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Valparaiso, Chile

The University of Valparaíso is a state public university in Chile, with its headquarters and the majority of its campuses in the city of Valparaíso. It has several other campuses in the Valparaiso Region of Chile and in Santiago, which is 100 km from Valparaiso.Taking its current name as an autonomous university on February 12, 1981, UV is heir to the most longstanding higher education tradition in Valparaiso and its region.As the major Pacific port south of San Francisco, Valparaiso was an important centre of business in the nineteenth century. Formal studies in law began at there in 1878. By 1911, teaching had evolved into Chile’s first regional School of Law, part of the national University of Chile .Two private universities would form in Valparaiso in the 1920s and 1930s—what would become Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso —as state-backed higher education was also consolidated under the aegis of the national Universidad de Chile system.In 1972, public university education in Valparaiso was organized as a Seat of UCH; UV inherited all of this except for the Teaching Institute, which would eventually become the basis of the Universidad de Playa Ancha. On February 12, 1981 the University of Valparaiso adopted its present name and autonomous form. The creation of public regional universities was an important component of the economic reforms undertaken under the military rule that lasted until 1990.UV is one of sixteen members of the Consortium of State Universities of Chile. All of these took their more or less current structure following a decision to divide the Universidad de Chile and the State Technical University into autonomous entities. UV and all state universities are among the 25 members of Chile’s Council of University Rectors ; these 25 are often referred to as the “traditional” universities, as opposed to the other “new private” universities. UV is also in the Grouping of Regional Universities of Chile, all of whose members are public and have been discussed together as public regional universities.Higher education contributing much to its economy, Valparaiso is Chile's "college town". Three other traditional universities are based in Valparaiso – UTFSM, PUCV and "Universidad de Playa Ancha" – all of these are organized more in a “campus” style than UV, although Católica has departments strewn throughout the city and branch campuses in the region. UV’s various faculties and schools form a university quarter the length of the plain 'of central Valparaiso, between the main UPLA campus in the south and in the north the main PUVC building. Wikipedia.

Cardenas A.M.,University of Valparaiso
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Endocytosis is a crucial process for neuroendocrine cells that ensures membrane homeostasis, vesicle recycling, and hormone release reliability. Different endocytic mechanisms have been described in chromaffin cells, such as clathrin-dependent slow endocytosis and clathrin-independent rapid endocytosis. Rapid endocytosis, classically measured in terms of a fast decrease in membrane capacitance, exhibits two different forms, "rapid compensatory endocytosis" and "excess retrieval." While excess retrieval seems to be associated with formation of long-lasting endosomes, rapid compensatory endocytosis is well correlated with exocytotic activity, and it is regarded as a mechanism associated to rapid vesicle recycling during normal secretory activity. It has been suggested that rapid compensatory endocytosis may be related to the prevalence of a transient fusion mode of exo-endocytosis. In the latter mode, the fusion pore, a nanometric-sized channel formed at the onset of exocytosis, remains open for a few hundred milliseconds and later abruptly closes, releasing a small amount of transmitters. By this mechanism, endocrine cell selectively releases low molecular weight transmitters, and rapidly recycles the secretory vesicles. In this article, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that define the different forms of exocytosis and endocytosis and their impact on vesicle recycling pathways. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Martin Gaskell C.,University of Valparaiso
Baltic Astronomy | Year: 2011

The general picture of how thermal AGNs work has become clearer in recent years but major observational puzzles threaten to undermine this picture. These puzzles include AGNs with extremely asymmetric emission line profiles, inconsistent multi-wavelength variability, rapid apparent changes in the sizes of emitting regions and in the direction of gas flow, a curious insensitivity of gas in some narrow velocity ranges to changes in the ionizing continuum, and differing dependences of polarization on gas velocity. It is proposed that all these puzzles can readily be explained by off-axis variability.

Neely A.,University of Valparaiso | Hidalgo P.,Julich Research Center
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2014

Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. © 2014 Neely and Hidalgo.

Landaeta M.F.,University of Valparaiso | Castro L.R.,University of Concepcion
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2012

Variability in Chilean hake reproductive tactics off central Chile was assessed by analyzing ichthyoplankton samples from nine oceanographic cruises (1996-2005) and through experimental trials with early life stages (eggs, yolk-sac larvae) during the main (austral spring) and secondary (late summer-early autumn) spawning seasons. Abundant eggs in the plankton (1300-2000 eggs per 10m 2) and historical adult reproductive data showed the highest reproductive activity in austral spring, with large egg aggregations near shelf break (50-100m depth). Large, recently spawned eggs (1.15-1.20mm diameter) were advected nearshore by coastward subsurface flows in the spring upwelling season. Experimental trials indicated that recently hatched larvae (3.4-3.5mm) consumed their yolk-sac (0.17-0.41mm 3) in 3-4days at 10-12°C; plankton sampling indicated that larval hake remained at mid-depth (50-100m) without showing daily vertical migrations until completing their caudal fin formation (~15mm). During the secondary reproductive peak, hake spawned nearshore, when smaller eggs (0.95-1.13mm) and recently hatched larvae (2.2-2.6mm notochord length) occurred in surface waters (0-10m depth). Their relatively large yolk-sac volumes (0.57±0.11 mm 3) provided endogenous nourishment for at least 5days at 10°C, according to experiments. In the field, preflexion larvae occurred mainly in the mixed layer (0-25m) and started ontogenetic daily vertical migrations at 7mm. A strong decline occurred after 2002 in the adult Chilean hake biomass (estimated by hydroacoustic surveys) and body size, coinciding with variations in spawning locations (more coastward in early spring 2004 and 2005) and decline in egg size. Thus, recent variations in Chilean hake reproductive tactics may reflect an indirect effect of declines in the parental population size. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. © 2015, Bull World Health Organ.All rights reserved.

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