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Salt Lake City, UT, United States

The University of Utah is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs. Graduate studies include the S.J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's only medical school. As of Autumn 2012, there are 24,840 undergraduate students and 7,548 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 32,388; with 83% coming from Utah and 9% coming from foreign countries. Just over 10% of students live on campus.The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pacific-12 Conference. Its football team has received national attention in recent years for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl.The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education. It received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, and moved to its current location in 1900. Wikipedia.

Hopkins P.N.,University of Utah
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2013

At least 468 individual genes have been manipulated by molecular methods to study their effects on the initiation, promotion, and progression of atherosclerosis. Most clinicians and many investigators, even in related disciplines, find many of these genes and the related pathways entirely foreign. Medical schools generally do not attempt to incorporate the relevant molecular biology into their curriculum. A number of key signaling pathways are highly relevant to atherogenesis and are presented to provide a context for the gene manipulations summarized herein. The pathways include the following: the insulin receptor (and other receptor tyrosine kinases); Ras and MAPK activation; TNF-α and related family members leading to activation of NF-κB; effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on signaling; endothelial adaptations to flow including G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and integrin-related signaling; activation of endothelial and other cells by modified lipoproteins; purinergic signaling; control of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, migration, and further activation; foam cell formation; and macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell signaling related to proliferation, efferocytosis, and apoptosis. This review is intended primarily as an introduction to these key signaling pathways. They have become the focus of modern atherosclerosis research and will undoubtedly provide a rich resource for future innovation toward intervention and prevention of the number one cause of death in the modern world. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Starykh O.A.,University of Utah
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2015

We review ground states and excitations of a quantum antiferromagnet on triangular and other frustrated lattices. We pay special attention to the combined effects of magnetic field h, spatial anisotropy R and spin magnitude S. The focus of the review is on the novel collinear spin density wave and spin nematic states, which are characterized by fully gapped transverse spin excitations with Sz =1. We discuss extensively the R - h phase diagram of the antiferromagnet, both in the large-S semiclassical limit and the quantum S = 1/2 limit. When possible, we point out connections with experimental findings. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Miller J.S.,University of Utah
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Magnets composed of molecular components that provide both electron spins and spin-coupling pathways can stabilize bulk magnetic ordering. This was first reported for the ionic, zero-dimensional (0-D) electron transfer salt [Fe(C 5Me5)2]+[TCNE]- (TCNE = tetracyanoethylene), which orders as a ferromagnet at Tc = 4.8 K. Later V[TCNE]x (x ∼ 2) was characterized to order above room temperature at 400 K (127 °C). Subsequently, numerous examples of organic- and molecule-based magnets have been characterized. In this critical review, after a discussion of the important aspects of magnetism pertaining to molecule-based magnets, including the determination of the magnetic ordering temperature (Tc) these magnetically ordered materials are reviewed from a perspective of the structural dimensionality (208 references). © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Carroll D.,University of Utah
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Current technology enables the production of highly specific genome modifications with excellent efficiency and specificity. Key to this capability are targetable DNA cleavage reagents and cellular DNA repair pathways. The break made by these reagents can produce localized sequence changes through inaccurate nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), often leading to gene inactivation. Alternatively, user-provided DNA can be used as a template for repair by homologous recombination (HR), leading to the introduction of desired sequence changes. This review describes three classes of targetable cleavage reagents: zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). As a group, these reagents have been successfully used to modify genomic sequences in a wide variety of cells and organisms, including humans. This review discusses the properties, advantages, and limitations of each system, as well as the specific considerations required for their use in different biological systems. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Wiessner P.W.,University of Utah
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Much attention has been focused on control of fire in human evolution and the impact of cooking on anatomy, social, and residential arrangements. However, little is known about what transpired when firelight extended the day, creating effective time for social activities that did not conflict with productive time for subsistence activities. Comparison of 174 day and nighttime conversations among the Ju/'hoan (!Kung) Bushmen of southern Africa, supplemented by 68 translated texts, suggests that day talk centers on economic matters and gossip to regulate social relations. Night activities steer away from tensions of the day to singing, dancing, religious ceremonies, and enthralling stories, often about known people. Such stories describe the workings of entire institutions in a small-scale society with little formal teaching. Night talk plays an important role in evoking higher orders of theory of mind via the imagination, conveying attributes of people in broad networks (virtual communities), and transmitting the "big picture" of cultural institutions that generate regularity of behavior, cooperation, and trust at the regional level. Findings from the Ju/'hoan are compared with other hunter-gatherer societies and related to the widespread human use of firelight for intimate conversation and our appetite for evening stories. The question is raised as to what happens when economically unproductive firelit time is turned to productive time by artificial lighting.

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