Ulm, Germany
Ulm, Germany

Ulm University is a public university in the city of Ulm, in the South German state of Baden-Württemberg. The university was founded in 1967 and focuses on natural science, medicine, engineering science, mathematics, economics and computer science. With 9,188 students , it is one of the newest public universities in Germany. Times Higher Education ranks it at no. 16 position among world's top 100 universities under the age of 50 years in 2014, thus making it the best young university in Germany. It ranks among the top five universities in Germany for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. It also frequently ranks as one of the top schools in natural science in domestic rankings.In 2007, University of Ulm was appreciated by German Universities Excellence Initiative and altogether financially endowed for International Graduate School in Molecular Medicine. In 2012, University of Ulm has been selected for 27th position by Academic Ranking of World Universities according to ratio of Academic staff to students indicator. The campus of the university is located north of the city on a hill called Oberer Eselsberg, while the university hospital has additional sites across the city. Wikipedia.

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A sensor (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) comprising a first diamond substrate (9) with at least one colour centre (15), the sensor (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) further comprising a first piezomagnetic (10) or piezoelectric primary element (11), which primary element (10, 11) is arranged to interact with the colour centre(s) (15) of the first diamond substrate (9).

Bechter K.,University of Ulm
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from reactivation related to persistent infection) may be involved and other pathomechanisms including dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier or the blood-CSF barrier, CNS-endogenous immunity and the volume transmission mode balancing wiring transmission (the latter represented mainly by synaptic transmission, which is often described as being disturbed in schizophrenia). Volume transmission is linked to CSF signaling; and together could represent a common pathogenetic link for the distributed brain dysfunction, dysconnectivity, and brain structural abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. In addition, CSF signaling may extend into peripheral tissues via the CSF outflow pathway along brain nerves and peripheral nerves, and it may explain the peripheral topology of neuronal dysfunctions found, like in olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, and even in peripheral tissues, i.e., the muscle lesions that were found in 50% of cases. Modulating factors in schizophrenia, such as stress, hormones, and diet, are also modulating factors in the immune response. Considering recent investigations of CSF, the ME schizophrenia subgroup may constitute approximately 40% of cases. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Grabrucker A.M.,University of Ulm
Developmental Neurobiology | Year: 2014

The establishment and maintenance of synaptic contacts as well as synaptic plasticity are crucial factors for normal brain function. The functional properties of a synapse are largely dependent on the molecular setup of synaptic proteins. Multidomain proteins of the ProSAP/Shank family act as major organizing scaffolding elements of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Interestingly, ProSAP/Shank proteins at glutamatergic synapses have been linked to a variety of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) including Phelan McDermid Syndrome, and deregulation of ProSAP/Shank has been reported in Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise molecular mechanism of the dysfunction of these proteins remains unclear, an emerging model is that mutations or deletions impair neuronal circuitry by disrupting the formation, plasticity and maturation of glutamatergic synapses. Several PSD proteins associated with ASDs are part of a complex centered around ProSAP/Shank proteins and many ProSAP/Shank interaction partners play a role in signaling within dendritic spines. Interfering with any one of the members of this signaling complex might change the output and drive the system towards synaptic dysfunction. Based on recent data, it is possible that the concerted action of ProSAP/Shank and Zn2+ is essential for the structural integrity of the PSD. This interplay might regulate postsynaptic receptor composition, but also transsynaptic signaling. It might be possible that environmental factors like nutritional Zn2+ status or metal ion homeostasis in general intersect with this distinct pathway centered around ProSAP/Shank proteins and the deregulation of any of these two factors may lead to ASDs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-11-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2017

Current orthopaedic treatments permit spontaneous bone regeneration to unite and heal 90% bone injuries. Non-union associates pain and disability, often requiring biological enhancement. Regenerative medicine research suggests to the general public that alternative treatments based on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are already available. However, early clinical trials only explore its potential benefit. Underreported results and absence of early trial confirmation in adequately powered prospective randomized clinical trials (RCT) indicate that evidence is not available to transfer any technique into routine clinical application. This ORTHOUNION Project was developed from FP7-Project (REBORNE). Its results confirmed 92% bone healing rate (Gmez-Barrena et al, 2016 submitted manuscript) with an autologous ATMP of GMP expanded bone marrow derived human MSC in non-unions, where the reported bone healing rate after surgery with standard bone autograft is 74%. Any further development requires adequately powered prospective RCTs. This will be the main aim of ORTHOUNION: to assess clinically relevant efficacy of an autologous ATMP with GMP multicentric production in a well-designed, randomized, controlled, three-arm clinical trial under GCP, versus bone autograft, gold-standard in fracture non-unions. A non-inferiority analysis will evaluate if cell dose can be lowered. ATMP has been authorized by the National Competent Authorities of the participating countries in 3 previous trials (REBORNE) and will be monitored by ECRIN-ERIC to ensure quality and credibility of RCT results. Secondary aims include innovative strategies to increase manufacturing capacity and lower costs to pave translation into routine clinical treatments, biomaterial refinement to facilitate surgery, personalized medicine supportive instruments for patient selection and monitoring, and health economic evaluation. Results in this project may help define the future of bone regenerative medicine

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-06-2016 | Award Amount: 4.61M | Year: 2017

Large-scale computing systems are today built as distributed systems (for reasons of scale, heterogeneity, cost and energy efficiency) where components and services are distributed and accessed remotely through clients and devices. In some systems, in particular latency-sensitive or high availability systems, components are also placed closer to end-users (in, e.g., radio base stations and other systems on the edge of access networks) in order to increase reliability and reduce latency - a style of computing often referred to as edge or fog computing. However, while recent years have seen significant advances in system instrumentation as well as data centre energy efficiency and automation, computational resources and network capacity are often provisioned using best effort provisioning models and coarse-grained quality of service (QoS) mechanisms, even in state-of-the-art data centres. These limitations are seen as a major hindrance in the face of the coming evolution of(IoT and the networked society, and have even today manifested in, e.g., a limited cloud adoption of systems with high reliability requirements such as telecommunications infrastructure and emergency services systems. RECAP goes beyond the current state of the art and develop the next generation of cloud/edge/fog computing capacity provisioning via targeted research advances in cloud infrastructure optimization, simulation and automation. Building on advanced machine learning, optimization and simulation techniques. The overarching result of RECAP is the next generation of agile and optimized cloud computing systems. The outcomes of the project will pave the way for a radically novel concept in the provision of cloud services, where services are instantiated and provisioned close to the users that actually need them by self-configurable cloud computing systems.

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