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Verona, Italy

The University of Verona is a university located in Verona, Italy. It was founded in 1982 and is organized in 15 Departments. According to the newspaper "Il Sole 24 Ore", it is ranked as the best university in Italy in 2014. Wikipedia.

Byrne C.D.,University of Southampton | Targher G.,University of Verona
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries that is predicted to become also the most frequent indication for liver transplantation by 2030. Over the last decade, it has been shown that the clinical burden of NAFLD is not only confined to liver-related morbidity and mortality, but there is now growing evidence that NAFLD is a multisystem disease, affecting extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. For example, NAFLD increases risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular (CVD) and cardiac diseases, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the primary liver pathology in NAFLD affects hepatic structure and function to cause morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, the majority of deaths among NAFLD patients are attributable to CVD. This narrative review focuses on the rapidly expanding body of clinical evidence that supports the concept of NAFLD as a multisystem disease. The review discusses the factors involved in the progression of liver disease in NAFLD and the factors linking NAFLD with other extra-hepatic chronic diseases, such as T2DM, CVD, cardiac diseases and CKD. The review will not discuss NAFLD treatments as these are discussed elsewhere in this issue of the Journal. For this review, PubMed was searched for articles using the keywords "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" or "fatty liver" combined with "diabetes", "cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease", "cardiovascular mortality" or "chronic kidney disease" between 1990 and 2014. Articles published in languages other than English were excluded. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Source

Bronte V.,University of Verona | Pittet M.J.,Harvard University
Immunity | Year: 2013

The spleen is the main filter for blood-borne pathogens and antigens, as well as a key organ for iron metabolism and erythrocyte homeostasis. Also, immune and hematopoietic functions have been recently unveiled for the mouse spleen, suggesting additional roles for this secondary lymphoid organ. Here we discuss the integration of the spleen in the regulation of immune responses locally and in the whole body and present the relevance of findings for our understanding of inflammatory and degenerative diseases and their treatments. We consider whether equivalent activities in humans are known, as well as initial therapeutic attempts to target the spleen for modulating innate and adaptive immunity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Donadelli M.,University of Verona
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS | Year: 2014

An ever-increasing number of studies highlight the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of UCP2 regulation is becoming fundamental in both the comprehension of UCP2-related physiological events and the identification of novel therapeutic strategies based on UCP2 modulation. The study of UCP2 regulation is a fast-moving field. Recently, several research groups have made a great effort to thoroughly understand the various molecular mechanisms at the basis of UCP2 regulation. In this review, we describe novel findings concerning events that can occur in a concerted manner at various levels: Ucp2 gene mutation (single nucleotide polymorphisms), UCP2 mRNA and protein expression (transcriptional, translational, and protein turn-over regulation), UCP2 proton conductance (ligands and post-transcriptional modifications), and nutritional and pharmacological regulation of UCP2. Source

Vertebrate vision in rod photoreceptors begins when a photon hits the visual pigment rhodopsin (Rh) and triggers the phototransduction cascade. Although the fine biochemical and biophysical details of this paradigmatic signalling pathway have been studied for decades, phototransduction still presents unclear mechanistic aspects. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that the visual pigment rhodopsin (Rh) is natively organized in dimers on the surface of disc membranes, and may form higher order "paracrystalline" assemblies, which are not easy to reconcile with the classical collision-coupling mechanistic scenario evoked to explain the extremely fast molecular processes required in phototransduction. The questioned and criticized existence of paracrystalline Rh rafts can be fully accepted only if it can be explained in functional terms by a solid mechanistic picture. Here we discuss how recent data suggest a physiological role for supramolecular assemblies of Rh and its cognate G protein transducin (Gt), which by forming transient complexes in the dark may ensure rapid activation of the cascade even in a crowded environment that, according to the classical picture, would otherwise stop the cascade. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Munn D.H.,Georgia Regents University | Bronte V.,University of Verona
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2016

Effective immunotherapy, whether by checkpoint blockade or adoptive cell therapy, is limited in most patients by a key barrier: the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Suppression of tumor-specific T cells is orchestrated by the activity of a variety of stromal myeloid and lymphoid cells. These often display inducible suppressive mechanisms that are triggered by the same anti-tumor inflammatory response that the immunotherapy intends to create. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of how the immunosuppressive milieu develops and persists is critical in order to harness the full power of immunotherapy of cancer. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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