The University of Virginia , often referred to as simply Virginia, is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. UVA is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, and secret societies.Its initial Board of Visitors included U.S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. President Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of the founding; Jefferson and Madison were the first two rectors. UVA was established in 1819, with its Academical Village and original courses of study conceived and designed entirely by Jefferson. UNESCO designated it a World Heritage Site in 1987, an honor shared with nearby Monticello.The first university of the American South elected to the Association of American Universities in 1904, UVA is classified as Very High Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification. The university is affiliated with 7 Nobel Laureates, and has produced 7 NASA astronauts, 7 Marshall Scholars, 4 Churchill Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, and 50 Rhodes Scholars, the most of any state-affiliated institution in the U.S. Supported in part by the Commonwealth, it receives far more funding from private sources than public, and its students come from all 50 states and 147 countries. It also operates a small liberal arts branch campus in the far southwestern corner of the state.Since 1953, Virginia's athletic teams have competed in the Atlantic Coast Conference of Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Virginia Cavaliers. Virginia won its 7th men's soccer national title in December 2014, bringing its collective total to 24 National Championships, and 63 ACC Championships since 2002 , the most of any conference member during that time. Wikipedia.
Antonovics J.,University of Virginia
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017
This article overviews the dynamics of disease transmission in one-host-one-parasite systems. Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a ‘transmission triangle’. Multiple transmission modes and their epidemiological consequences are often not understood because the direct measurement of transmission is difficult. However, its different components can be analysed using nonlinear transmission functions, contact matrices and networks. A particular challenge is to develop such functions for spatially extended systems. This is illustrated for vector transmission where a ‘perception kernel’ approach is developed that incorporates vector behaviour in response to host spacing. A major challenge is understanding the relative merits of the large number of approaches to quantifying transmission. The evolution of transmission mode itself has been a rather neglected topic, but is important in the context of understanding disease emergence and genetic variation in pathogens. Disease impacts many biological processes such as community stability, the evolution of sex and speciation, yet the importance of different transmission modes in these processes is not understood. Broader approaches and ideas to disease transmission are important in the public health realm for combating newly emerging infections. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
University of Virginia | Date: 2016-12-17
The low input voltage boost converter with peak inductor current control and offset compensated zero detection provide a boost converter scheme to harvest energy from sources with small output voltages. Some embodiments described herein includes a thermoelectric boost converter that combines an I_(PEAK )control scheme with offset compensation and duty cycled comparators to enable energy harvesting from TEG inputs as low as 5 mV to 10 mV, and the peak inductor current is independent to first order of the input voltage and output voltage. A control circuit can be configured to sample the input voltage (V_(IN)) and then generate a pulse with a duration inversely proportional to V_(IN )so as to control the boost converter switches such that a substantially constant peak inductor current is generated.
University of Virginia | Date: 2016-06-06
System and Method pertaining to the modification and integration of an existing consumer digital camera, for example, with an optical imaging module to enable point and shoot fundus photography of the eye. The auto-focus macro capability of existing consumer cameras is adapted to photograph the retina over an extended diopter range, eliminating the need for manual diopter focus adjustment. The thru-the-lens (TTL) auto-exposure flash capability of existing consumer cameras is adapted to photograph the retina with automatic flash exposure eliminating the need for manual flash adjustment. The consumer camera imaging sensor and flash are modified to perform both non-mydriatic focusing of the retina using infrared illumination and standard color flash photography of the retina without the need for additional imaging sensors or mechanical filters. These modifications and integration of existing consumer cameras for fundus photography of the eye significantly improve ease of manufacture and usability over existing fundus cameras.
University of Virginia | Date: 2017-01-18
The present invention provides compositions and methods for identifying subjects suffering from dry eye that can be treated by topical administration of a composition comprising lacritin or a bioactive fragment thereof. The application discloses in part that a ~90 KDa deglycanated form of syndecan-1 is abundant in tears of normal individuals but not individuals suffering from dry eye, whereas a ~25 kDa syndecan-1 fragment is detectable in dry, but not normal tears.
University of Virginia | Date: 2017-05-10
Some aspects of the present disclosure relate to identifying and profiling muscle patterns. In one embodiment, a method includes acquiring image data associated with a selected muscle or group of muscles of one or more subjects and determining, based on the image data, muscle volume of the selected muscle or group of muscles. The method also includes calculating, based on the muscle volume and the height and mass of the one or more subjects, a height-mass normalized muscle volume for the selected muscle or group of muscles, and determining a deviation of the height-mass normalized muscle volume of the selected muscle or group of muscles from a mean value of muscle volume associated with a corresponding reference muscle or reference group of muscles. The method also includes identifying, based on the deviation, a muscle abnormality or absence of a muscle abnormality in the selected muscle or group of muscles.
University of Virginia | Date: 2017-03-08
Provided are isolated TCRs, TCR-like molecules, and portions thereof that bind to phosphopeptide-HLA-A2 complexes. The isolated TCRs, TCR-like molecules, or portions are optionally soluble TCRs, TCR-like molecules, or portions. Also provided are isolated nucleic acids encoding the disclosed TCRs, TCR-like molecules, or portions; host cells that contain the disclosed TCRs, TCR-like molecules, or portions; pharmaceutical compositions that include the disclosed TCRs, TCR-like molecules, portions, nucleic acids, and/or T cells; kits; and methods of using the same.
University of Virginia and Princeton University | Date: 2017-02-14
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.
University of Virginia | Date: 2016-12-05
An ultra-low power clock source includes a compensated oscillator and an uncompensated oscillator coupled by a comparator circuit. In an example, the compensated oscillator is more stable than the uncompensated oscillator with respect to changes in one or more of temperature, voltage, age, or other environmental parameters. The uncompensated oscillator includes a configuration input configured to adjust an operating characteristic of the uncompensated oscillator. In an example, the uncompensated oscillator is adjusted using information from the comparator circuit about a comparison of output signals from the compensated oscillator and the uncompensated oscillator.
Pu L.,University of Virginia
Accounts of chemical research | Year: 2012
The development of automated, high-throughput organic synthesis and screening techniques has created an urgent demand for methods that rapidly determine the enantiomeric composition of chiral compounds. Enantioselective fluorescent sensors offer the potential for real-time, high-sensitivity techniques for determining enantiomeric data in high-throughput chiral assays. In this Account, we describe a range of fluorescent sensors derived from 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL), a readily available biaryl compound with axial chirality. We show that BINOL can be used to construct structurally diverse, chiral fluorescent sensors to carry out highly enantioselective, sensitive recognition of chiral amino alcohols, α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and amino acid derivatives. For example, we prepared an (S)-BINOL derivative whose 3,3'-positions are attached to two chiral amino alcohol units, each having two phenyl substituents. This compound shows a fluorescence enhancement of 950-fold in the presence of (S)-mandelic acid but very little change in the presence of (R)-mandelic acid. It also allows the enantiomers of this α-hydroxycarboxylic acid to be visually discriminated by an enantioselective precipitation process. A structurally similar (S)-BINOL-amino alcohol molecule, but with three rather than two phenyl substitutents in each of the two amino alcohol units, was found to exhibit generally enantioselective fluorescence responses toward structurally diverse α-hydroxycarboxylic acids. We further prepared a pseudoenantiomeric analogue of this compound from (R)-H(8)BINOL, which has the opposite chiral configuration at both the biaryl center as well as the pendant amino alcohols. These two compounds have opposite enantioselectivity in the recognition of a chiral substrate, with distinctly different fluorescence emission wavelengths. By mixing them together, we developed a pseudoenantiomeric sensor pair to facilitate chiral assays. Using this pseudoenantiomeric sensor pair allows both the concentration and the enantiomeric composition of a substrate to be determined in a single fluorescence measurement. We synthesized another compound by ligating a terpyridine unit to BINOL and found that coordination of a Cu(II) ion to the terpyridine unit almost completely quenched its fluorescence. Displacement of the Cu(2+) ion from this complex by chiral amino alcohols leads to enantioselective fluorescence enhancement. This BINOL-terpyridine-Cu(II) complex also exhibits enantioselective gel collapsing in the presence of chiral amino alcohols, providing a new visual chiral discrimination method. When a series of light-absorbing conjugated units are attached to the BINOL structure, the resulting multiarmed dendritic molecules show greatly amplified fluorescence responses. Thus, the light harvesting effect of dendrimers can be used to greatly increase the sensitivity of the fluorescent sensors. The progress described here demonstrates that highly enantioselective and sensitive fluorescent sensors can be obtained through a systematic investigation of the structure-property relation between the sensors and the substrates. These sensors show great potential for the development of rapid assays of chiral organic compounds.
Ravichandran K.,University of Virginia
Immunity | Year: 2011
Prompt and efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is necessary to prevent secondary necrosis of dying cells and to avoid immune responses to autoantigens. Recent studies have shed light on how apoptotic cells through soluble " find-me" signals advertise their presence to phagocytes at the earliest stages of cell death. Phagocytes sense the find-me signal gradient, and in turn the presence of dying cells, and migrate to their vicinity. The apoptotic cells also expose specific " eat-me" signals on their surface that are recognized by phagocytes through specific engulfment receptors. This review covers the recent progress in the areas of find-me and eat-me signals and how these relate to prompt and immunologically silent clearance of apoptotic cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.