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Valencia, Spain

The University of Valencia is a university located in the Spanish city of Valencia. It is one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain, and the oldest in the Valencian Community, and is regarded as one of Spain's leading academic institutions. The University was founded in 1499, and currently has around 55,000 students. Most of the courses are given through the medium of Spanish, but the university has promised to increase the amount of courses available in Valencian. Moreover, in some degrees part of the teaching is in English.It is located in the Mediterranean Spanish baseline, in the city of Valencia which is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 810,064 in 2008. One of its campuses is located in the metropolitan area of Valencia, in the municipalities of Burjassot and Paterna.There are three campuses:The Burjassot Campus houses the colleges of Biology, Pharmacy, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and the School of Engineering.On the Blasco Ibañez Campus the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Philosophy and Educational science, Psychology, Geography and History, Languages, Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Nursing.The third campus, Tarongers, houses the Schools of Law, Economics and Business, Social science, and recently the School of Elementary Teacher Training, which moved from its previous location near the Blasco Ibañez Campus.The University is committed to keeping and establishing links with universities world-wide, either through bilateral agreements or by taking part in international programmes and networks. Thanks to international exchanges, students from different nationalities and cultures live and work together at the Universitat de València.The Strategic Plan of the University of Valencia 2008-2011 is oriented towards excellence in teaching, research and cultural diffusion to society.The current chancellor is Esteban Morcillo Sánchez. Wikipedia.

Pereto J.,University of Valencia
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The origin of life on Earth was a chemical affair. So how did primitive biochemical systems originate from geochemical and cosmochemical processes on the young planet? Contemporary research into the origins of life subscribes to the Darwinian principle of material causes operating in an evolutionary context, as advocated by A. I. Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane in the 1920s. In its simplest form (e.g., a bacterial cell) extant biological complexity relies on the functional integration of metabolic networks and replicative genomes inside a lipid boundary. Different research programmes have explored the prebiotic plausibility of each of these autocatalytic subsystems and combinations thereof: self-maintained networks of small molecules, template chemistry, and self-reproductive vesicles. This tutorial review focuses on the debates surrounding the origin of metabolism and offers a brief overview of current studies on the evolution of metabolic networks. I suggest that a leitmotif in the origin and evolution of metabolism is the role played by catalysers' substrate ambiguity and multifunctionality. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Although evolution is a multifactorial process, theory posits that the speed of molecular evolution should be directly determined by the rate at which spontaneous mutations appear. To what extent these two biochemical and population-scale processes are related in nature, however, is largely unknown. Viruses are an ideal system for addressing this question because their evolution is fast enough to be observed in real time, and experimentally-determined mutation rates are abundant. This article provides statistically supported evidence that the mutation rate determines molecular evolution across all types of viruses. Properties of the viral genome such as its size and chemical composition are identified as major determinants of these rates. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis reveals that, as expected, evolution rates increase linearly with mutation rates for slowly mutating viruses. However, this relationship plateaus for fast mutating viruses. A model is proposed in which deleterious mutations impose an evolutionary speed limit and set an extinction threshold in nature. The model is consistent with data from replication kinetics, selection strength and chemical mutagenesis studies. © 2012 Rafael Sanjuán.

Pich A.,University of Valencia
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Precise measurements of the lepton properties provide stringent tests of the Standard Model and accurate determinations of its parameters. We overview the present status of τ physics, highlighting the most recent developments, and discuss the prospects for future improvements. The leptonic decays of the τ lepton probe the structure of the weak currents and the universality of their couplings to the W boson. The universality of the leptonic Z couplings has also been tested through Z→ℓ+ℓ- decays. The hadronic τ decay modes constitute an ideal tool for studying low-energy effects of the strong interaction in very clean conditions. Accurate determinations of the QCD coupling and the Cabibbo mixing Vus have been obtained with τ data. The large mass of the τ opens the possibility to study many kinematically-allowed exclusive decay modes and extract relevant dynamical information. Violations of flavour and CP conservation laws can also be searched for with τ decays. Related subjects such as μ decays, the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moments, neutrino mixing and B-meson decays into τ leptons are briefly covered. Being one the fermions most strongly coupled to the scalar sector, the τ lepton is playing now a very important role at the LHC as a tool to test the Higgs properties and search for new physics at higher scales. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pavon Valderrama M.,University of Valencia
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We discuss the possible power counting schemes that can be applied in the effective field theory description of heavy meson molecules, such as the X(3872) or the recently discovered Z b(10610) and Z b(10650) states. We argue that the effect of coupled channels is suppressed by at least two orders in the effective field theory expansion, meaning that they can be safely ignored at lowest order. The role of the one pion exchange potential between the heavy mesons, and, in particular, the tensor force, is also analyzed. By using techniques developed in atomic physics for handling power-law singular potentials, which have been also successfully employed in nuclear physics, we determine the range of center-of-mass momenta for which the tensor piece of the one pion exchange potential is perturbative. In this momentum range, the one pion exchange potential can be considered a subleading order correction, leaving at lowest order a very simple effective field theory consisting only of contact-range interactions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Pico Y.,University of Valencia
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In recent years, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has attracted growing interest, as it is an effective method for the rapid extraction of a number of compounds from food and environmental samples, with extraction efficiency comparable to that of classical techniques. In particular, recently, numerous analytical applications of this technique dealt with the extraction of natural compounds and pollutants from food and environmental samples.This review gives a brief presentation of the theory of UAE, discusses recent advances that influence its efficiency, and summarizes the main results in selected applications published in the period 2010-12. There is discussion of the advantages and the disadvantages of UAE and the possibility of coupling UAE with other analytical techniques. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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