Vienna, Austria

The University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna was founded in 1767 as the world's third school for veterinary medicine by Milan's Ludovico Scotti, originally named k. k. Pferde-Curen- und Operationsschule . Today, it has c. 2,800 students and c. 600 employees. Wikipedia.

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Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Udine and University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Date: 2012-01-18

The application of wood material from a tree of the genus Larix for treatment and prophylaxis of inflammation in humans or animals is described. The present invention is based on the use of raw larch wood material as a medicament and an anti-inflammatory food/feed supplement for animals and humans, wherein preferably larch sawdust, a by-product of wood industry is used.

Futschik A.,University of Vienna | Schlotterer C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Genetics | Year: 2010

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is about to revolutionize genetic analysis. Currently NGS techniques are mainly used to sequence individual genomes. Due to the high sequence coverage required, the costs for population-scale analyses are still too high to allow an extension to nonmodel organisms. Here, we show that NGS of pools of individuals is often more effective in SNP discovery and provides more accurate allele frequency estimates, even when taking sequencing errors into account. We modify the population genetic estimators Tajima's π and Watterson's θ to obtain unbiased estimates from NGS pooling data. Given the same sequencing effort, the resulting estimators often show a better performance than those obtained from individual sequencing. Although our analysis also shows that NGS of pools of individuals will not be preferable under all circumstances, it provides a cost-effective approach to estimate allele frequencies on a genome-wide scale. Copyright © 2010 by the Genetics Society of America.

Joachim A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including rodents, rabbits, horses, carnivores and humans, in which the organism is known as an opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. Nevertheless, the main host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit and infections usually have a sub-clinical course. However, severe disease is recognised in pet rabbits more frequently within the last years. As the central nervous system, the kidney and the eye are predilection organs for the organism, predominant histopathological alterations comprise granulomatous meningoencephalitis, chronical interstitial nephritis and phacoclastic uveitis. A definitive diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in vivo is difficult, but it is important for specific treatment and the determination of possible zoonotic risks. This review article covers epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, immunology, clinical signs, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Fuehrer H.-P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a worldwide-distributed species of zoonotic nematodes with a high affinity to the liver. Several rodent species of the superfamily Muroidea serve as main hosts for this pathogen. C. hepaticum has been found in Muroidean hosts in more than 60 countries in Europe; North, Central, and South America; Asia; Africa; and Oceania. C. hepaticum was documented in more than 90 Muroidean rodent species (Murinae, Deomyinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, Cricetinae, Sigmodontinae, Gerbillinae, and Cricetomyinae). Globally, the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) seems to be the main host species for this nematode. However, locally high prevalences (above 50 %) have also been observed in several other synanthropic (commensal and non-commensal) Muroidea species (e.g., Rattus tanezumi, Ondatra zibethicus, Apodemus sylvaticus). This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in Muroidea host species. © 2013 The Author(s).

Fuehrer H.-P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a globally distributed zoonotic nematode with low host specificity and a high affinity to the liver. Although murid rodents are the main definite hosts, various other mammals can be affected with hepatic capillariasis: non-murid rodents, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Marsupialia, Carnivora, and Primates. Overall, more than 180 mammalian species (including humans) are known as suitable hosts of this pathogen. This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in non-Muroidean mammals in wildlife and zoos as well as in domesticated and laboratory animals. Furthermore, the role of spurious infections in animals and the dissemination of C. hepaticum by mammalian and non-mammalian animals are summarized. © 2013 The Author(s).

Miller I.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE) is one of the most important proteomic tools and allows studying the complexity of proteomes of different origin. This chapter describes a setup for 2D DIGE with minimal labeling for qualitative and quantitative applications. It relies on homemade gels of medium size and in our hands has been found useful for a wide variety of separation problems involving complex protein mixtures of animal or human origin. The basic method is given for serum proteins of different species, but with minor modifications the method may be easily adapted to other sample materials (other body fluids, cells, tissues), conditions, or size. Examples are given for simple pattern comparisons (e.g., quality control, fast comparison of just two samples) as well as for quantitative applications to larger sample sets. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Date: 2013-07-02

The invention discloses a method for producing a single bacterial strain culture of Histomonas meleagridis (H. meleagridis), the method being characterised by the following steps: (a) providing a xenic culture of H. meleagridis comprising H. meleagridis cells with a wild type bacterial flora, (b) treating the xenic culture with a mixture of antibiotics thereby killing the wild type bacterial flora, (c) centrifuging and washing the H. meleagridis cells, (d) controlling effectiveness of step (b), (e) resuspending the washed H. meleagridis cells, (f) adding one or more single bacterial strain (s) to the resuspended H. meleagridis cells, and (g) culturing the one or more single bacterial strain (s) with the resuspended H. meleagridis cells so as to obtain a single bacterial strain culture of H. meleagridis. The invention further discloses a vaccine formulation consisting of a Histomonas component consisting of an attenuated culture of Histomonas meleagridis, a bacterial component consisting of one or more cultures of a single bacterial strain, and pharmaceutically acceptable non-biological formulation compounds.

Flatt T.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2011

Reproduction shortens lifespan in practically all organisms examined so far, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown to date. Here I review what evolutionary and molecular biologists have learned about such "costs of reproduction" in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) since Maynard Smith's (1958) seminal discovery that sterile mutants in D. subobscura live substantially longer than fertile wildtype flies. Together with observations from the nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) and other organisms, the data from Drosophila suggest that there are at least four general principles that underlie trade-offs between reproduction and lifespan: (1) trade-offs between survival and reproduction are widespread; (2) the relationship between increased lifespan and decreased fecundity can be uncoupled under certain conditions; (3) while survival costs of reproduction might not necessarily be due to competitive resource allocation, we lack robust alternative explanations for their occurrence; and (4) physiological trade-offs between reproduction and longevity do not always translate into evolutionary genetic trade-offs. I conclude that - despite much recent progress - our current understanding of the proximate basis of survival costs of reproduction remains very limited; much future work on the genetics and physiology of such trade-offs will be required to uncover their mechanistic basis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Date: 2014-08-19

Disclosed is a vaccine comprising fiber (2) protein of Fowl Adeno-virus C (FAdV-C) or an immunogenic fragment thereof for use in preventing hepatitis-hydropericardium Syndrome (HHS) in birds, preferably in poultry, especially in broilers.

Palme R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012

A multitude of endocrine mechanisms are involved in coping with challenges. Glucocorticoids, secreted by the adrenal glands, are in the front line of the battle to overcome stressful situations. They are usually measured in plasma samples as parameters of adrenal activity and thus of disturbance. Unfortunately, collecting blood samples itself can disturb an animal. Thus, non-invasive methods for the determination of glucocorticoids or their metabolites have become increasingly popular. The pros and cons of various non-invasive sample materials (saliva, excreta, milk, hair/feathers and eggs) for glucocorticoid determination are given. Above all, faecal samples offer the advantage that they can be collected easily. In faecal samples, circulating hormone levels are integrated over a certain period of time and represent the cumulative secretion of hormones. Thus, the levels are less affected by short fluctuations or the pulse-like nature of hormone secretion. However, using this technique to assess an animal's adrenocortical activity is not especially simple. Whether frequent sampling is necessary or single samples will suffice depends upon the study's aim (whether one is examining the impact of acute or chronic stressors). Background knowledge of the metabolism and excretion of cortisol/corticosterone metabolites is required and a careful validation for each species and sex investigated is obligatory. The present review also addresses analytical issues regarding sample storage, extraction procedures and immunoassays and includes a comprehensive list of published studies (up to 2011) describing the use of such methods in farmed animals. Applied properly, non-invasive techniques to monitor glucocorticoid metabolites in faecal samples of various species are a useful tool for welfare assessment, especially as they are easily applied at farm or group level. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare The Old School.

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