Enriori P.J.,Monash University |
Sinnayah P.,University of Vic |
Simonds S.E.,Monash University |
Rudaz C.G.,Monash University |
Cowley M.A.,Monash University
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011
Leptin regulates body weight in mice by decreasing appetite and increasing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which increases energy expenditure in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Diet-induced obese mice (DIO) are resistant to the anorectic actions of leptin. We evaluated whether leptin still stimulated sympathetic outflow in DIO mice. We measured iBAT temperature as a marker of SNA. We found that obese hyperleptinemic mice have higher iBAT temperature than mice on regular diet. Conversely, obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have lower iBAT temperature. Additionally, leptin increasedSNAin obese (DIO and ob/ob) and control mice, despite DIO mice being resistant to anorectic action of leptin. We demonstrated that neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of DIO mice mediate the thermogenic responses to hyperleptinemia in obese mammals because blockade of leptin receptors in the DMH prevented the thermogenic effects of leptin. Peripheral Melotan II (MTII) injection increased iBAT temperature, but it was blunted by blockade of DMH melanocortin receptors (MC4Rs) by injecting agouti-related peptide (AgRP) directly into the DMH, suggesting a physiological role of the DMH on temperature regulation in animals with normal body weight. Nevertheless, obese mice without a functional melanocortin system (MC4R KO mice) have an increased sympathetic outflow to iBAT compared with their littermates, suggesting that higher leptin levels drive sympathoexcitation to iBAT by a melanocortin-independent pathway. Because the sympathetic nervous system contributes in regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and hepatic glucose production, selective leptin resistance may be a crucial mechanism linking adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2011 the authors.
Chandolu V.,University of Vic |
Dass C.R.,University of Vic
Current Drug Discovery Technologies | Year: 2013
Context: One of the leading causes of cancer-associated deaths in most men and women in the Western world is lung cancer. There are various types of treatments depending on the type and the stage of the cancer. A recent type of therapy is targeted gene therapy which aims to target genes that cause lung cancer. However, this therapy has some drawbacks including lack of proper vectors for delivery. These drawbacks can potentially be overcome by using various types of nanoparticles. Objective: To review current literature on the treatment of lung cancer with nanoparticles. Methods: Researchers have attempted to treat lung cancer with a variety of types of nanoparticle matrices including lipid, polylactide-co-glycolide, albumin, poly (-pentadecalactone-co-butylene- co-succinate), cerium oxide, gold, ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, super paramagnetic iron oxide, lipid-polycation-DNA, N-[1-(2,3- dioleoyloxyl)propyl]-NNN-trimethylammoniummethylsulfate, silica-overcoated magnetic cores, and polyethyleneglycol phosphatidylethanolamine. There are various ways in which nanoparticles enhance drug delivery, and these include encapsulation against immune response, tissue penetration, target selectivity and specificity, delivery monitoring, promoting apoptosis, and blocking pathways for cancer initiation and progression. Conclusion: In the past decade, a lot has been said about targeting of NPs for lung and other cancers, but little has been actually successfully delivered to date. Nevertheless, nanoparticles can act as good vectors for delivering drug to the target neoplastic lesions within the lung, increase cellular uptake, increase tissue penetration and help in tracking the drug. In the future, combination therapies may play a key role in the treatment of lung cancer using the existing therapies. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Lander N.,University of Vic
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence, and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls’ mastery in FMS is low. Whilst interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. Additionally, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention, delivered by teachers, in improving adolescent girls’ FMS. METHOD: Four all-girls Australian secondary schools were recruited and randomised into intervention or control groups. In total, 190 Year 7 girls (103 control/87 intervention, mean age 12.4 ± 0.3 years) completed baseline and post-test measures at 12 weeks. Six FMS (i.e., catch, throw, kick, jump, leap and dodge) were measured using the Victorian FMS Assessment instrument. Mixed models with post-test skill (i.e., locomotor, object control and total skill) as the outcome, adjusting for baseline skill, intervention and control status, and relevant covariates, as well as accounting for clustering at school and class level, were used to assess the intervention impact. RESULTS: There were significant intervention effects, and large effect sizes (Cohen’s d) noted in locomotor (p = 0.04, t = 5.15, d = 1.6), object control (p = <0.001, t = 11.06, d = 0.83) and total skill (p = 0.02, t = 7.22, d = 1.36). CONCLUSION: Teachers adequately trained in authentic assessment and student-centred instruction can significantly improve the FMS competency of early adolescent girls. Therefore, comprehensive teacher training should be viewed as an integral component of future school-based interventions. © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine
Zulli A.,University of Vic
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2011
Purpose of review: The shift of modern dietary regimens from 'Mediterranean' to 'western' style is believed to be responsible, in part, for the increase in cardiovascular disease, obesity, type II diabetes and cancer. A classic 'Mediterranean' diet consists of adequate intake of seafood, vegetables, fruit, whole grain and nonpurified monounsaturated vegetable oil. Thus, in humans, dietary intake of seafood is the major source of taurine, as the level of endogenously produced taurine is low. Recent findings: Taurine has been shown to affect coronary artery disease, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and myocardial function in animal models of human disease. A major role of taurine is to act as an antioxidant and absorb hypochlorous acid but not the oxidative radical. It seems that this beneficial effect of taurine in antioxidant therapy has not been well promoted. Summary: This review will focus on determining whether taurine could be a factor contributing to the further prevention of heart disease. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Calle M.L.,University of Vic |
Urrea V.,University of Vic
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2011
The goal of this article (letter to the editor) is to emphasize the value of exploring ranking stability when using the importance measures, mean decrease accuracy (MDA) and mean decrease Gini (MDG), provided by Random Forest. We illustrate with a real and a simulated example that ranks based on the MDA are unstable to small perturbations of the dataset and ranks based on the MDG provide more robust results. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.
Frenkel J.S.,University of Vic
International Wound Journal | Year: 2014
The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) (synonyms - hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate) is a versatile, polymorphic, glycosoaminoglycan with vast biological functions. HA is found throughout the body, primarily residing in skin, thus playing an important role in wound healing. Research regarding HA's function has changed over the years, primarily focussing on a particular aspect or function. The contribution of HA in each stage of normal wound healing as well as its clinical wound dressing applications will be examined. © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McGrath B.P.,University of Vic |
Holmes D.G.,University of Vic
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011
This paper analyses the natural voltage-balancing characteristic of a three-phase flying capacitor multilevel converter when it is operated under the spectrally optimal Phase Disposition (PD) pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategy. Using this analysis, it is shown that PD PWM has superior balancing characteristics compared to the phase-shifted carrier PWM strategy, because it places more spectral energy into the differential-mode sideband harmonics that drive the voltage-balancing process. From this understanding, an alternative balance booster filter network connection is proposed that significantly improves the natural balancing response of a flying capacitor converter for either PWM strategy. The analysis is confirmed by extensive simulation and experimental studies. © 2011 IEEE.
Tay D.B.H.,University of Vic
Signal Processing | Year: 2012
A symmetric self-Hilbertian filter is a product filter that can be used to construct orthonormal Hilbert-pair of wavelets for the dual-tree complex wavelet transform. Previously reported techniques for its design does not allow control of the filters frequency response sharpness. The Zero-Pinning (ZP) technique is a simple and versatile way to design orthonormal wavelet filters. ZP allows the shaping of the frequency response of the wavelet filter by strategically pinning some of the zeros of the parametric Bernstein polynomial. The non-zero Bernstein parameters, αis, are the free-parameters and are constrained in number to be twice the number of pinned zeros in ZP. An extension to ZP is presented here where the number of free-parameters is greater than twice the number of pinned zeros. This paper will show how the extended ZP can be used to the design of Hilbert pairs with the ability to shape the filter response. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All Rights Reserved.
Lindell A.K.,University of Vic
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Where hemispheric lateralization was once considered an exclusively human trait, it is increasingly recognized that hemispheric asymmetries are evident throughout the animal kingdom. Emotion is a prime example of a lateralized function: given its vital role in promoting adaptive behavior and hence survival, a growing body of research in affective neuroscience is working to illuminate the cortical bases of emotion processing. Presuming that human and non-human primates evolved from a shared ancestor, one would anticipate evidence of organizational continuity in the neural substrate supporting emotion processing. This paper thus reviews research examining the patterns of lateralization for the expression and perception of facial emotion in non-human primates, aiming to determine whether the patterns of hemispheric asymmetry that characterize the human brain are similarly evident in other primate species. As such, this review seeks to enhance understanding of the evolution of hemispheric specialization for emotion, using emotion lateralization in non-human primates as a window through which to view emotion lateralization in humans. © 2013 Lindell.
Greenland S.J.,University of Vic
Tobacco Control | Year: 2015
Objectives To evaluate cigarette branding strategies used to segment a market with some of the toughest tobacco controls. To document brand variant and packaging portfolios and assess the role played by colour before plain packaging, as well as consider the threat that recently implemented legislation poses for tobacco manufacturers. Data sources Brand variant and packaging details were extracted from manufacturer ingredient reports, as well as a retail audit of Australian supermarkets. Details were also collected for other product categories to provide perspective on cigarette portfolios. Methods Secondary and primary data sources were analysed to evaluate variant and packaging portfolio strategy. Results In Australia, 12 leading cigarette brands supported 120 brand variants. Of these 61 had names with a specific colour and a further 26 had names with colour connotation. There were 338 corresponding packaging configurations, with most variants available in the primary cigarette distribution channel in four pack size options. Conclusions Tobacco companies microsegment Australian consumers with highly differentiated product offerings and a family branding strategy that helps ameliorate the effects of marketing restrictions. To date, tobacco controls have had little negative impact upon variant and packaging portfolios, which have continued to expand. Colour has become a key visual signifier differentiating one variant from the next, and colour names are used to extend brand lines. However, the role of colour, as a heuristic to simplify consumer decisionmaking processes, becomes largely redundant with plain packaging. Plain packaging’s impact upon manufacturers’ branding strategies is therefore likely to be significant. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.