to the expression of the disease. The probability is that a reduction of the incidence of GO will be achieved by influencing the environmental factors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oertel-Knochel V.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Linden D.E.J.,University of Wales
Neuroscientist | Year: 2011
The hemispheres of the human brain are anatomically and functionally asymmetric, and many cognitive and motor functions such as language and handedness are lateralized. This review examines anatomical, psychological, and physiological approaches to the understanding of separate hemispheric functions and their integration. The concept of hemispheric laterality plays a central role in current neuropsychological and pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. Reduced hemispheric asymmetry has also been reported for other mental disorders, for example, bipolar disorder. Recent research reflects an increasing interest in the molecular and population genetics of laterality and its potential link with animal models of schizophrenia. The authors review the principles of laterality and brain asymmetry and discuss the evidence for changes in asymmetry in schizophrenia and other mental disorders. © SAGE Publications 2011.
Ramirez J.D.,El Rosario University |
Llewellyn M.S.,University of Wales
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014
The debate around the frequency and importance of genetic exchange in parasitic protozoa is now several decades old. Recently, fresh assertions have been made that predominant clonal evolution explains the population structures of several key protozoan pathogens. Here, we present an alternative perspective. On the assumption that much apparent clonality may be an artefact of inadequate sampling and study design, we review current research to define why sex might be so difficult to detect in protozoan parasite populations. In doing so, we contrast laboratory models of genetic exchange in parasitic protozoa with natural patterns of genetic diversity and consider the fitness advantage of sex at different evolutionary scales. We discuss approaches to improve the accuracy of efforts to characterize genetic exchange in the field. We also examine the implications of the first population genomic studies for the debate around sex and clonality in parasitic protozoa and discuss caveats for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.