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Civantos E.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Thuiller W.,Joseph Fourier University | Maiorano L.,University of Lausanne | Guisan A.,University of Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2012

Global environmental changes threaten ecosystems and cause significant alterations to the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. We provide an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the European diversity of vertebrates and their associated pest-control services. We modeled the distributions of the species that provide these services using forecasts from bioclimatic envelope models and then used the results to generate maps of potential species richness among vertebrate providers of pest-control services. We assessed how the potential richness of pest control providers would change according to different climate and greenhouse emissions scenarios. We found that the potential richness of pest-control providers was likely to face substantial reductions, especially in southern European countries whose economies were highly dependent on agricultural yields. In much of central and northern Europe, where countries' economies were less dependent on agriculture, climate change was likely to benefit pest-control providers. © 2012 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Casanellas J.,University of Lisbon | Pani P.,University of Lisbon | Lopes I.,University of Lisbon | Lopes I.,University Of Vora | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We propose a new approach to test possible corrections to Newtonian gravity using solar physics. The high accuracy of current solar models and new precise observations allow us to constrain corrections to standard gravity at unprecedented levels. Our case study is Eddington-inspired gravity, an attractive modified theory of gravity which results in non-singular cosmology and collapse. The theory is equivalent to standard gravity in vacuum, but it sensibly differs from it within matter. For instance, it affects the evolution and the equilibrium structure of the Sun, giving different core temperature profiles, and deviations in the observed acoustic modes and in solar neutrino fluxes. Comparing the predictions from a modified solar model with observations, we constrain the coupling parameter of the theory, |κg| ≲ 3 × 105 m5 s-2 kg-1. Our results show that the Sun can be used to efficiently constrain alternative theories of gravity. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Costa V.,University of Porto | Perez-Gonzalez J.,University of Extremadura | Perez-Gonzalez J.,University of Sheffield | Santos P.,University Of Vora | And 11 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings. A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999), low probability of identity (2.0E -13 - 2.5E -9) and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars. © 2012 Costa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Prez-Gonzalez J.,University of Extremadura | Barbosa A.M.,University Of Vora | Barbosa A.M.,Imperial College London | Carranza J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Torres-Porras J.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2010

Supplementary feeding is a widespread game management practice in several red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations, with important potential consequences on the biology of this species. In Mediterranean ecosystems food supplementation occurs in the rutting period, when it may change mating system characteristics. We studied the role of food supplementation relative to natural resources in the spatial distribution, aggregation, and mean harem size of females in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) during the rut. We studied 30 red deer populations of southwestern Spain, 63 of which experienced supplementary feeding. Using multivariate spatial analyses we found that food supplementation affected distribution of females in 95 of the populations in which it occurred. Green meadows present during the mating season acted as an important natural resource influencing female distribution. Additionally, the level of female aggregation and mean harem size were significantly higher in those populations in which food supplementation determined female distribution than in populations in which female distribution did not depend on supplementary feeding. Because female aggregation and mean harem size are key elements in sexual selection, supplementary feeding may constitute an important anthropogenic element with potential evolutionary implications for populations of Iberian red deer. © 2010 The Wildlife Society. Source


Alados-Arboledas L.,University of Granada | Muller D.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | Guerrero-Rascado J.L.,University of Granada | Guerrero-Rascado J.L.,University Of Vora | And 3 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

A fresh biomass-burning pollution plume was monitored and characterized in terms of optical and microphysical properties for the first time with a combination of Raman lidar and star- and sun-photometers. Such an instrument combination is highly useful for 24-h monitoring of pollution events. The observations were made at Granada (37.16N, 3.6W), Spain. The fresh smoke particles show a rather pronounced accumulation mode and features markedly different from those reported for aged particles. We find lidar ratios around 60-65 sr at 355 nm and 532 nm, and particle effective radii below 0.20 m. We find low values of the single-scattering albedo of 0.76-0.9 depending on measurement wavelength. The numbers are lower than what have been found for aged, long-range-transported smoke that originated from boreal fires in Canada and Siberia. © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

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