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Vienna, Austria

The University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna was founded in 1767 as the world's third school for veterinary medicine by Milan's Ludovico Scotti, originally named k. k. Pferde-Curen- und Operationsschule . Today, it has c. 2,800 students and c. 600 employees. Wikipedia.

Palme R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012

A multitude of endocrine mechanisms are involved in coping with challenges. Glucocorticoids, secreted by the adrenal glands, are in the front line of the battle to overcome stressful situations. They are usually measured in plasma samples as parameters of adrenal activity and thus of disturbance. Unfortunately, collecting blood samples itself can disturb an animal. Thus, non-invasive methods for the determination of glucocorticoids or their metabolites have become increasingly popular. The pros and cons of various non-invasive sample materials (saliva, excreta, milk, hair/feathers and eggs) for glucocorticoid determination are given. Above all, faecal samples offer the advantage that they can be collected easily. In faecal samples, circulating hormone levels are integrated over a certain period of time and represent the cumulative secretion of hormones. Thus, the levels are less affected by short fluctuations or the pulse-like nature of hormone secretion. However, using this technique to assess an animal's adrenocortical activity is not especially simple. Whether frequent sampling is necessary or single samples will suffice depends upon the study's aim (whether one is examining the impact of acute or chronic stressors). Background knowledge of the metabolism and excretion of cortisol/corticosterone metabolites is required and a careful validation for each species and sex investigated is obligatory. The present review also addresses analytical issues regarding sample storage, extraction procedures and immunoassays and includes a comprehensive list of published studies (up to 2011) describing the use of such methods in farmed animals. Applied properly, non-invasive techniques to monitor glucocorticoid metabolites in faecal samples of various species are a useful tool for welfare assessment, especially as they are easily applied at farm or group level. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare The Old School.

Fuehrer H.-P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a worldwide-distributed species of zoonotic nematodes with a high affinity to the liver. Several rodent species of the superfamily Muroidea serve as main hosts for this pathogen. C. hepaticum has been found in Muroidean hosts in more than 60 countries in Europe; North, Central, and South America; Asia; Africa; and Oceania. C. hepaticum was documented in more than 90 Muroidean rodent species (Murinae, Deomyinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, Cricetinae, Sigmodontinae, Gerbillinae, and Cricetomyinae). Globally, the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) seems to be the main host species for this nematode. However, locally high prevalences (above 50 %) have also been observed in several other synanthropic (commensal and non-commensal) Muroidea species (e.g., Rattus tanezumi, Ondatra zibethicus, Apodemus sylvaticus). This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in Muroidea host species. © 2013 The Author(s).

Fuehrer H.-P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a globally distributed zoonotic nematode with low host specificity and a high affinity to the liver. Although murid rodents are the main definite hosts, various other mammals can be affected with hepatic capillariasis: non-murid rodents, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Marsupialia, Carnivora, and Primates. Overall, more than 180 mammalian species (including humans) are known as suitable hosts of this pathogen. This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in non-Muroidean mammals in wildlife and zoos as well as in domesticated and laboratory animals. Furthermore, the role of spurious infections in animals and the dissemination of C. hepaticum by mammalian and non-mammalian animals are summarized. © 2013 The Author(s).

Joachim A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including rodents, rabbits, horses, carnivores and humans, in which the organism is known as an opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. Nevertheless, the main host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit and infections usually have a sub-clinical course. However, severe disease is recognised in pet rabbits more frequently within the last years. As the central nervous system, the kidney and the eye are predilection organs for the organism, predominant histopathological alterations comprise granulomatous meningoencephalitis, chronical interstitial nephritis and phacoclastic uveitis. A definitive diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in vivo is difficult, but it is important for specific treatment and the determination of possible zoonotic risks. This review article covers epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, immunology, clinical signs, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Nowotny N.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2014

A countrywide survey in Oman revealed Middle Eastrespiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nucleicacid in five of 76 dromedary camels. Camel-derivedMERS-CoV sequences (3,754 nucleotides assembled from partial sequences of the open reading frame (ORF)1a, spike, and ORF4b genes) from Oman and Qatar were slightly different from each other, but closely related to human MERS-CoV sequences from the same geographical areas, suggesting local zoonotic transmission. High viral loads in nasal and conjunctival swabs suggest possible transmission by the respiratory route.

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