Heneberg P.,Charles University |
Literak I.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Parasitology International | Year: 2013
Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz, 1831) is a monostome digenetic trematode with unknown life cycle. On its definitive bird host, C. faba occurs in pairs within a subcutaneous cyst, the location of which on the host body is the base for differentiating three ecotypes of C. faba. Here we examined the hypothesis connecting strong host-specificity of the ecotypes with the possible existence of cryptic speciation among C. faba. Analysis of conserved nuclear ribosomal DNA regions rejected the cryptic speciation hypothesis. Analyses of the variable ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed that, despite some differentiation between the ecotypes, several large-scale indels occur in multiple ecotypes. Individuals from multiple cysts affecting each host individual differed in their ITS1 sequences, suggesting the individuals infecting a single host did not have common parents. Since we were the first to sequence C. faba, we attempted to verify its position in the current taxonomic system (Plagiorchiida: Gorgoderoidea). We found that C. faba segregates with the superfamily Microphalloidea (in order of maximum likelihood phylogeny: Prosthogonimidae, Pleurogenidae and Microphallidae) instead of any species of the superfamily Gorgoderoidea, as proposed in the past. The results necessitate reclassification of the family Collyriclidae as a member of Microphalloidea. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2014 | Award Amount: 2.09M | Year: 2015
Using the laying hen sector as a case study, we aim to demonstrate the potential for practice-driven innovation networks, supported by existing science and market-driven actors, to develop practical cost-effective solutions to sustainability challenges (objective 1). Multi-stakeholder networks will develop technical innovations to injurious pecking and the management of end-of-lay hens concerns based on practice, economics and scientific information (objective 2). A generic support package of communication web based tools, facilitation guides and on-line training programmes, designed to help science and market- driven actors, will then be available to support practice-driven innovation networks in other livestock sectors (objective 3). Finally we will develop policy recommendations that help realize the full potential of practice-driven innovation through multi stakeholder networks in livestock sectors (objective 4). This project will tackle four challenges associated with the need for grass-root innovation highlighted in the Horizon 2020 call; 1) legitimacy by robust practical and financial evaluation, 2) accessibility by communication between producers and existing innovation support actors, 3) connectivity by an industry-led dissemination strategy ensuring information about innovations are widely spread using existing communication tools and finally 4) sufficient resource by production of a support package and policy recommendations that facilitate better interaction of science-driven and practice-driven innovation. The success of this approach to the laying hen sector and other sectors will be evaluated by the ability of the network to encourage practice-led innovation, check the effectiveness of the innovation, ensure optimum use of scientific information, provide a route for traditional knowledge transfer when required, disseminate results of innovation to others and ensure that policy is informed by practice-led solutions.
Bartova E.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
Sedlak K.,State Veterinary Institute Prague
Parasitology | Year: 2011
In the Czech Republic, sera from 551 clinically healthy adult slaughtered pigs (females, 6-8 months old) were collected during the first half of June in 2010. Sera were tested for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 50% S/P were considered as positive. The same samples were also analysed for Neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 30% inhibition were considered as positive. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 198 pigs (36%) in all districts with prevalences ranging from 18% to 75%. Antibodies against N. caninum were found in 16 pigs (3%); positive animals were found in 4 districts with prevalences ranging from 1% to 20%. Indication of mixed infections (concurrent presence of both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies) was found in 8 (1A.5%) pigs. The results of our study indicate that pigs in the Czech Republic have a relatively high seroprevalence for T. gondii, while they have only a low seroprevalence for N. caninum. Therefore, natural infection with T. gondii seems to be very common in Czech pigs. It is the first evidence of N. caninum antibodies in pigs in the Czech Republic. These results complete data about N. caninum infection in pigs in Europe. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.
Pavelcik F.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2012
New methods have been developed for locating phosphate groups and nucleic acid bases in the electron density of RNA structures. These methods utilize a constrained real-space refinement of molecular fragments and a phased rotation-conformation-translation function. Real-space refinement has also contributed to the improvement of the bone/base method of RNA model building and to redesigning the method of building double helices in nucleic acid structures. This improvement is reflected in the increased accuracy of the model building and the ability to better distinguish between correct and false solutions. A program, RSR, was created, and the programs NUT, HEL and DHL were upgraded and organized into a program system, which is CCP4 oriented. Source codes will also be released. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.
Pazourek J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010
Calibration based on the "single-point calibration method", a simple exponential transformation of the response function of an evaporative light scattering detector was improved and applied to analysis of selected saccharides under hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode (a polar phase LiChrospher100 DIOL, mobile phase acetonitrile/water). The improved approach to the calibration procedure yielded a calibration curve with an excellent linearity (quality coefficient <5%). This quantitative evaluation of chromatograms of D-galactose suggested that not only anomers but even pyranose and furanose forms of the anomers could be resolved - the resulting calculations of abundance of the anomeric form strongly correlated with data from the literature obtainedmostly by NMR studies (analogous results were also obtained for D-arabinose, D-glucose, and D-mannose). Because of the rapid separation (retention time less than 10min), the observed correlation enabled to monitor anomeric conversion (mutarotation) of monosaccharides. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Smejkal K.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2014
Prenylated flavonoids are a large group of compounds that combine a flavonoid skeleton with a lipophilic prenyl side-chain. The-side chain may be modified, especially by oxidation, and this variation contributes many structural possibilities. Combining the flavonoid skeleton with a lipophilicity of the prenyl side-chain gives the resultant great potential for biological activity. The cytotoxic activity of prenylated flavonoids has been reviewed with the aim of evaluating the potential of these compounds for further research. The search for activity has been restricted to from blood derived cells to limit the number of sources cited and get a more valuable comparison of the compounds. All sources touching on the potential toxicity of prenylated flavonoids on blood-cell lines in last 30 years of research have been cited in this review. The Sciencedirect, Web of Knowledge, Scifinder, and Reaxys databases were searched for reports, descriptions, and structural information prenylated flavonoids. A wide spectrum of cell lines, coupled with the presence and/or sometimes the absence of a standard cytotoxic compound used to compare effects made the evaluation of data more difficult. An attempt to identify each structure-activity relationships was made. Although the toxicity of the compounds described here does not usually reach the nanomolar range of concentration for leukemic cancer cell lines, the prenylated flavonoids may possess a strong advantage, in that they are relatively non-toxic to non-cancer cells. Some possible mechanisms of action for the cytotoxicic effect have also been described. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.
Pazourek J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2014
A fast liquid chromatography method for separation and determination of myo-inositol is reported. Determination of the biologically important isomer of inositols, myo-inositol, was optimized to avoid overlapping to possible interferents according to European Pharmacopoeia (glycerol, d-mannitol) and saccharose. The method in HILIC mode is extremely selective to other carbohydrates which allows to separate myo-inositol from allo- and d-chiro-inositol with resolution 12.3 and 5.2, resp. and this way it enables to separate myo-inostiol from contingent carbohydrates present in a sample matrix. Retention time of myo-inositol was 12 min at 10 °C, though higher temperatures (25 °C or 40 °C) or higher water content in the mobile phase could speed up the separation and determination to four minutes. LOD of the method was 9 mg/L at 10 °C, and 5 mg/L at 25 °C, resp. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ambrisko T.D.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna |
Kabes R.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
Moens Y.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2013
BackgroundIn a previous study, the authors found a large bias (50%) for lithium (LiDCO) compared with thermodilution cardiac output measurement methods in ponies receiving i.v. infusions of xylazine, ketamine, and midazolam. This prompted the authors to examine the effect of drugs on the LiDCO sensor.MethodsDrugs and lithium were dissolved in 0.9% saline to produce the following solutions: saline, saline-lithium, saline-drug, and saline-drug-lithium. The drug concentrations were overlapping the range of clinical interest as estimated from the published literature. These 38°C solutions were pumped through the LiDCO sensor in predetermined order. Sensor voltages were measured. Differences between lithium-induced voltage changes in the absence and presence of drugs indicated erroneous lithium detections that, if they occurred in vivo, may cause biases in LiDCO measurements. ResultsClonidine, detomidine, dexmedetomidine, medetomidine, romifidine, xylazine, ketamine, S-ketamine, lidocaine, and rocuronium caused concentration-dependent increases in sensor voltages and negative biases in lithium detection that were mathematically equivalent to greater than +10% biases in LiDCO. The drug-induced voltage changes correlated with calculated biases in LiDCO (r2=0.91). Atipamezole, acepromazine, butorphanol, diazepam, midazolam, and guaifenesin caused minimal or no interaction in this study.ConclusionsA number of drugs influenced the accuracy of the LiDCO sensor in vitro but, based on published pharmacokinetic data, only xylazine, ketamine, lidocaine, and rocuronium may cause biases at clinically relevant concentrations. These findings need to be confirmed in vivo. Relevant (>3 mV) changes in sensor voltages due to the presence of drugs may indicate possible interactions with the LiDCO sensor. © 2012 © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.
Futas J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
Horin P.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of NKR genes. © 2013 Futas, Horin.
Jampilek J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014
Antimicrobial diazanaphthalenes are indispensable in the treatment of various infections. The quinoxaline scaffold possesses unique physicochemical properties and provides a possibility of a great number of targeted modifications. Quinoxaline-based compounds have a wide range of promising biological properties; therefore a special attention is paid to them for research and designing of new drugs. In fact, quinoxaline can be considered as a privileged structure. The scaffold can be easily and rapidly constructed, which emphasizes the significance of this favourable structure. The review is focused on recently reported potential antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal agents derived from the quinoxaline scaffold, their mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships. A brief classification of synthetic pathways of quinoxaline derivatives is provided too. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.