Burlington, VT, United States
Burlington, VT, United States

The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, more commonly known as the University of Vermont or UVM, is a public research university and, after 1862, the U.S. state of Vermont's land-grant university. The University of Vermont is labeled one of the original "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.Founded in 1791, UVM is among the oldest universities in the United States and the fifth college established in New England after Harvard, Yale, Dartmouth and Brown.The university's 451-acre campus is located in Burlington. Features of the UVM campus include the historic University Green, the Dudley H. Davis Center—the first student center in the nation to receive U.S. Green Building Council LEED Gold certification—the Fleming Museum of Art, and the Gutterson/Patrick athletic complex, home to UVM's Division I athletic teams. The largest hospital complex in Vermont, The University of Vermont Medical Center, has its primary facility adjacent to the UVM campus and is affiliated with the UVM College of Medicine. Wikipedia.

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Catheters, systems, and related methods for optimized for mapping, minimizing, and treating cardiac fibrillation in a patient, including an array of at least one stacked electrode pair, each electrode pair including a first electrode and a second electrode, wherein each electrode pair is configured to be orthogonal to a surface of a cardiac tissue substrate, wherein each first electrode is in contact with the surface to record a first signal, and wherein each second electrode is separated from the first electrode by a distance which enables the second electrode to record a second signal, wherein the catheter is configured to obtain one or more measurements from at least a first signal and a second signal in response to electrical activity in the cardiac tissue substrate indicative of a number of electrical circuit cores and distribution of the electrical circuit cores for a duration across the cardiac tissue substrate.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-03-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016

Stroke and dementia rank among the most pressing health issues in Europe. Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) have emerged as a central link between these two major co-morbidities. SVDs account for more than 30% of strokes and at least 40% of dementia cases. They encounter multiple distinct diseases that can be separated based on their underlying genetic defects, risk factors, and clinical presentations. Despite this profound impact on human health, there are no treatments with proven efficacy against SVDs. The applicants have made major progress in identifying key mechanisms involved in SVDs and their co-morbidities. We recently identified blood pressure variability as a major independent risk factor for multiple SVDs, stroke, and dementia and illuminated the roles of the blood brain barrier and the extracellular matrix in small vessel function. We further identified novel molecular pathways (TIMP3, LTBP1, TGF) that are shared between different SVDs and thus point towards common mechanisms. This EU network, which brings together basic scientists and academic clinicians, will make use of novel animal models and expertly phenotyped patient cohorts to identify key mechanisms common to multiple SVDs and determine how these mechanisms contribute to individual SVDs. We will: i) identify common molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms that compromise the function of microvessels in different SVDs; ii) determine how these common mechanistic defects intersect to drive brain damage; and iii) validate the relevance of mechanisms through interventions in experimental systems (isolated microvessels and in vivo) and in patients (exploratory proof of concept trials). Our resources including novel animal models and state-of-the art technologies (e.g. proteomics & ultra-high field MRI) as well as expertise in clinical trials support the feasibility of the approach. In fact, studies by the applicants already revealed novel attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Lewinter M.M.,University of Vermont
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

A previously healthy 25-year-old man presents with pleuritic pain in the left side of the chest of 3 hours' duration, radiating to the left trapezius ridge and relieved by sitting forward. On physical examination, he appears anxious. His pulse is 104 beats per minute and regular, his blood pressure is 125/80 mm Hg without a paradoxical pulse, and his temperature is 37.8°C. A three-component friction rub is auscultated along the left sternal border. An electrocardiogram (ECG) reveals ST-segment elevations in multiple leads, which are consistent with acute pericarditis. How should this case be managed?. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Mann K.G.,University of Vermont
Circulation | Year: 2011

The outcome of a blood clotting event is either desirable or undesirable. All of these events involve the generation of thrombin from plasma components, the participation of platelets, and the local conditions associated with the vascular environment. Good hemostatic clots are largely relegated to the extravascular environment, whereas pathological occlusive clots are associated with the presentation of TF within the vasculature. Although reactions in both of these environments involve platelet function, the high shear present in arterial environments requires extensive participation of platelets, and both pathologies may involve systemic inflammatory-coagulation syndromes.93 The varying effectiveness of the nature and intensity of anticoagulant treatment for venous and arterial thrombosis is a consequence of these biochemical, cell biological, and biomechanical phenomena. Data for the contributions of the vascular anticoagulation systems, ie, thrombomodulin, EPCR, TFPI, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, are not qualitatively or quantitatively established within the vasculature. The development of data regarding the concentrations of these anticoagulants in different vascular beds is essential to the meaningful evaluation of the dynamics that influence the susceptibility of an occlusive clot to form in different sites in the vascular anatomy. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Howe A.K.,University of Vermont
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Calcium (Ca 2+) and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are pleiotropic cellular regulators and both exert powerful, diverse effects on cytoskeletal dynamics, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Localization, by A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), of PKA activity to the protrusive leading edge, integrins, and other regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics has emerged as an important facet of its role in cell migration. Additional recent work has firmly established the importance of Ca 2+ influx through mechanosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and through store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) in cell migration. Finally, there is considerable evidence showing that these mechanisms of Ca 2+ influx and PKA regulation intersect-and often interact-and thus may work in concert to translate complex extracellular cues into the intracellular biochemical anisotropy required for directional cell migration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Rincon M.,University of Vermont
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2012

The incidence and diversity of chronic inflammatory diseases is increasing worldwide. However, the complexity of clinical symptoms has made it difficult to develop therapies that provide a substantial improvement for extended periods of time in a wide range of patient groups. Thus, there is a need for new therapies that target inflammatory responses without compromising immune defense. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the first identified cytokines, has recently been recognized as a potential target in inflammatory disease. Here, I discuss how this cytokine has evolved from being a marker of inflammation to a successful target to control inflammation. I will summarize the results from the recent clinical studies using IL-6 receptor blockade, and describe potential mechanisms by which IL-6 can contribute to the progression of inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Morrical S.W.,University of Vermont
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2015

The formation of heteroduplex DNA is a central step in the exchange of DNA sequences via homologous recombination, and in the accurate repair of broken chromosomes via homology-directed repair pathways. In cells, heteroduplex DNA largely arises through the activities of recombination proteins that promote DNA-pairing and annealing reactions. Classes of proteins involved in pairing and annealing include RecA-family DNA-pairing proteins, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, recombination mediator proteins, annealing proteins, and nucleases. This review explores the properties of these pairing and annealing proteins, and highlights their roles in complex recombination processes including the double Holliday junction (DhJ) formation, synthesis-dependent strand annealing, and single-strand annealing pathways—DNA transactions that are critical both for genome stability in individual organisms and for the evolution of species. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the third leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and COPD with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been used to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy-based clinical trials in lung diseases.© AlphaMed Press 2013.

Sansoz F.,University of Vermont
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

Surface faceting on sidewalls is ubiquitously observed during crystal growth of semiconductor nanowires. However, predicting the thermal transport characteristics of faceted nanowires relevant to thermoelectric applications remains challenging. Here, direct molecular dynamics simulations show that thermal conductivity is considerably reduced in crystalline 〈111〉 Si nanowires with periodic sawtooth faceting compared to nanowires of same size with smooth sidewalls. It is discovered that surface phonon scattering is particularly high with {100} facets, but less pronounced with {113} facets and remarkably low with {111} facets, which suggests a new means to optimize phonon dynamics for nanoscale thermoelectric devices. This anomaly is reconciled by showing that the contribution of each facet to surface phonons is due to diffuse scattering rather than to backward scattering. It is further shown that this property is not changed by addition of an amorphous shell to the crystalline core, similar to the structure of experimental nanowires. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Cooperative Agreement | Program: | Phase: RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROV | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

Non-technical Description
Lake Champlain and its surrounding watershed are important to Vermont for tourism, agriculture, natural resources and drinking water. This region has recently suffered severe economic and environmental damage due to flooding, snowstorms, and other extreme weather events. In addition, storm runoff has impeded ongoing efforts to improve lake and drinking-water quality. Seven academic institutions within Vermont will leverage existing and new investments in technology, computational resources and human resources toward developing predictive and decision-making tools for improving drinking-water quality and protecting natural and human infrastructure in the face of increasing extreme weather events. Physical, biological and social scientists and engineers will collaborate in interdisciplinary teams to understand and model the Lake Champlain basin as a complex hydro-ecological-social system. Highly sophisticated physical and social models will be employed to better understand interactions between the natural and human components of Lake Champlain and the surrounding watershed. Team members will develop and provide hands-on educational opportunities and STEM training for middle-school, high-school, and undergraduate students and support research training for undergraduate, and graduate students and post-doctoral researchers. Early career professional development will target graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and early career faculty to further improve the STEM workforce within Vermont.

Technical Description
Research teams will apply a systems-based, highly integrated approach to determine when and where impacts of extreme events cascade through the combined social-ecological system. Extensive water- and soil-sensor networks will provide data to develop and validate physical models of the watershed. Surveys, workshops and interviews of stakeholders and governmental agents will be used to provide data for the social-science models. The social-science models will employ Deep Knowledge Neural Networks with dynamic algorithms to incorporate land-owner, land-user and policy-maker opinions and responses. An integrated model of the watershed will be used to test management scenarios and identify strategies for maintaining infrastructure, environmental health and drinking water quality in the face of extreme weather events.

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