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Turku, Finland

The University of Turku , located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrollment, after University of Helsinki. It was established in 1920 and also has faculties at Rauma, Pori and Salo. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group. Wikipedia.


Tuomi M.,University of Hertfordshire | Tuomi M.,University of Turku
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. We re-analyse the HARPS radial velocities of HD 10180 and calculate the probabilities of models with differing numbers of periodic signals in the data. We test the significance of the seven signals, corresponding to seven exoplanets orbiting the star, in the Bayesian framework and perform comparisons of models with up to nine periodicities. Methods. We used posterior samplings and Bayesian model probabilities in our analyses together with suitable prior probability densities and prior model probabilities to extract all significant signals from the data and to receive reliable uncertainties for the orbital parameters of the six, possibly seven, known exoplanets in the system. Results. According to our results, there is evidence for up to nine planets orbiting HD 10180, which would make this star a record holder with more planets in its orbits than there are in the solar system. We revise the uncertainties of the previously reported six planets in the system, verify the existence of the seventh signal, and announce the detection of two additional statistically significant signals in the data. If these are of planetary origin, they would correspond to planets with minimum masses of 5.1 -3.2 +3.1 and 1.9 -1.8 +1.6 M on orbits with 67.55 -0.88 +0.68 and 9.655 -0.072 +0.022 day periods (denoted using the 99% credibility intervals), respectively. © 2012 ESO. Source


Lehtonen S.,University of Turku
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2016

Several names in the ornamental aquatic plant genus Echinodorus (Alismataceae) have remained dubious due to insufficient taxonomic descriptions, sterility of the type material, and apparent hybridism. Non-destructive (or nearly so) DNA sequencing methods provide means to match inadequate type specimens with other specimens in order to clarify nomenclatural instability caused by conflicting interpretations of poor type material. In this study, my aim was to shed light on several names of uncertain applicability in Echinodorus. © 2016 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Source


Helajarvi H.,University of Turku
Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja | Year: 2013

The health-promoting effects of physical exercise are scientifically proven, but the health risks of sitting still remain rather poorly known. Technological development of the society will by no means cut down sitting. Should too much sitting be considered as one of the independent factors increasing the risk of metabolic diseases and its reduction as a health-promoting measure? Innovative solutions made possible by the new technology to cut down on sitting and to increase physical activity may prove to be important future tools for promoting health. Source


Doku D.,University of Tampere | Koivusilta L.,University of Turku | Rainio S.,University of Tampere | Rimpela A.,University of Tampere
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2010

Purpose: Persistence of socioeconomic differences in smoking among adolescents over time is unexplored. We investigated the changes in smoking among 12-18-year-old Finns from 1977 to 2007 using multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) to determine whether differences between socioeconomic groups increase over time, with reduced smoking in higher socioeconomic groups. Methods: Nationwide biennial surveys were conducted since 1977 (response rate, 59%-88%; N = 96,747) using familial and individual social position (school performance/career) indicators. Associations between socioeconomic indicators and smoking were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results: Socioeconomic differences in smoking measured by familial SES or individual social position persisted over time, with higher rates in lower SES groups. Individual social position was more strongly related to smoking than familial SES. Differences between groups assessed by individual social position increased over time: the difference in smoking prevalence between groups with the lowest and highest individual social position among 12-14-year-old girls and boys, respectively, was 22% and 28% in 1977-1983, and 45% and 34% in 2001-2007; and in 16-18-year-old girls, 33% in 1977-1983 and 48% in 2001-2007. Smoking differences in relation to father's education increased over time: the difference in 12-14-year-old girls and boys, respectively, between the lowest and highest SES groups was 6% and 5% in 1977-1983 and 9% and 8.5% in 2001-2007; and in 16-18-year-old girls and boys, respectively, 7% and 10% in 1977-1983 and 13% and 14.5% in 2001-2007. Conclusions: Differences between socioeconomic groups among Finnish adolescents persisted or increased over 30 years, and predict differences in smoking-related diseases between socioeconomic groups in adulthood. © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved. Source


The mus309 gene in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a RecQ helicase which is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In a brood pattern analysis, it was observed that in mus309 mutant females, the frequency of single crossovers in the central cv-v interval of the X chromosome was reduced in young females but returned to the level of the wild type control as the females aged. In the proximal v-f interval, the frequency of single crossovers was increased during the entire experimental period. In particular, it was observed that the frequency of double crossovers, as well as the coefficient of coincidence first increased but then gradually decreased, finally reaching the level of the control flies, as the females aged. Map distances increased due to the mus309 mutation in both gene interval studies, but they did not change as the females aged, a result suggesting that the mus309 gene controls the distribution of DSBs to be repaired as crossovers instead of non-crossovers. The results suggest a mechanism for the centromere effect of crossing over in Drosophila, viz the fact the frequency of meiotic crossing over reduces with the age of the female, and that the reduction is more pronounced the closer the interval is to the proximal heterochromatin of the chromosome arm. According to the model suggested, the centromere effect is simply a matter of the balance between different pathways of the repair of the DSBs of DNA. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Pappila M.,University of Turku | Polonen I.,University of Eastern Finland
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

The article examines the role of public participation rights in the Finnish forest planning system and considers the need for improvement, with a particular focus on private forests. Public participation is approached here as one of the tools for achieving social and ecological sustainability in forestry. The paper shows that public participation rights are very limited in the forest planning and management schemes in Finland. Among other things, access to environmental information is restricted, which is exceptional in modern environmental and natural resource law. The article concludes that there is a need to strengthen the participatory elements in forest planning if the aim is to improve environmental and social sustainability in forestry. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Bolund E.,University of Sheffield | Bolund E.,University of Turku
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution. Source


Lehtonen T.K.,University of Turku
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2012

Male courtship behaviour is known to correlate with body condition and other aspects of male phenotypic or genetic quality. Females often prefer males that express the most intense or elaborate displays, although recent findings indicate that this should not always be the case; males may be strategic in their courtship displays, signal dishonestly or deplete their energy reserves with intense courting. To study reliability of courtship effort as a mate choice signal, I assessed multiple aspects of male courtship using wild-caught sand gobies, . Pomatoschistus minutus, in a controlled laboratory setting. I found consistent and repeatable between-male differences in courtship. However, females did not show a significant preference for males that courted intensively. Furthermore, other assessed male traits with a previously demonstrated role in sexual selection were not correlated with courtship effort. This indicates that courtship displays did not reliably signal male quality. The results also suggest that even when courtship has potential to convey useful information, females may have to trade between courtship and other cues they use in mate choice. Hence, to gain a more complete understanding of the selection regime acting on male courtship behaviour, and female preference for it, one should simultaneously investigate multiple factors that can affect female mating behaviour. © 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Source


Selonen V.,University of Turku | Hanski I.K.,University of Helsinki
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

In fragmented landscapes, dispersal abilities determine the potential of a species to colonize temporally unoccupied habitats. For example in territorial species, even the high-quality sites will be temporally unoccupied between the death of residents and recolonization by dispersers. This has implications for conservation management, because whether or not unoccupied habitats are worthy of protecting depends on likelihood that these sites will be recolonized in the near future. We analysed the ability of dispersing Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans (L., 1758)) to locate the preferred habitats. Dispersers encountered many patches of preferred habitat and, in the end, a majority of them successfully settled in these patches. The dispersal distance increased with increasing distance between patches, but settlement in preferred patches and short-term mortality were independent of dispersal distance or distance between available patches. We conclude that dispersers were effective in locating the preferred habitat in fragmented landscapes. Indeed, large interpatch distances partly explain that dispersal distances are longer in flying squirrels than usually observed in similar-sized mammals. For conservation management, our findings encourage managers to protect temporally unoccupied, high-quality habitats in addition to occupied habitats to promote a sustainable habitat network in space and time. Source


Salmela J.,University of Turku
Psyche (New York) | Year: 2012

Species richness of terrestrial and freshwater biota generally decreases with increasing latitude. Some taxa, however, show an anomalous species richness pattern in a regional or global scale. The aim of this study was to examine (i) regional variation in species richness, (ii) faunistic composition, (iii) occupancy, and (iv) proportions of different distribution types of Finnish crane flies. Analyses were based on incidence data pooled into 20 biogeographical provinces. Finnish crane fly fauna consists of 335 species; the provincial richness varies from 91 to 237. The species richness of all species and saproxylic/fungivorous species decreased with increasing latitude; mire-dwelling crane flies displayed a reversed pattern (Spearman's correlations). Thirty-one species occupied a single province and 11 species were present in all provinces. Provincial assemblages showed a strong latitudinal gradient (NMS ordination) and faunistic distance increased with increasing geographical distance (Mantel test). Nearly half (48) of the Finnish crane flies are Trans-Palaearctic, roughly one-third (34) are West Palaearctic, and only 16 and 2 are Holarctic and Fennoscandian, respectively. Endemic Fennoscandian species are discussed in detail; most likely there are no true endemic crane flies in this region. © 2012 Jukka Salmela. Source


Tuomisto H.,University of Turku
Oikos | Year: 2012

Ecologists widely agree that species diversity consists of two components, richness (the number of species) and evenness (a measure of the equitability of the proportional abundances of those species). However, no consensus on an exact definition of evenness (or equitability) has emerged. Instead, numerous equitability indices have been used in the ecological literature, as different researchers have preferred indices with different mathematical properties. In this paper, I show that the phrase 'species diversity consists of two independent components, richness and evenness' logically leads to one particular definition of evenness (Evenness = Diversity/Richness). To facilitate accurate communication, I propose that the term 'evenness' be used only to refer to this phenomenon, and that other terms be used for the equitability indices that measure other things. Here I provide a review of popular equitability indices, explain what each measures in practice, and show how they relate to each other and to evenness itself. I also explore how the partitioning of diversity into richness and evenness components is related to the partitioning of diversity into alpha and beta components. Dissecting the indices makes it easier to see the conceptual differences among them. Such understanding is necessary to ensure that an appropriate index is chosen for the questions at hand, as well as to interpret the index values correctly and to assess when index values can and when they cannot be considered comparable. © 2012 The Authors. Oikos © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos. Source


Tuomi M.,University of Hertfordshire | Tuomi M.,University of Turku | Jones H.R.A.,University of Hertfordshire
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. Estimating the marginal likelihoods is an essential feature of model selection in the Bayesian context. It is especially crucial to have good estimates when assessing the number of planets orbiting stars and different models explain the noisy data with different numbers of Keplerian signals. We introduce a simple method for approximating the marginal likelihoods in practice when a statistically representative sample from the parameter posterior density is available. Methods. We use our truncated posterior mixture estimate to receive accurate model probabilities for models with different numbers of Keplerian signals in radial velocity data. We test this estimate in simple scenarios to assess its accuracy and rate of convergence in practice when the corresponding estimates calculated using the deviance information criterion can be applied to obtain trustworthy model comparison results. As a test case, we determine the posterior probability of a planet orbiting HD 3651 given Lick and Keck radial velocity data. Results. The posterior mixture estimate appears to be a simple and an accurate way of calculating marginal integrals from posterior samples. We show that it can be used in practice to estimate the marginal integrals reliably, given a suitable selection of the parameter λ, which controls the estimate's accuracy and convergence rate. It is also more accurate than the one-block Metropolis-Hastings estimate, and can be used in any application because it is based on assumptions about neither the nature of the posterior density nor the amount of either data or parameters in the statistical model. © 2012 ESO. Source


Zhang H.,Aalto University | Liu D.,Aalto University | Shahbazi M.-A.,Aalto University | Makila E.,Aalto University | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

A multifunctional nano-in-micro drug delivery platform is developed by conjugating the porous silicon nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polymers and subsequent encapsulation into a pH-responsive polymer using microfluidics. The multistage platform shows monodisperse size distribution and pH-responsive payload release, and the released nanoparticles are mucoadhesive. Moreover, this platform is capable of simultaneously loading and releasing multidrugs with distinct properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Lietzen N.,University of Helsinki | Ohman T.,University of Helsinki | Rintahaka J.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Julkunen I.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Influenza A viruses are important pathogens that cause acute respiratory diseases and annual epidemics in humans. Macrophages recognize influenza A virus infection with their pattern recognition receptors, and are involved in the activation of proper innate immune response. Here, we have used high-throughput subcellular proteomics combined with bioinformatics to provide a global view of host cellular events that are activated in response to influenza A virus infection in human primary macrophages. We show that viral infection regulates the expression and/or subcellular localization of more than one thousand host proteins at early phases of infection. Our data reveals that there are dramatic changes in mitochondrial and nuclear proteomes in response to infection. We show that a rapid cytoplasmic leakage of lysosomal proteins, including cathepsins, followed by their secretion, contributes to inflammasome activation and apoptosis seen in the infected macrophages. Also, our results demonstrate that P2X7 receptor and src tyrosine kinase activity are essential for inflammasome activation during influenza A virus infection. Finally, we show that influenza A virus infection is associated with robust secretion of different danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) suggesting an important role for DAMPs in host response to influenza A virus infection. In conclusion, our high-throughput quantitative proteomics study provides important new insight into host-response against influenza A virus infection in human primary macrophages. © 2011 Lietzén et al. Source


Repo H.,University of Turku
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2015

Cohesin is one of the main regulators of sister chromatid separation during the metaphase/anaphase transition. It is a multiprotein complex consisting of 4 core subunits, one of those being the SA2 subunit. SA2 plays the final role in dismantling the cohesion complex from the sister chromatids and also functions in DNA double-strand break repair and gene regulation. There is increasing evidence regarding the involvement of both overexpression and underexpression of cohesin in cancer. Here, we present expression patterns of SA2 in different types of human breast tissue, and the prognostic analysis in the material from breast cancer patients with long-term follow-up. SA2 immunoexpression was evaluated in benign, precancerous, and malignant breast tissue, and was classified into low-intensity or high-intensity groups. The DNA content was determined by image cytometry on breast cancer cell imprints. Prognostic analyses were based on 445 breast cancer patients with upto 20 years’ follow-up. SA2 immunoexpression was equally high in both benign and precancerous breast tissue. Instead, 72% of the invasive breast cancers showed deficient SA2 expression. These patients were also associated with an unfavorable outcome as indicated by a 1.6-fold risk of breast cancer death (P=0.0208). The majority (75%) of the patients with low SA2 expression were alive 6.0 years after the diagnosis, whereas the majority of the patients with high SA2 expression survived 17.6 years after the diagnosis. No statistically significant association could be detected between SA2 immunoexpression and DNA aneuploidy. Our results and previous literature indicate that decreased SA2 immunoexpression is associated with malignant breast disease and a particularly unfavorable course of disease. Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Radevici I.,University of Turku | Radevici I.,Moldova State University
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2014

The luminescent properties of ZnSe, ZnSe:Cr (0.05 at.% Cr), ZnSe:Yb (0.03 at.% Yb) and ZnSe:Cr:Yb (0.05 at.% Cr, 0.05 at.% Yb) crystals, doped during the growth process by the chemical vapor transport method, were studied within the temperature interval of 6-300 K. At the 6 K temperature in the visible spectral range 2 bands were observed: a band in the excitonic spectral region and a band of self-activated luminescence. It was shown that co-doping of zinc selenide crystals with the chromium and ytterbium led to the combination of the impurities influence on the photoluminescent properties. At the liquid helium temperature in the middle infrared range of the spectra of the ytterbium and chromium co-doped crystal a band with the maximum localized at 1.7 μm was observed, which was overlapped with a complex band in the middle-IR spectral range, characteristic for the chromium doped ZnSe crystals. On the basis of obtained data an interaction mechanism of the chromium and ytterbium co-doping impurities was proposed. Guided by the existent model of the ytterbium ion incorporation in the selenide sublattice of the ZnSe crystals, an assumption about stabilization of single charged chromium ions in the zinc sublattice crystal nodes, by means of formation of the local charge compensating clusters, was made. It was assumed that the resonant energy transfer from one chromium ion to another, which led to the concentration quenching of the IR emission in the ZnSe:Cr PL spectra, would lead to the broadening of the IR emission in the spectra of ytterbium and chromium co-doped zinc selenide crystals. Source


Toivonen E.,University of Turku | Mutikainen P.,ETH Zurich
Annals of Botany | Year: 2012

Background and Aims: Plants exhibit a variety of reproductive systems where unisexual (females or males) morphs coexist with hermaphrodites. The maintenance of dimorphic and polymorphic reproductive systems may be problematic. For example, to coexist with hermaphrodites the females of gynodioecious species have to compensate for the lack of male function. In our study species, Geranium sylvaticum, a perennial gynodioecious herb, the relative seed fitness advantage of females varies significantly between years within populations as well as among populations. Differences in reproductive investment between females and hermaphrodites may lead to differences in future survival, growth and reproductive success, i.e. to differential costs of reproduction. Since females of this species produce more seeds, higher costs of reproduction in females than in hermaphrodites were expected. Due to the higher costs of reproduction, the yearly variation in reproductive output of females might be more pronounced than that of hermaphrodites. Methods: Using supplemental hand-pollination of females and hermaphrodites of G. sylvaticum we examined if increased reproductive output leads to differential costs of reproduction in terms of survival, probability of flowering, and seed production in the following year. Key Results: Experimentally increased reproductive output had differential effects on the reproduction of females and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, the probability of flowering decreased significantly in the following year, whereas in females the costs were expressed in terms of decreased future seed production. Conclusions: When combining the probability of flowering and seed production per plant to estimate the multiplicative change in fitness, female plants showed a 56 and hermaphrodites showed a 39 decrease in fitness due to experimentally increased reproduction. Therefore, in total, female plants seem to be more sensitive to the cost of reproduction in terms of seed fitness than hermaphrodites. © 2012 The Author. Source


Kossi J.,University of Turku
Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques | Year: 2016

Background: Adhesion formation after colorectal surgery is a well-recognized problem, and the ability of the laparoscopic technique to reduce adhesion formation is questionable. The present study compares adhesion formation after laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery. Patients and Methods: A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed through the stoma site at the ileostomy closure operation in patients who had undergone low anterior resection or ileal pouch anal-anastomosis. The laparoscopy was videorecorded, and the extent and severity of adhesions involving incisions, omentum, small bowel, and female adnexa were graded. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled into the study, and after exclusions 19 patients remained for the analyses. There was no difference in baseline characteristics of patients except in the mean (range) total incision length, which was 22 (21-23) cm in the open group and 10.9 (9-14) cm in the laparoscopic group (P < .001). The median (range) overall adhesion severity score was 7 (3-9) in the open group and 0 (0-4) in the laparoscopic group (P = .001). Similar differences were seen in overall extent and total score (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). In detailed analysis, incision and small bowel adhesions scores were also statistically significantly different, favoring laparoscopic surgery. Conclusions: According to the present study, although low in number of patients, laparoscopic colorectal surgery may result in fewer adhesions compared with open surgery. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source


Honkala J.,University of Turku
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2015

We study problems inspired by language theory in certain matrix monoids which are extensions of free monoids. In particular, we characterize free two-element sets, morphisms and morphic equality sets in these monoids. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Recent data indicate that persistent HR-HPV infections represent a significantly increased risk of developing incident high-grade CIN and cervical cancer. Accordingly, 6-month (6M+) or 12-month (12M+) type-specific persistence of HR-HPV have been proposed as powerful surrogates of progressive disease. Because of substantial practical impact in future HPV vaccine trials using non-HPV16/18 vaccines, studies on HR-HPV persistence as a surrogate endpoint of progressive CIN have been subject to a comprehensive meta-analyses recently. The present communication was solicited to bring this important and timely topic to the awareness of the readers, in a format consisting of a review of the recent literature, supplemented with the author's own experience from different studies. Based on a large number of relevant studies, there remains little doubt that persistence of HR-HPV for 6+ or 12+ months is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing incident high-grade CIN. However, some data also disclosed several important issues that need to be carefully considered and/or adequately resolved before adopting 6M+ or 12M+ HR-HPV persistence as a surrogate of progressive disease. These include i) definitions of HPV persistence, ii) HPV detection techniques and iii) testing intervals and iv) length of follow-up, as well as v) diagnosis of the surrogate endpoints, and vi) other study characteristics, including vii) the type of reference category used in calculating the risk estimates. All these issues are critically discussed in the present communication. Of major impact seems to be the reference category used to calculate these risk estimates, as evident from the NIS-LAMS cohort. Taken together, it is suggested that in all future studies using the 6M+ or 12M+ HR-HPV persistence as a surrogate endpoint of progressive disease, a "gold standard" should be used in calculating the risk estimates. In addition to deciding, 1) whether to use 6M+ or 12M+ persistence criteria, and 2) cytological, histological or combined surrogate endpoints (SIL, CIN1, CIN2, CIN/SIL), one should 3) use exclusively the HPV negative reference group in calculating the risk estimates for viral persistence endpoints. This is supported by the data from the recent meta-analysis as well as from the author's combined NIS-LAMS cohort, both implicating that the most consistent association to progressive disease is obtained when women with persistent HR-HPV are compared with HPV-negative women. It is the conviction of this author that the two other reference categories (HPV transient and HPV mixed outcome) are far too heterogeneous and subject to potential misclassifications to give consistent and reproducible risk estimates for HR-HPV persistence as a surrogate endpoint of progressive CIN. Source


Nuutila P.,University of Turku
Diabetologia | Year: 2013

The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is at epidemic proportions. Classical interventions aimed at targeting obesity, such as reducing energy intake or increasing exercise, are often not effective over the long term. In contrast to white adipocytes, which store energy, brown adipocytes generate heat via mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, thereby acting as a defence against hypothermia and, potentially, obesity. In this issue of Diabetologia, Admiraal et al compare brown adipose tissue activation during cold exposure between two different ethnic groups: South Asians and Europids. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes differs among various ethnic groups and decreased BAT metabolic activity could be one causal factor. As yet, the clinical impact of this 'rediscovered' organ is largely unknown, but has potential as a drug target for obesity. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Salmela J.,University of Turku
Entomologica Fennica | Year: 2011

A list of Finnish crane fly species is presented (Diptera: Tipuloidea). A total of 331 species are recorded from Finland and presented in a table (Limoniidae 192 spp., Tipulidae 113 spp., Pediciidae 19 spp. and Cylindrotomidae 7 spp.). Twenty-four species are formally reported for the first time from Finland (23 Limoniidae, 1 Tipulidae). Twenty-two species that were previously reported are deleted from the Finnish list (11 Limoniidae, 11 Tipulidae). Locality data, including the occurrence of species within Finnish biogeographical provinces, was available for all but one species. The southern provinces Ta (229 spp.), Ab (226 spp.) and N (203 spp.) are the most species rich; fewer species are found in the northernmost provinces (Le 128, Li 135 spp.). Ten species occur in all 21 provinces whereas 27 species are recorded only from a single province so far. A short review of the history of crane fly research in Finland is provided. © Entomologica Fennica. Source


Marusik Y.M.,University of Turku
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Pacifantistea ovtchinnikovi gen. n. & sp. n. belonging to Hahniinae is described on the basis of males and females from Moneron Island, Kuril Islands, the southern part of Maritime Province, the southern part of Kamchatka and Hokkaido. P. ovtchinnikovi sp. n. is the largest species among Hahniinae. The new species is compared in detail with other large-sized Hahniinae: Neoantistea magna (Nearctic) and N. quelpartensis (SE Palaearctic). The poorly documented affinities of these additional two species are discussed and illustrated. © 2011, Magnolia Press. Source


Saikkonen K.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Helander M.,University of Turku
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2013

Defensive mutualism is widely accepted as providing the best framework for understanding how seed-transmitted, alkaloid producing fungal endophytes of grasses are maintained in many host populations. Here, we first briefly review current knowledge of bioactive alkaloids produced by systemic grass-endophytes. New findings suggest that chemotypic diversity of the endophyte-grass symbiotum is far more complex, involving multifaceted signaling and chemical cross-talk between endophyte and host cells (e.g., reactive oxygen species and antioxidants) or between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies (e.g., volatile organic compounds, and salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways). Accumulating evidence also suggests that the tight relationship between the systemic endophyte and the host grass can lead to the loss of grass traits when the lost functions, such as plant defense to herbivores, are compensated for by an interactive endophytic fungal partner. Furthermore, chemotypic diversity of a symbiotum appears to depend on the endophyte and the host plant life histories, as well as on fungal and plant genotypes, abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, and their interactions. Thus, joint approaches of (bio)chemists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, and ecologists are urgently needed to fully understand the endophyte-grass symbiosis, its coevolutionary history, and ecological importance. We propose that endophyte-grass symbiosis provides an excellent model to study microbially mediated multirophic interactions from molecular mechanisms to ecology. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Varelius J.,University of Turku
Bioethics | Year: 2011

In this article, I consider whether the advance directive of a person in minimally conscious state ought to be adhered to when its prescriptions conflict with her current wishes. I argue that an advance directive can have moral significance after its issuer has succumbed to minimally conscious state. I also defend the view that the patient can still have a significant degree of autonomy. Consequently, I conclude that her advance directive ought not to be applied. Then I briefly assess whether considerations pertaining to respecting the patient's autonomy could still require obedience to the desire expressed in her advance directive and arrive at a negative answer. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. Source


Stern B.E.,RAS Institute for Nuclear Research | Poutanen J.,University of Turku | Poutanen J.,University of Oulu
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We re-analyze Fermi/LAT γ-ray spectra of bright blazars using the new Pass 7 version of the detector response files and detect breaks at ∼5 GeV in the rest-frame spectra of 3C 454.3 and possibly also 4C +21.35, associated with the photon-photon pair production absorption by the He II Lyman continuum (LyC). We also detect significant breaks at ∼20 GeV associated with hydrogen LyC in both the individual spectra and the stacked redshift-corrected spectrum of several bright blazars. The detected breaks in the stacked spectra univocally prove that they are associated with atomic ultraviolet emission features of the quasar broad-line region (BLR). The dominance of the absorption by the hydrogen Ly complex over He II, a small detected optical depth, and break energy consistent with head-on collisions with LyC photons imply that the γ-ray emission site is located within the BLR, but most of the BLR emission comes from a flat disk-like structure producing little opacity. Alternatively, the LyC emission region size might be larger than the BLR size measured from reverberation mapping, and/or the γ-ray emitting region is extended. These solutions would resolve the long-standing issue of how the multi-hundred GeV photons can escape from the emission zone without being absorbed by softer photons. © 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Forssell H.,University of Turku
Journal of orofacial pain | Year: 2012

To characterize pain related to primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in terms of intensity, interference, and distress caused by the pain, as well as factors influencing the pain across a period of 2 weeks, and to study the use of coping and management strategies on a daily basis. Fifty-two female patients with primary BMS completed a 2-week pain diary. Pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood on a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale (NRS), as well as pain amplifying and alleviating factors, were recorded three times a day. The use of treatments (medication or other means) and coping strategies were recorded at the end of each day. Coefficient of variation, repeated measures analysis of variance, and correlative methods were used to assess the between- and within-subject variation, pain patterns, and associations between various pain scores. The overall mean pain intensity score of the 14 diary days was 3.1 (SD: 1.7); there was considerable variation in pain intensity between patients. Most patients experienced intermittent pain. On average, pain intensity increased from the morning to the evening. Intercorrelations between pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood were high, varying between rs = .75 and rs = .93 (P < .001). Pungent or hot food or beverages, stress, and tiredness were the most frequently mentioned pain-amplifying factors. The corresponding pain-alleviating factors were eating, sucking pastilles, drinking cold beverages, and relaxation. Thirty (58%) patients used pain medication and 35% reported using other means to alleviate their BMS pain. There was large variation in the use of coping strategies -between subjects. There were considerable differences in pain, in factors influencing the pain, and in pain behavior across BMS patients. This indicates that patient information and education as well as treatment of BMS pain should be individualized. Source


Lonnberg T.A.,University of Turku
ChemBioChem | Year: 2012

A 2′-O-methyl-RNA oligonucleotide containing a single free 2′-OH group flanking a branching phosphotriester linkage was prepared as a model for phosphate-branched RNA by using an orthogonally protected dimeric phosphoramidite building block in solid-phase synthesis. The strategy allows the synthesis of phosphate-branched oligonucleotides, the three branches of which may be of any desired sequence. Hydrolytic reactions of the phosphotriester linkages in such oligonucleotides were studied at physiological pH in the presence (and absence) of various complementary oligonucleotides. The fully hybridized oligonucleotide model is an order of magnitude more stable than its single-stranded counterpart, which, in turn, is an order of magnitude more stable than its trinucleoside phosphotriester core lacking any oligonucleotide arms. Furthermore, kinked structures obtained by hybridizing the phosphate-branched oligonucleotide with partially complementary oligonucleotides are three to five times more stable than fully double-stranded ones and only approximately three times less stable than the so-called RNA X structure, which has been postulated to incorporate an RNA phosphotriester linkage. The results indicate that when the intrinsically unstable RNA phosphotriester linkage is embedded in an oligonucleotide of appropriate tertiary structure, its half-life can be at least several hours. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wheat C.W.,University of Stockholm | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Phylogenomic advances provide more rigorous estimates for the timing of evolutionary divergences than previously available (e.g., Bayesian relaxed-clock estimates with soft fossil constraints). However, because many family-level clades and higher, as well as model species within those clades, have not been included in phylogenomic studies, the literature presents temporal estimates likely harboring substantial errors. Blindly using such dates can substantially retard scientific advancement. We suggest a way forward by conducting analyses that minimize prior assumptions and use large datasets, and demonstrate how using such a phylogenomic approach can lead to significantly more parsimonious conclusions without a good fossil record. We suggest that such an approach calls for research into the biological causes of conflict between molecular and fossil signatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pena C.,University of Turku | Malm T.,University of Eastern Finland
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

There is an ever growing number of molecular phylogenetic studies published, due to, in part, the advent of new techniques that allow cheap and quick DNA sequencing. Hence, the demand for relational databases with which to manage and annotate the amassing DNA sequences, genes, voucher specimens and associated biological data is increasing. In addition, a user-friendly interface is necessary for easy integration and management of the data stored in the database back-end. Available databases allow management of a wide variety of biological data. However, most database systems are not specifically constructed with the aim of being an organizational tool for researchers working in phylogenetic inference. We here report a new software facilitating easy management of voucher and sequence data, consisting of a relational database as back-end for a graphic user interface accessed via a web browser. The application, VoSeq, includes tools for creating molecular datasets of DNA or amino acid sequences ready to be used in commonly used phylogenetic software such as RAxML, TNT, MrBayes and PAUP, as well as for creating tables ready for publishing. It also has inbuilt BLAST capabilities against all DNA sequences stored in VoSeq as well as sequences in NCBI GenBank. By using mash-ups and calls to web services, VoSeq allows easy integration with public services such as Yahoo! Maps, Flickr, Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and GBIF (by generating data-dumps that can be processed with GBIF's Integrated Publishing Toolkit). © 2012 Peña, Malm. Source


Ruuskanen S.,University of Turku
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in many taxa in generating phenotypic variation, affecting offspring development and fitness and thereby potentially adapting them to their expected environments. Androgen hormones in bird eggs have attracted considerable interest in past years, and it is frequently assumed that their concentrations in eggs are shaped by Darwinian selection. Currently, however, the data is scattered over species with very different life-history strategies, environments and selection pressures, making it difficult to draw any firm conclusions as to their functional significance for a given system. I review the evidence available as to the function, variation and potential adaptive value of yolk androgens (testosterone, T and androstenedione, A4) using one well-studied wild bird model system, the European flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca and Ficedula albicollis. These species both show genetic and environmental variation in yolk androgen levels, along with fitness correlations for the female, suggesting the potential for selection. However, variation in yolk T and A4 seem to be differentially affected, suggesting that maternal constraints/costs shape the transfer of the yolk steroids differently. Most of the environmental variation is consistent with the idea of high yolk androgen levels under poor rearing conditions, although the effect sizes in relation to environmental variation are rather small in relation to genetic among-female variation. Importantly, within-clutch patterns too vary in relation to environmental conditions. Yolk androgens seem to have multiple short- and long-term effects on phenotype and behavior importantly, they are also correlated with the fitness of offspring and mothers. However, the effects are often sex-dependent, and not universally beneficial for the offspring. Unfortunately, conclusive data as to the adaptive benefits of clutch mean androgen levels or within clutch-patterns in different environmental conditions is still lacking. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Vallittu P.K.,University of Turku
Dental Materials | Year: 2015

Objectives To present an overview of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) that are a group of non-metallic dental biomaterials used in several fields of dentistry. Methods A range of relevant publications from the past half century are surveyed, with emphasis upon recent publications. Results FRCs vary according to the type of fiber fillers and orientation of fibers, the latter being responsible for several properties which can vary from isotropic to anisotropic. The length of the fibers, i.e. the aspect ratio of the filler, is another factor or variable that contributes to the properties and the development of new types of composite resins for restorative and prosthetic dentistry, as well as to reconstructive medicine. Significance Understanding the anisotropic nature of FRCs from the perspective of dental applications has increased in recent years. This review describes some fiber orientation related anisotropic properties of FRCs which contribute to the increased use of FRCs in clinical dentistry. © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Paakkonen M.,University of Turku | Peltola H.,University of Helsinki
Pediatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

An acute osteoarticular infection in a child is most often hematogenous. The infection manifests as osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. Medical advice is usually sought within 2 to 6 days from the onset of symptoms. A child with an osteomyelitis in a lower extremity characteristically presents with limping with or without notable local tenderness, whereas acute septic arthritis is often readily visible because the joint is red, tender, and swollen. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment remain pivotal in avoiding complications in acute bacterial bone and joint infections. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Brommer J.E.,University of Turku | Brommer J.E.,Abo Akademi University
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2013

Studies increasingly explore whether there is variation between individuals in how they adjust their behavior to different environmental contexts using random regression analysis (RR). RR estimates the between-individual variance in elevation (expected behavior in the mean environment) and variance in plasticity (individual-specific adjustment of behavior to the environment) and the covariance between these properties. These (co)variances allow deriving both environment-specific repeatability estimates and the individual-level correlation in behavior between environmental conditions, both of which are of key interest for understanding consistency in behavior over space and time, a core issue in animal personality research. However, very few studies use the RR estimates to produce this information. In this paper, I outline how to extract this information (including example code in R) and apply the approach to 16 estimates based on nine published RR studies. Despite the fact that the behaviors have a decent repeatability under different environmental conditions, I find that in half the cases, the cross-environmental correlation is low (<0.4). This implies that individuals differ in their behavioral trait values but that the ranking of these individual values tends to change between environmental conditions. This level of inconsistency in animal personality traits appears not to have been fully appreciated, and future studies on plasticity using RR should explicitly include it. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Giordano S.,University of Turku | Victorzon M.,Vaasa Central Hospital
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in elderly patients. We evaluated our outcomes of LRYGB in patients aged ≥ 55 years. Methods: A total of 549 consecutive patients underwent LRYGB as primary operation and 132 were ≥ 55 years old. Patients were divided in two groups: group <55 years comprised 417 patients, with mean age (±SD) of 41.15 ± 8.47 years; group ≥ 55 years comprised 132 patients, with mean age of 59.43 ± 3.81 years. Mean preoperative body mass index was 47.01 ± 7.47 and 46.21 ± 7.47 respectively, whereas mean excess weightloss percent (EW%) was 88.06 ± 30.28 and 84.86 ± 29.87 %. Early morbidity (30 days) and outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months follow-up were evaluated. Results: Significant difference was found in operative time (84.19 ± 29.05 vs. 90.89 ± 30.95 min, p = 0.03). One conversion to open procedure occurred in group <55 years, whereas three occurred in group ≥ 55 years (p = 0.04). Intraoperative complications occurred in 22 patients (5.27 %) in group <55 years versus 19 in group ≥ 55 years (14.39 %), which was statistically significant (p = 0.001). One case of death occurred in the younger group. Overall postoperative morbidity rate was 18.7 % in group <55 years and 25.76 % in group ≥ 55 years, with no significant difference (p = 0.08). Mean EWL% at 12 months in group <55 years was 65.95.05 ± 26.96 versus 62.61 ± 41.78 in group ≥ 55 years, whereas at 24 months it was 65.08 ± 29.68 versus 64.48 ± 18.44 with no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.51; p = 0.92). Conclusions: LRYGB for patients ≥ 55 years achieves outcomes and complications rates comparable to the younger population. Patients should not be denied bariatric surgery for the age alone. © 2013 Société Internationale de Chirurgie. Source


Parker J.D.,Cornell University | Salminen J.-P.,University of Turku | Agrawal A.A.,Cornell University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2010

Both plant diversity and vertebrate herbivores can impact plant fitness and ecosystem functioning, however their interactions have not been explicitly tested. We manipulated plant genotypic diversity of the native plant Oenothera biennis and monitored its survivorship and lifetime fitness with and without one of its major vertebrate consumers, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Intense but unmanipulated herbivory by meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus killed over 70% of nearly 4000 experimental plants. However, plants grown in genotypically diverse patches suffered fewer vole attacks and had higher survival and reproductive output than plants in monoculture. Moreover, positive effects of genotypic diversity were enhanced by the presence of deer, indicating a non-additive interaction between diversity and trophic-level complexity. Genetic selection analyses showed that the selective value of ecologically important traits depended on plant diversity and exposure to deer, demonstrating that community complexity can promote fitness through multiple ecologically and evolutionarily important feedbacks. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Source


Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sihvonen R.,Hatanpaa City Hospital | Paavola M.,University of Helsinki | Malmivaara A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Itala A.,University of Turku | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, yet rigorous evidence of its efficacy is lacking. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial in 146 patients 35 to 65 years of age who had knee symptoms consistent with a degenerative medial meniscus tear and no knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly assigned to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy or sham surgery. The primary outcomes were changes in the Lysholm and Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) scores (each ranging from 0 to 100, with lower scores indicating more severe symptoms) and in knee pain after exercise (rated on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 denoting no pain) at 12 months after the procedure. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there were no significant between-group differences in the change from baseline to 12 months in any primary outcome. The mean changes (improvements) in the primary outcome measures were as follows: Lysholm score, 21.7 points in the partial-meniscectomy group as compared with 23.3 points in the sham-surgery group (between-group difference, -1.6 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.2 to 4.0); WOMET score, 24.6 and 27.1 points, respectively (between-group difference, -2.5 points; 95% CI, -9.2 to 4.1); and score for knee pain after exercise, 3.1 and 3.3 points, respectively (between-group difference, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.7). There were no significant differences between groups in the number of patients who required subsequent knee surgery (two in the partialmeniscectomy group and five in the sham-surgery group) or serious adverse events (one and zero, respectively). Conclusions: In this trial involving patients without knee osteoarthritis but with symptoms of a degenerative medial meniscus tear, the outcomes after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy were no better than those after a sham surgical procedure. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Medvedev A.S.,University of Oulu | Medvedev A.S.,University of Turku | Poutanen J.,University of Oulu
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to investigate a possible contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae to the population of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We first develop an analytical model for the evolution of the distribution function of pulsars over the spin period and find both the steady-state and the time-dependent solutions. Using the recent results on the X-ray efficiency dependence on pulsar characteristic age, we then compute the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of rotation-powered pulsars. In a general case, it has a broken power-law shape with a high-luminosity cutoff, which depends on the distributions of the birth spin period and the magnetic field. Using the observed XLF of sources in the nearby galaxies and the condition that the pulsar XLF does not exceed that, we find the allowed region for the parameters describing the birth period distribution.We find that the mean pulsar period should be greater than 10-40 ms. These results are consistent with the constraints obtained from the X-ray luminosity of core-collapse supernovae. We estimate that the contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars to the ULX population is at a level exceeding 3 per cent. For a wide birth period distribution, this fraction grows with luminosity and above 1040 erg s-1 pulsars can dominate the ULX population. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source


Mikkola S.,University of Turku | Tanikawa K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The logarithmic Hamiltonian leapfrog algorithm solves the two-body problem with only a phase error. This is true independent of orbital eccentricity and thus it provides an algorithmic regularization. The algorithm gives regular results even for collision orbits when the potential is of 1/r type and it can be used for substeps in connection with extrapolation methods to obtain high accuracy. This applies also in problems in which there are many 1/r-type singularities, such as the few-body problem. A new surprising result is that a simple modification of the logarithmic leapfrog produces exact trajectories also for the quasi-Keplerian problem with a 1/r2 term in the potential © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source


The taxonomic revision of Australian species of the genus Nemophora Hoffmannsegg is based on investigation of type materials of all described taxa. Lectotypes are designated for Nemotois opalina Meyrick, 1912; N. panaeola Turner, 1913; N. sparsella Walker, 1863; N. topazias Meyrick, [1893]; N. orichalcias Meyrick, [1893]; and N. selasphora Turner, 1913. N. topazias Meyrick, syn. nov. and N. selasphora Turn er, syn. n. are synonymized with Nemophora laurella (Newman, 1856). Two new species, Nemophora doddi sp. nov. and N. turneri sp. nov., are described from Queensland. The fauna of Australia currently includes seven valid species of Nemophora, which form a monophyletic laurella species-group. Keys to species based on external characters and on male genitalia are provided; adults and male genitalia are described and illustrated. © Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press. Source


Luoto P.,University of Turku
Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010

PURPOSE: Carbon-11 labeled N-butan-2-yl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide ([11C]PK11195) is a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) antagonist that is used as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical for neuroinflammatory imaging. This study was designed to investigate the radiation dosimetry of [11C]PK11195. PROCEDURES: Whole-body distribution kinetics of intravenously administered [11C]PK11195 in rats was assessed by means of dynamic PET imaging, and estimates for human radiation dosimetry were calculated. Rat plasma and various tissue homogenates obtained at different time points after intravenous injection of [11C]PK11195 were analyzed by reversed-phase gradient radio-HPLC method using online radiodetection. In addition, in vitro stability of [11C]PK11195 was determined in rat brain homogenate by incubation at +37 degrees C. RESULTS: PET imaging of rats showed the highest radioactivity levels in heart, kidneys, thyroid gland, liver, and lungs. The radioactivity cleared rapidly from lungs and slowly from heart and liver. However, much of the radioactivity retained in kidneys, which was in concordance with the observed low urinary excretion of [11C]PK11195. Extrapolating from the rat data, the effective dose of [11C]PK11195 for a 70-kg man was estimated to be 4.2 +/- 0.3 microSv/MBq. Five different radiometabolites were detected in rat plasma, and the level of intact [11C]PK11195 decreased from 80% +/- 11% (mean +/- SD) at 10 min to 44% +/- 5% at 40 min after injection. In rat heart, brain, kidney, and lung homogenates, more than 90% of total radioactivity originated from intact [11C]PK11195. In liver, however, the amount of [11C]PK11195 was approximately 70% and decreased over time, indicating metabolism by liver enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: [11C]PK11195 showed a fast uptake in many rat tissues and it was metabolized relatively fast in vivo, but not in brain in vitro. The estimated effective dose for humans speaks for the use of [11C]PK11195 in human PET imaging. Source


Lopez M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez M.,CIBER ISCIII | Tena-Sempere M.,CIBER ISCIII | Tena-Sempere M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Tena-Sempere M.,University of Turku
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Despite their prominent roles in the control of reproduction, estrogens pervade many other bodily functions. Key metabolic pathways display marked sexual differences, and estrogens are potent modulators of energy balance, as evidenced in extreme conditions of estrogen deficiency characterized by hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure, and leading to obesity. Compelling evidence has recently demonstrated that, in addition to their peripheral effects, the actions of estrogens on energy homeostasis are exerted at central levels, to regulate almost every key aspect of metabolic homeostasis, from feeding to energy expenditure, to glucose and lipid metabolism. We review herein the state-of-the-art of the role of estrogens in the regulation of energy balance, with a focus on their central effects and modes of action. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Okhotin A.,University of Turku
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

A famous theorem by Greibach ("The hardest context-free language", SIAM J. Comp., 1973) states that there exists such a contextfree language L0 that every context-free language over any alphabet is reducible to L0 by a homomorphic reduction-in other words, is representable as an inverse homomorphic image h-1(L0), for a suitable homomorphism h. This paper establishes similar characterizations for conjunctive grammars, that is, for grammars extended with a conjunction operator. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Source


Nurmi H.,University of Turku
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

This paper deals with the concept of manipulation, understood as preference misrepresentation, in the light of the main theoretical results focusing on their practical significance. It also reviews some indices measuring the degree of manipulability of choice functions. Moreover, the results on complexity of manipulation as well as on safe manipulability are briefly touched upon. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016. Source


Hayward A.D.,University of Sheffield | Holopainen J.,University of Helsinki | Pettay J.E.,University of Turku | Lummaa V.,University of Sheffield
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Severe food shortage is associated with increased mortality and reduced reproductive success in contemporary and historical human populations. Studies of wild animal populations have shown that subtle variation in environmental conditions can influence patterns of mortality, fecundity and natural selection, but the fitness implications of such subtle variation on human populations are unclear. Here, we use longitudinal data on local grain production, births, marriages and mortality so as to assess the impact of crop yield variation on individual age-specific mortality and fecundity in two pre-industrial Finnish populations. Although crop yields and fitness traits showed profound year-to-year variation across the 70-year study period, associations between crop yields and mortality or fecundity were generally weak. However, post-reproductive individuals of both sexes, and individuals of lower socio-economic status experienced higher mortality when crop yields were low. This is the first longitudinal, individual based study of the associations between environmental variation and fitness traits in pre-industrial humans, which emphasizes the importance of a portfolio of mechanisms for coping with low food availability in such populations. The results are consistent with evolutionary ecological predictions that natural selection for resilience to food shortage is likely to weaken with age and be most severe on those with the fewest resources. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source


Raudaskoski M.,University of Turku
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2015

In the filamentous basidiomycetes Coprinopsis cinerea and Schizophyllum commune, mating is regulated by the tetrapolar mating-type system consisting of two unlinked genetic complexes, named A and B. In the nineties, the molecular structure of A and B mating type loci and genes was revealed side by side in C. cinerea and S. commune, first the A complex and quite soon thereafter the B complex genes. The clear molecular structure of C. cinerea mating type genes has led to their use as models for genomic approaches to investigate several other filamentous basidiomycetes. In filamentous fungi, hyphal fusions are important for the distribution of available nutrients in a fungal colony. In ascomycetes and basidiomycetes they are also important for sexual reproduction. These aspects have been approached, especially in filamentous ascomycetes, but in filamentous basidiomycetes the role of fusions in the fungal life cycle has received less attention. Several proteins encoded by the genes required for hyphal fusion in filamentous ascomycetes show homology with proteins forming the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex in eukaryotic cells. Homologs to the genes encoding STRIPAK complex proteins can be identified in C. cinerea and S. commune genomes suggesting that a STRIPAK-like complex could also regulate hyphal fusions of filamentous basidiomycetes. The STRIPAK complex is a conserved signaling complex also homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Far complex involved in cell cycle arrest at yeast mating, while the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe SIP complex is involved in transition signaling from mitosis to cytokinesis. In filamentous basidiomycetes the signaling pathway regulated by the B mating type genes, the pheromone response pathway, is assumed to follow the same pattern as in the yeast S. cerevisiae. This poses an interesting question as to the relationship between the STRIPAK complex proteins and the proteins in cellular processes such as cell cycle, septal dissolution, nuclear migration, clamp cell development and fusion, known to take place after hyphal fusions. All these processes are also dependent on the activation of the B and A mating type pathways in C. cinerea and S. commune. © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Source


Makinen K.K.,University of Turku
Medical Principles and Practice | Year: 2011

Introduction: Dental caries is a diet-associated disease which continues to be a serious health problem in most industrialized and developing countries. Strategies to maximize caries prevention should automatically consider the use of sugar substitutes. It is important that public health authorities are made cognizant of the availability of new polyol-type sugar substitutes. Review Summary: Clinical studies have shown that xylitol, a natural, physiologic sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be used as a safe and effective caries-limiting sweetener. Habitual use of xylitol-containing food and oral hygiene adjuvants has been shown to reduce the growth of dental plaque, to interfere with the growth of caries-associated bacteria, to decrease the incidence of dental caries, and to be associated with remineralization of caries lesions. Numerous public regulatory bodies have endorsed the use of xylitol as a caries-limiting agent. Other sugar alcohols that have been successfully used as sugar substitutes include D-glucitol (sorbitol), which, however, owing to its hexitol nature, normally has no strong effect on the mass and adhesiveness of bacterial plaque and on the growth of mutans streptococci. A tetritol-type alditol, erythritol, has shown potential as a non-cariogenic sugar substitute. Combinations of xylitol and erythritol may reduce the incidence of caries more effectively than either alditol alone. Conclusions: Partial sugar substitution with polyols is an important dietary tool in the prevention of dental caries that should be used to enhance existing fluoride-based caries prevention programmes. The most effective method of conveying this information to the public is through a proper health claim for these alditols in food labelling. The present review summarizes clinical and biochemical aspects of the above three dietary polyols and emphasizes the role of sugar substitution as a potential health-promoting strategy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Vaartio-Rajalin H.,Novia University of Applied Sciences | Leino-Kilpi H.,University of Turku
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing | Year: 2011

This article will explore oncology nurses' patient advocacy activities and compare those activities with patient advocacy activities defined in an earlier study by the authors. Data were collected from 42 English-language peer-reviewed articles published from 2000-2010. Search terms used included cancer care and advocacy and oncology nursing and advocacy. According to the findings of the reviewed articles, oncology nurses promote the interests of their patients by analyzing patients' psychosocial and physical distress and care plans, particularly at the beginning of the illness trajectory. Oncology nurses also are instructed in the literature to educate patients about cancer management prior to the first treatment and during cancer management to promote informed consent, but not to analyze patients' information or self-determination preferences. Oncology nurses do, however, advocate for their patients by presenting and raising awareness of patients' needs and preferences in regard to the healthcare system. To some degree, this advocacy can be seen as responding to patients' care and self-determination preferences. Oncology nurses' patient advocacy activities are similar to advocacy activities defined in the context of procedural pain care but are more focused on the beginning of the illness trajectory. However, care and self-determination needs, information needs, and advocacy needs of patients with cancer vary during the illness trajectory. Those needs should be analyzed and responded to systematically. © 2011 Oncology Nursing Society. Source


Mazzola L.,University of Turku | Mazzola L.,Queens University of Belfast | Paternostro M.,Queens University of Belfast
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We present a scheme to prepare quantum correlated states of two mechanical systems based on the pouring of preavailable all-optical entanglement into the state of two micromirrors belonging to remote and noninteracting optomechanical cavities. We show that, under realistic experimental conditions, the protocol allows for the preparation of a genuine quantum state of a composite mesoscopic system whose nonclassical features extend beyond the occurrence of entanglement. We finally discuss a way to access such mechanical correlations. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Busch P.,University of York | Lahti P.,University of Turku | Werner R.F.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

While the slogan "no measurement without disturbance" has established itself under the name of the Heisenberg effect in the consciousness of the scientifically interested public, a precise statement of this fundamental feature of the quantum world has remained elusive, and serious attempts at rigorous formulations of it as a consequence of quantum theory have led to seemingly conflicting preliminary results. Here we show that despite recent claims to the contrary [L. Rozema et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100404 (2012)], Heisenberg-type inequalities can be proven that describe a tradeoff between the precision of a position measurement and the necessary resulting disturbance of momentum (and vice versa). More generally, these inequalities are instances of an uncertainty relation for the imprecisions of any joint measurement of position and momentum. Measures of error and disturbance are here defined as figures of merit characteristic of measuring devices. As such they are state independent, each giving worst-case estimates across all states, in contrast to previous work that is concerned with the relationship between error and disturbance in an individual state. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Pappila M.,University of Turku | Pappila M.,University of Eastern Finland
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

Trust is an integral element of a flourishing society. Trust can partly be created through trust-building institutions. This article scrutinizes the role played by forest certification in building trust at the local level of the forest sectors of Finland and Russia. The requirements for public participation of forest certification schemes are being used as a tool for analyzing the trust-building capacity of forest certification schemes. The need for "extra" trust is different in these countries. Hence, it is no surprise that forest certification plays different roles in trust-building in Finland and Russia. From the Russian experience we can learn that a non-state regulation can increase openness, participation and trust in a country of a low level of trust and very little participatory rights in environmental legislation. In Russia, trust-building can be a win-win situation, where participatory mechanisms can benefit all stakeholders at the local level. Yet, enhancing trust requires both procedural and substantive rights for local communities. In Finland participatory rights are in general well defined in environmental legislation. Forest legislation is, however, an exception, and forest certification has not been able to increase the amount of participation in forest management. The different trust-relationships are considered to be in conflict and especially the current interpretation of private ownership encumbers the local-level trust-building through participation and openness. It is therefore apparent that increasing openness would require wide public discussion and changes in Finnish forest legislation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ivanov V.,University of Turku | Ivanov V.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics | Rozhdestvensky Y.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in a four-level tripod system under an influence of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Position information of the atom is retained in the atomic internal states by an additional probe field either of a standing or of a running wave. It is shown that the localization factors depend crucially on the atom-field coupling that results in such spatial structures of populations as spikes, craters, and waves. We demonstrate a high-precision localization due to measurement of population in the upper state or in any ground state. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Chruscinski D.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Maniscalco S.,Heriot - Watt University | Maniscalco S.,University of Turku
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We propose a new characterization of non-Markovian quantum evolution based on the concept of non-Markovianity degree. It provides an analog of a Schmidt number in the entanglement theory and reveals the formal analogy between quantum evolution and the entanglement theory: Markovian evolution corresponds to a separable state and the non-Markovian one is further characterized by its degree. It enables one to introduce a non-Markovianity witness - an analog of an entanglement witness, and a family of measures - an analog of Schmidt coefficients, and finally to characterize maximally non-Markovian evolution being an analog of the maximally entangled state. Our approach allows us to classify the non-Markovianity measures introduced so far in a unified rigorous mathematical framework. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Rasanen T.,University of Turku
Environment and History | Year: 2012

In this article I wish to challenge the current scholarly consensus on the origins of modern environmentalism in Finland. Finnish environmental history literature has emphasised the assumption that Rachel Carson's Silent Spring transformed environmental ideas and policy in Finland, as it allegedly did in some other countries. Basing the argument on the scientific research on toxic pollution in Finland and Sweden in the 1960s and early 1970s, I argue that the decisive and transforming influence originated instead from Swedish science. It was only after Swedish scientists had presented evidence that the Swedish environment was severely contaminated by toxic chemicals that Finns launched their own research projects verifying these findings in Finland too. This caused a sense of anxiety among the Finnish public and galvanised not only the Finnish environmental movement but also Finnish society as a whole. The article concludes by sketching a preliminary model for further research on the birth of modern environmentalism. © 2012 The White Horse Press. Source


Koga S.,Kobe Design University | Rossiter H.B.,University of Leeds | Heinonen I.,University of Turku | Heinonen I.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

Resolving the bases for different physiological functioning or exercise performance within a population is dependent on our understanding of control mechanisms. For example, when most young healthy individuals run or cycle at moderate intensities, oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics are rapid and the amplitude of the V̇O2 response is not constrained by O 2 delivery. For this to occur, muscle O2 delivery (i.e., blood flow × arterial O2 concentration) must be coordinated superbly with muscle O2 requirements (V̇O2), the efficacy of which may differ among muscles and distinct fiber types. When the O2 transport system succumbs to the predations of aging or disease (emphysema, heart failure, and type 2 diabetes), muscle O2 delivery and O2 delivery-V̇O2 matching and, therefore, muscle contractile function become impaired. This forces greater influence of the upstream O2 transport pathway on muscle aerobic energy production, and the O2 delivery-V̇O2 relationship(s) assumes increased importance. This review is the first of its kind to bring a broad range of available techniques, mostly state of the art, including computer modeling, radiolabeled microspheres, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, and phosphorescence quenching to resolve the O2 delivery-V̇O2 relationships and inherent heterogeneities at the whole body, interorgan, muscular, intramuscular, and microvascular/myocyte levels. Emphasis is placed on the following: 1) intact humans and animals as these provide the platform essential for framing and interpreting subsequent investigations, 2) contemporary findings using novel technological approaches to elucidate O2 delivery-V̇O 2 heterogeneities in humans, and 3) future directions for investigating how normal physiological responses can be explained by O 2 delivery-V̇O2 heterogeneities and the impact of aging/disease on these processes. © 2014 by the American college of Sports Medicine. Source


Laaksonen T.,University of Turku | Lehikoinen A.,University of Helsinki
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

When many environmental changes take place simultaneously, one of the first challenges for conservation efforts is to identify the species and environments that are in the most need of conservation measures. We studied whether there are differences in the population growth trends of 94 boreal bird species according to their migration strategies, breeding distributions (northern or southern), or breeding habitats. To this end, we examined recent trends in bird census data covering >1000. km along a north-south transect in Finland, from the deciduous forests on the southern coast through the boreal taiga forest to the alpine fell area in the north. Our results show that long-distance migrants (species wintering in western or eastern Africa or Asia), northern species, and species living in agricultural environments are in decline in north-eastern Europe. The results were the same for both the long-term (27. years; 1986-2012) and the short-term (12. years, the most recent reporting period of the EU bird directive; 2001-2012) data set. Additionally, species breeding mainly in urban/sub-urban environments, coniferous forests, or wetlands showed negative growth trends, especially over the short-term. These results provide updated information that can be used to determine the targets of conservation efforts focused on Northern Palaearctic birds. Several different conservation measures may be needed to help these populations, ranging from protecting habitat in the migration and wintering grounds to changing climate and agricultural policies at a national and/or international level. In addition, further research is needed to identify the particular mechanisms underlying the population trends. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hilmola O.-P.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Lorentz H.,University of Turku
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the development and change in priority of international warehouse location criteria during a business cycle (i.e. from years 2006 to 2010), by examining the responses of Finnish and Swedish companies on their European-based facilities. The authors also investigate how the size of European warehouses will develop within medium term. Design/methodology/approach - The authors' research is based on three online surveys completed during years 2006, 2009, and 2010. The 120 respondents were large Finnish and Swedish companies. Findings - Finnish companies tend to focus on the emerging East European markets through their warehousing network structure, while Swedish companies focus more on Western Europe. Selection of warehouse location is dominated by three criteria, namely distribution cost, road transportation connection, and proximity of assembly and manufacturing units. Most of the longitudinal changes occur in less important warehousing criteria; companies seem to see warehousing decisions as less complex, incorporating a lower amount of criteria in the decision. Warehouse size analysis shows that in the future, the average size will slowly continue to increase, however, both small and large warehouses have justification for their existence. Finnish and Swedish respondents were mostly aligned in terms of warehouse location criteria, however, in terms of warehouse size Swedish companies are in favor of larger units. Research limitations/implications - Research is limited in terms of geography and respondent size. This will limit the generalizability of the results. Originality/value - This research is based on a longitudinal survey, and provides insight on the evolution of warehouse location criteria in changing economic conditions. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Heikkinen T.,University of Turku | Tsolia M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Finn A.,University of Bristol
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

Despite ample evidence for the great burden that annual influenza epidemics place on children and society in general, few European countries currently recommend influenza vaccination of healthy children of any age. The most frequently cited reasons for reluctance to extend general vaccine recommendations to children include the view that influenza is a mild illness of limited clinical importance, lack of country-specific data on disease burden, uncertainty about the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccines in children and inadequate evidence of cost-effectiveness of vaccinating children. In recent years, several clinical studies have provided new and important information that help address many of these areas of question and concern. In light of this newly available scientific evidence, influenza vaccine recommendations for children should be properly reevaluated in all European countries. Furthermore, to allow for variation in costs and patterns of healthcare delivery between different countries, cost-effectiveness analyses of influenza vaccination of healthy children should be performed in each country or region. Finally, increased efforts should be made to educate both healthcare professionals and the great public about recent findings and advances in the field of pediatric influenza. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source


Aro E.-M.,University of Turku
Ambio | Year: 2016

Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called “synthetic biology”, which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. © 2016, The Author(s). Source


Selonen V.,University of Turku | Hanski I.K.,University of Helsinki
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2010

How an individual selects resources of varying quality is essential for its future fitness. Decision rules that animals use to select novel items have long been studied in the context of mate and resource choice. We use this framework to study search phase of natal dispersal in the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans L.). This study gives further evidence for recent suggestion that the decision-rule framework is applicable to studies of information gathering during dispersal. We found that dispersing flying squirrels frequently revisited prospected sites, supporting comparative Bayes decision rule. However, this was the case during short-distanced dispersal, whereas long-distance dispersers used more sequential search. We suggest that although the dispersers might use comparative decision rules during short-distance prospecting around one location, it may not be advantageous to revisit previously found sites while performing long-distance movements. Source


Ahmed N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Wahlgren N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Grond M.,Kreiskrankenhaus Siegen | Hennerici M.,University of Heidelberg | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: In September, 2008, the European Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) randomised trial and the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (SITS-ISTR) observational study reported the efficacy and safety of the extension of the time window for intravenous alteplase treatment from within 3 h to within 4·5 h after stroke onset. We aimed to assess the implementation of the wider time window, its effect on the admission-to-treatment time, and safety and functional outcome in patients recorded in SITS-ISTR. Methods: Patients treated according to the criteria of the European Summary of Product Characteristics, except for the time window, were included. Patients were grouped according to whether they were registered into SITS-ISTR before or after October, 2008. We measured admission-to-treatment time and rates of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, mortality, and functional independence at 3 months. Findings: 23 942 patients were included in SITS-ISTR between December, 2002, and February, 2010, of whom 2376 were treated 3-4·5 h after symptom onset. The proportion of patients treated within 3-4·5 h by the end of 2009 was three times higher than in the first three quarters of 2008 (282 of 1293 [22%] vs 67 of 1023 [7%]). The median admission-to-treatment time was 65 min both for patients registered before and after October, 2008 (p=0·94). 352 (2%) of 21 204 patients treated within 3 h and 52 (2%) of 2317 treated within 3-4·5 h of stroke had symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·05-1·97; p=0·02). 2287 (12%) of 18 583 patients who were treated within 3 h and 218 (12%) of 1817 who were treated within 3-4·5 h had died by the 3-month follow-up (adjusted OR 1·26, 95% CI 1·07-1·49; p=0·005); 10 531 (57%) of 18 317 patients treated within 3 h of stroke and 1075 (60%) of 1784 who were treated within 3-4·5 h were functionally independent at 3 months (adjusted OR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95; p=0·005). Interpretation: Since October, 2008, thrombolysis within 3-4·5 h after stroke has been implemented rapidly, with a simultaneous increase in the number of patients treated within 3 h; admission-to-treatment time has not increased. Safety and functional outcomes are less favourable after 3 h, but the wider time window now offers an opportunity for treatment of those patients who cannot be treated earlier. Thrombolysis should be initiated within 4·5 h after onset of ischaemic stroke, although every effort should be made to treat patients as early as possible after symptom onset. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim, Ferrer, the European Union Public Health Executive Authority, and Medical Training and Research (ALF) from Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Teuhola J.,University of Turku
Information Processing and Management | Year: 2011

Sequences of integers are common data types, occurring either as primary data or ancillary structures. The sizes of sequences can be large, making compression an interesting option. Effective compression presupposes variable-length coding, which destroys the regular alignment of values. Yet it would often be desirable to access only a small subset of the entries, either by position (ordinal number) or by content (element value), without having to decode most of the sequence from the start. Here such a random access technique for compressed integers is described, with the special feature that no auxiliary index is needed. The solution applies a method called interpolative coding, which is one of the most efficient non-statistical codes for integers. Indexing is avoided by address calculation guaranteeing sufficient space for codes even in the worst case. The additional redundancy, compared to regular interpolative coding, is only about 1 bit per source integer for uniform distribution. The time complexity of random access is logarithmic with respect to the source size for both position-based and content-based retrieval. According to experiments, random access is faster than full decoding when the number of accessed integers is not more than approximately 0.75 · n/log2n for sequence length n. The tests also confirm that the method is quite competitive with other approaches to random access coding, suggested in the literature. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Choi E.,Princeton University | Ostriker J.P.,Princeton University | Ostriker J.P.,Institute of Astronomy | Naab T.,Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We study the growth of black holes (BHs) in galaxies using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with new implementations of the momentum mechanical feedback, and restriction of accreted elements to those that are gravitationally bound to the BH. We also include the feedback from the X-ray radiation emitted by the BH, which heats the surrounding gas in the host galaxies, and adds radial momentum to the fluid. We perform simulations of isolated galaxies and merging galaxies and test various feedback models with the new treatment of the Bondi radius criterion. We find that overall the BH growth is similar to what has been obtained by earlier works using the Springel, Di Matteo, & Hernquist algorithms. However, the outflowing wind velocities and mechanical energy emitted by winds are considerably higher (v w 1000-3000kms-1) compared to the standard thermal feedback model (v w 50-100kms-1). While the thermal feedback model emits only 0.1% of BH released energy in winds, the momentum feedback model emits more than 30% of the total energy released by the BH in winds. In the momentum feedback model, the degree of fluctuation in both radiant and wind output is considerably larger than in standard treatments. We check that the new model of BH mass accretion agrees with analytic results for the standard Bondi problem. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source


Ketola T.,University of Turku
International Journal of Technology Management | Year: 2012

This paper introduces through an empirical study the concept of Fair Business, which integrates Fair Purchases, Fair Production and Fair Sales. The idea behind Fair Business is to implement all areas of corporate responsibility - environmental, socio-cultural and economic responsibility - in the whole production chain, from purchases to sales - and beyond, from sales back to purchases, completing the cycle. Fair Business is fair to both humans and nature. The empirical study examines the level of Fair Business of Globe Hope Ltd., a small Finnish fashion design company. It analyses Globe Hope's levels of environmental, socio-cultural and economic responsibility with assistance of five-step scales, and draws conclusions on its levels of Fair Purchases, Fair Production and Fair Sales, leading to the final conclusions on Globe Hope's level of Fair Business and on research and managerial implications of the Fair Business draft model. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Wang P.,University of Turku
International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations | Year: 2016

With the pervasion of information and communication technology (ICT), the valence of user-generated content is an increasing important antecedent affecting customer's decision-making. The influence is especially significant in the tourism and hospitality industry due to its nature of intangible and experiential. In order to better understand the influence process of electronic word-of-mouth on travel destination decision-making, an integrated model based on the two well-tested model, elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and theory of planned behaviour (TPB), is proposed in the paper. The moderate role of cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance is taken into account in the model. Altogether nine hypotheses are given based on the research model. Implications for theory and practice of this research are discussed, and limitations and future research are also given. © Copyright 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Korkeila J.,University of Turku
Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja | Year: 2012

Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling. Source


Uusi-Oukari M.,University of Turku | Korpi E.R.,University of Helsinki
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2010

The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor system, the main fast-acting inhibitory neurotransmitter system in the brain, is the pharmacological target for many drugs used clinically to treat, for example, anxiety disorders and epilepsy, and to induce and maintain sedation, sleep, and anesthesia. These drugs facilitate the function of pentameric GABAA receptors that exhibit widespread expression in all brain regions and large structural and pharmacological heterogeneity as a result of composition from a repertoire of 19 subunit variants. One of the main problems in clinical use of GABAA receptor agonists is the development of tolerance. Most drugs, in long-term use and during withdrawal, have been associated with important modulations of the receptor subunit expression in brain-region-specific manner, participating in the mechanisms of tolerance and dependence. In most cases, the molecular mechanisms of regulation of subunit expression are poorly known, partly as a result of neurobiological adaptation to altered neuronal function. More knowledge has been obtained on the mechanisms of GABAA receptor trafficking and cell surface expression and the processes that may contribute to tolerance, although their possible pharmacological regulation is not known. Drug development for neuropsychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, alcoholism, schizophrenia, and anxiety, has been ongoing for several years. One key step to extend drug development related to GABAA receptors is likely to require deeper understanding of the adaptational mechanisms of neurons, receptors themselves with interacting proteins, and finally receptor subunits during drug action and in neuropsychiatric disease processes. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Jenkins J.S.,University of Chile | Tuomi M.,University of Chile | Tuomi M.,University of Hertfordshire | Tuomi M.,University of Turku
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Gaining a better understanding of the effects of stellar-induced radial velocity noise is critical for the future of exoplanet studies since the discovery of the lowest-mass planets using this method will require us to go below the intrinsic stellar noise limit. An interesting test case in this respect is that of the southern solar analog HD 41248. The radial velocity time series of this star has been proposed to contain either a pair of signals with periods of around 18 and 25 days, which could be due to a pair of resonant super-Earths, or a single and varying 25 day signal that could arise due to a complex interplay between differential rotation and modulated activity. In this work, we build up more evidence for the former scenario, showing that the signals are still clearly significant, even after more than 10 yr of observations, and they likely do not change in period, amplitude, or phase as a function of time, the hallmarks of static Doppler signals. We show that over the last two observing seasons, this star was more intrinsically active and the noise reddened, highlighting why better noise models are needed to find the lowest amplitude signals, in particular, models that consider noise correlations. This analysis shows that there is still sufficient evidence for the existence of two super-Earths on the edge of, or locked into, a 7:5 mean motion resonance orbiting HD 41248. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source


Paturi P.,University of Turku
Superconductor Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The vortex path model is applied to Jc() data of YBa 2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) thin films with different densities and types of columnar defects. The films were prepared by laser deposition from micro-and nanograined undoped and BaZrO3-doped nanograined targets. It is found that in the ab-axis direction the model gives parameters which can be interpreted in terms of vortices trapped in the Cu-O spacer layers. In the c direction the model gives estimates of average vortex path shapes and explains the shoulders close to the ab peak frequently observed in the Jc() data without the need for assuming changes in the electronic mass anisotropy. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Lehtonen T.K.,University of Turku | Lehtonen T.K.,Abo Akademi University
Oecologia | Year: 2014

Discrete colour morphs have provided important insights into the evolution of phenotypic diversity. One of the mechanisms that can help to explain coexistence of ecologically similar colour morphs and incipient species is (colour) biased aggression, which has the potential to promote continued existence of the morphs in a frequency-dependent manner. I addressed colour biases in territorial aggression in a field-based study on a Neotropical cichlid fish species, Amphilophus sagittae, which has two ecologically indistinguishable colour morphs that mate assortatively. I found that A. sagittae, in particular females, were more aggressive towards models of their own colour than those mimicking colours of the other morph. Such a behavioural pattern should result in a selection regime that benefits the rarer morph, and hence could help explain how novel, rare phenotypes may avoid competitive exclusion. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Korhonen H.J.,Durham University | Korhonen H.J.,University of Turku | Conway L.P.,Durham University | Hodgson D.R.W.,Durham University
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable phosphate analogues have provided insight into the nature and sites of phosphoryl transfer processes. Kinetic isotope effects and crystallography using transition state analogues have painted more detailed pictures of transition states and how enzymes work to stabilise them. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Siipi H.,University of Turku
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics | Year: 2015

This paper argues for the following four claims: (a) the terms “natural” and “unnatural” are ambiguous. (b) Genetically modified food is unnatural in some senses of the term “unnatural”. (c) Natural food should be favored over unnatural food in some senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. (d) Genetically modified food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not genetically modified. The claims are defended by distinguishing four different senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. Each sense is analyzed with respect to its moral relevance for food choice. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Brommer J.E.,University of Turku
Current Biology | Year: 2014

The evolution of a senescent decline in the performance of organisms as they grow old is thought to be an unavoidable aspect of life. A genotype-age interaction in performance is the 'fingerprint' of evolved senescence, which has now for the first time been detected in a plant. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Parvinen K.,University of Turku | Parvinen K.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis
Theoretical Population Biology | Year: 2013

We investigate the joint evolution of public goods cooperation and dispersal in a metapopulation model with small local populations. Altruistic cooperation can evolve due to assortment and kin selection, and dispersal can evolve because of demographic stochasticity, catastrophes and kin selection. Metapopulation structures resulting in assortment have been shown to make selection for cooperation possible. But how does dispersal affect cooperation and vice versa, when both are allowed to evolve as continuous traits? We found four qualitatively different evolutionary outcomes. (1) Monomorphic evolution to full defection with positive dispersal. (2) Monomorphic evolution to an evolutionarily stable state with positive cooperation and dispersal. In this case, parameter changes selecting for increased cooperation typically also select for increased dispersal. (3) Evolutionary branching can result in the evolutionarily stable coexistence of defectors and cooperators. Although defectors could be expected to disperse more than cooperators, here we show that the opposite case is also possible: Defectors tend to disperse less than cooperators when the total amount of cooperation in the dimorphic population is low enough. (4) Selection for too low cooperation can cause the extinction of the evolving population. For moderate catastrophe rates dispersal needs to be initially very frequent for evolutionary suicide to occur. Although selection for less dispersal in principle could prevent such evolutionary suicide, in most cases this rescuing effect is not sufficient, because selection in the cooperation trait is typically much stronger. If the catastrophe rate is large enough, a part of the boundary of viability can be evolutionarily attracting with respect to both strategy components, in which case evolutionary suicide is expected from all initial conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sillanpaa M.,University of Turku | Shinnar S.,Yeshiva University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: There are few studies on long-term mortality in prospectively followed, well-characterized cohorts of children with epilepsy. We report on long-term mortality in a Finnish cohort of subjects with a diagnosis of epilepsy in childhood. Methods: We assessed seizure outcomes and mortality in a population-based cohort of 245 children with a diagnosis of epilepsy in 1964; this cohort was prospectively followed for 40 years. Rates of sudden, unexplained death were estimated. The very high autopsy rate in the cohort allowed for a specific diagnosis in almost all subjects. Results: Sixty subjects died (24%); this rate is three times as high as the expected age-and sex-adjusted mortality in the general population. The subjects who died included 51 of 107 subjects (48%) who were not in 5-year terminal remission (i.e., ≥5 years seizure-free at the time of death or last follow-up). A remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy (i.e., a major neurologic impairment or insult) was also associated with an increased risk of death as compared with an idiopathic or cryptogenic cause (37% vs. 12%, P<0.001). Of the 60 deaths, 33 (55%) were related to epilepsy, including sudden, unexplained death in 18 subjects (30%), definite or probable seizure in 9 (15%), and accidental drowning in 6 (10%). The deaths that were not related to epilepsy occurred primarily in subjects with remote symptomatic epilepsy. The cumulative risk of sudden, unexplained death was 7% at 40 years overall and 12% in an analysis that was limited to subjects who were not in long-term remission and not receiving medication. Among subjects with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy, there were no sudden, unexplained deaths in subjects younger than 14 years of age. Conclusions: Childhood-onset epilepsy was associated with a substantial risk of epilepsy-related death, including sudden, unexplained death. The risk was especially high among children who were not in remission. (Funded by the Finnish Epilepsy Research Foundation.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Jaaskelainen S.K.,University of Turku
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is severe, disabling and chronic intraoral pain condition for which no local or systemic cause can be found and clinical examination is normal. It mostly affects elderly citizens, especially postmenopausal women with prevalence up to 12-18%. In addition to spontaneous burning pain, patients may complain of taste alterations. Recent neurophysiologic, psychophysical, neuropathological, and functional imaging studies have elucidated that several neuropathic mechanisms, mostly subclinical, act at different levels of the neuraxis and contribute to the pathophysiology of primary BMS. Demonstration of loss of small diameter nerve fibres in the tongue epithelium explains thermal hypoesthesia and increase in taste detection thresholds found in quantitative sensory testing. As in neuropathic pain, decreased brain activation to heat stimuli has been demonstrated with fMRI in BMS patients. However, it seems that the clinical diagnosis of primary BMS encompasses at least three distinct, subclinical neuropathic pain states that may overlap in individual patients. The first subgroup (50-65%) is characterized by peripheral small diameter fibre neuropathy of intraoral mucosa. The second subgroup (20-25%) consists of patients with subclinical lingual, mandibular, or trigeminal system pathology that can be dissected with careful neurophysiologic examination but is clinically indistinguishable from the other two subgroups. The third subgroup (20-40%) fits the concept of central pain that may be related to hypofunction of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. The neurogenic factors acting in these subgroups differ, and will require different treatment strategies. In the future, with proper use of diagnostic tests, BMS patients may benefit from interventions specifically targeted at the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Source


Sillanpaa M.,University of Turku | Schmidt D.,Epilepsy Research Group
Brain | Year: 2012

Given the grave morbidity and mortality of drug-resistant epilepsy, it is of great clinical interest to determine how often prior proven drug-resistant epilepsy is reversible without surgery and whether remission can be predicted by clinical features in children with incident drug-resistant epilepsy. We determined the likelihood of 1-, 2- and 5-year seizure remission and terminal 5-year seizure remission after the first adequate drug regimen in a population-based cohort of 102 medically treated patients with incident, i.e. first-ever occurrence of drug-resistant epilepsy, as defined by the International League against Epilepsy. Among the 102 patients, 98 had focal seizures (68 symptomatic and 30 idiopathic/cryptogenic), one had generalized convulsive seizures and three had unclassified seizures. At the end of the 40.5-year median follow-up from the onset of adequate medication before the age of 16 years, 84 (82%) of 102 patients with incident drug-resistant epilepsy eventually entered one or more 1-year remissions, 81 (79%) one or more 2-year remissions, 70 (69%) one or more 5-year remissions and 52 (51%) of 102 5-year terminal remissions. In contrast, 18 (18%) of 102 patients with incident drug-resistant epilepsy never entered any 1-year remission, 21 (21%) 2-year remission, 32 (31%) 5-year remission and 50 (49%) of 102 any 5-year terminal remission. On multivariate analysis of clinical features, in every remission category, idiopathic or cryptogenic aetiology was the only significant predictor of entering remission. Incident drug-resistant epilepsy is eventually reversible in 49-79% of patients with mostly focal epilepsy, resulting in long-term remission of variable duration. Idiopathic or cryptogenic aetiology is a clinical predictor of reversible drug-resistant epilepsy. © The Author (2012). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. Source


A bias in reproduction towards sons, which are energetically more costly than daughters, has been suggested to shorten parental lifespan, but previous results have been mixed. Reproductive costs should be most evident in low rather than high resource settings, and are not expected to be severe in men, because women pay higher direct costs of reproduction. We, therefore, used demographic data from pre-industrial Finland to investigate whether the number of sons and daughters born affected their parents' post-reproductive survival and whether this was related to parent's resource availability. Irrespective of access to resources, mothers, but not fathers, with many sons suffered from reduced post-reproductive survival, and this association decreased as mothers aged. Our results provide evidence that Finnish mothers traded long post-reproductive lifespan for giving birth to many sons. Source


Ingman P.,Umea University | Driver G.W.,University of Turku
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

Knowledge of ionicity is requisite for successful identification of those salt qualities required to design and couple the most appropriate fluid for performance of an intended chemical function. We report on utilisation of 35Cl- quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) to quantitatively assess the ionicities of given chloride salts, by exploiting the electronic response of the quadrupolar chlorine atom as a function of its immediate chemical environment. We find that protic salts in particular, like their aprotic analogues, are highly ionised, while at the same time being highly associated, in stark contrast to literature reports claiming in general that they are of sub-ionic origin. © 2012 the Owner Societies. Source


Galambosi P.J.,University of Helsinki | Ulander V.-M.,University of Helsinki | Kaaja R.J.,University of Turku
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2014

Introduction Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is a challenging topic with relatively few publications. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and the risk factors of recurrent antepartum VTE in women with a history of at least one previous VTE episode. Materials and Methods This observational cohort study involved 270 pregnant women (369 pregnancies) with at least one previous episode of VTE. The risk factors of recurrent antepartum VTE were identified by using group A (women without recurrent venous thromboembolism VTE) as a control group for group B (women with recurrent VTE despite LMWH (low molecular weight heparin) prophylaxis) and C (women with VTE recurrence in early pregnancy before the planned initiation of LMWH prophylaxis). Results and Conclusions The incidence of recurrent VTE was 7.6% (n = 28). Twelve recurrent VTEs in ten women (3.3%) developed during early pregnancy before initiation of LMWH and sixteen recurrent VTEs (4.3%) developed in 15 women despite LMWH prophylaxis. In women with recurrent antepartum VTE, the incidence of a history of two or more previous VTEs (group A vs. B: 5.7% vs. 40.0%, p < 0.001; group A vs. C: 5.7% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.022), previous VTE in connection with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (group A vs. B: 2.6% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.012) and a history of VTE related to hormonal risk factors (group A vs. B: 60.4% vs. 93.3%, p = 0.011) was significantly higher compared to those with successful LMWH-prophylaxis. The percentage of the women with long-term anticoagulation was also significantly higher among the women with recurrent antepartum VTE (group A vs. B: 7.6% vs. 46.7%, p < 0.001) compared to those with successful LMWH-prophylaxis. The risk of antepartum recurrent VTE is considerable in women with a history of two or more previous VTEs, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome or long-term anticoagulation. The antepartum prophylaxis with prophylactic dose of LMWH or even with intermediate dose of LMWH might not be sufficient in this high-risk population. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Santos H.A.,Aalto University | Makila E.,Aalto University | Makila E.,University of Turku | Airaksinen A.J.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

The research on porous silicon (PSi) materials for biomedical applications has expanded greatly since the early studies of Leigh Canham more than 25 years ago. Currently, PSi nanoparticles are receiving growing attention from the scientific biomedical community. These nanostructured materials have emerged as promising multifunctional and versatile platforms for nanomedicine in drug delivery, diagnostics and therapy. The outstanding properties of PSi, including excellent in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability, have led to many applications of PSi for delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight current advances and recent efforts on PSi nanoparticles regarding the production properties, efficient drug delivery, multidrug delivery, permeation across biological barriers, biosafety and in vivo tracking for biomedical applications. The constant boost on successful preclinical in vivo data reported so far makes this the 'golden age' for PSi, which is expected to finally be translated into the clinic in the near future. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Jylkka J.,University of Turku
Minds and Machines | Year: 2011

It has been argued that prototypes cannot compose, and that for this reason concepts cannot be prototypes (Osherson and Smith in Cognition 9:35-58, 1981; Fodor and Lepore in Cognition 58:253-270, 1996; Connolly et al. in Cognition 103:1-22, 2007). In this paper I examine the intensional and extensional approaches to prototype compositionality, arguing that neither succeeds in their present formulations. I then propose a hybrid extensional theory of prototype compositionality, according to which the extension of a complex concept is determined as a function of what triggers its constituent prototypes. I argue that the theory escapes the problems traditionally raised against extensional theories of compositionality. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Lehti L.,University of Turku
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

The article examines innovative ways of genre-mixing in an emergent genre, the politician's blog. Based on prototype theory, the study presents a division of French politicians' blogs into sub-genres. The criteria used to distinguish these sub-genres are medium, communicative purpose, participant roles and rhetorical structure. The material used in the study consists of 80 French politicians' blogs and the writings posted on these blogs during the month of September 2007, which was a period outside actual election campaign. The analysis revealed five different sub-genres: diary, scrapbook, notice-board, essay and polemic. Each sub-genre is discussed in detail on the basis of a prototypical blog of the type in question. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gundel P.E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Perez L.I.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Helander M.,University of Turku | Saikkonen K.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

We propose that symbiotically modified organisms (SMOs) should be taken into account in sustainable agriculture. In this opinion article, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the literature, with a particular focus on the potential of SMOs in forage and turf grass production, to determine the impact of endophytes in grasses on livestock, the grassland ecosystems, and associated environments. SMOs can be incorporated into breeding programs to improve grass yield, resistance to pests and weeds, and forage quality for livestock by decreasing the level of toxic alkaloids. However, the benefits of these selected grass-endophyte symbiota appear to be highly dependent on grass cultivar, fungal strain, and environmental conditions, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the genetic bases and phenotypic plasticity of the traits of the plant-microbe unit in different environments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Giordano S.,University of Turku | Tolonen P.,Vaasa Central Hospital | Victorzon M.,Vaasa Central Hospital
Scandinavian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Introduction: Controversy exists between laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in super-obese patients. Methods: This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. A total of 102 consecutive super-obese (body mass index >50) patients underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (Group 1), and 79 consecutive ones underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (Group 2). Early complications and weight loss outcomes were evaluated. Results: No significant difference was found in operative mean (±standard deviation) time (93.5 ± 33 vs 87.7 ± 39 min, p = 0.29), hospital stay (2.68 ± 2.27 vs 2.75 ± 1.84 days, p = 0.80), or overall early postoperative morbidity (17.65% and 10.12%, p = 0.20). Intra-operative complications occurred in six patients (5.9%) in Group 1 and none in Group 2 (0.0%, p = 0.04). Mean excess weight loss percent at 6 and 12 months in Group 1 was 44.75% ± 11.84% and 54.71% ± 18.18% versus 26.20% ± 12.42% and 31.55% ± 19.79% in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There seems to be no significant differences in early complications between laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding operations in the short term. Weight loss and excess weight loss percent at 6 and 12 months are significantly better after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. © 2015, Finnish Surgical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Lonnberg T.,University of Turku
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2016

Short phosphorothioate oligonucleotides have been prepared by refluxing an equimolar mixture of thymidine and triethylammonium phosphite in toluene in the presence of elemental sulfur. Desulfurization and subsequent digestion of the products by P1 nuclease revealed that nearly 80% of the internucleosidic linkages thus formed were of the canonical 3′,5′-type. © 2016 Lönnberg; licensee Beilstein-Institut. Source


Wheat C.W.,University of Helsinki | Wheat C.W.,University of Stockholm | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we simultaneously reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and the absolute times of divergences among the arthropods. Simulations were used to test whether our analysis could distinguish between alternative Cambrian explosion scenarios with increasing levels of autocorrelated rate variation. Our analyses support previous phylogenomic hypotheses and simulations indicate a Precambrian origin of the arthropods. Our results provide insights into the 3 independent colonizations of land by arthropods and suggest that evolution of insect wings happened much earlier than the fossil record indicates, with flight evolving during a period of increasing oxygen levels and impressively large forests. These and other findings provide a foundation for macroevolutionary and comparative genomic study of Arthropoda. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Rota J.,Copenhagen University | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2012

Molecular data sets for phylogenetic inference continue to increase in size, especially with respect to the number of genes sampled. As more and more genes are included in analyses, the importance of partitioning the data to avoid problems that can arise from underparameterization becomes more apparent. With an eight-gene data set from 38 metalmark moth species (12 genera represented) and three outgroups, we explored different data partitioning strategies and their influence on convergence and mixing of Markov Chains Monte Carlo in a Bayesian setting. We found that in larger data sets, with an increase in the number of partitions that are made a priori (e.g. by gene and codon position), convergence and mixing become poor. This problem can be overcome by using a recently published algorithm in which homologous sites are grouped into blocks with similar evolutionary rates that can then be modelled as separate data subsets. Using this novel approach to data partitioning, our analyses resolve with strong support relationships among the genera of metalmark moths. Support for the monophyly of the family, the two subfamilies and all genera except Hemerophila is strong. Hemerophila is broken into two separate clades, Hemerophila sensu stricto and another well-supported clade. To render Hemerophila monophyletic, we describe a new genus, Ornarantia Rota, gen. nov., and transfer 18 species from Hemerophila to it. The type species of Ornarantia is Hemerophila laciniosella Busck, 1914. © 2012 The Authors. Zoologica Scripta © 2012 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Source


Luutonen S.,University of Turku
Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation | Year: 2014

In this study, health- related quality of life (HRQoL) and its determinants were assessed in breast cancer patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. The aim was to improve our understanding of patient's situation at the end of adjuvant treatment, as the return to every day life approaches after breast cancer surgery and adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy. Health- related quality of life was measured by the 15D instrument. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy. Out of 389 consecutive breast cancer patients, 273 comprised the final study group. The results were compared to 15D results for an age-standardized sample of the female general population in Finland (n = 3,335). Determinants of HRQoL were assessed by a multivariate model. In patients <53 years, but not in older patients, the total 15D score was lower than in age-standardized controls. Both younger and older patients differed significantly from the controls on specific 15D dimensions of sleeping, depression, distress, vitality, and sexual activity. When clinical and treatment variables were assessed by a multivariate model, depressive symptoms had a negative effect on HRQoL. Further, having undergone breast conserving surgery instead of mastectomy was associated with poorer HRQoL. Impairment of HRQoL was observed during adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer. This finding calls for action to develop supportive and preventive means to smoothen the return to normal activities after completion of adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Source


Hamalainen E.,University of Turku
Fennia | Year: 2011

The main purpose of this paper is to reveal the Finnish paper industry from the economic geographic perspectives. There have been many mill and machine line closures especially in Finland after 2001. Therefore, it is interesting to research the development of manufacturing and transportation costs and paper prices during 2001-2008 in a large case mill. The research tradition of economic geography concerning the paper industry is scanty in the Nordic countries, and not many discussions have been published. This paper attempts to narrow the gap between theoretical and empirical discussions concerning the paper industry. The empirical data is obtained from one large integrated mill, and the research data covers cost components from the years 2001-2008. The results show that the economic performance has lowered clearly in the case mill. An interesting finding was that in overseas distant deliveries, transit costs can even decrease due to inexpensive sea transportation and paper prices slightly increase, probably due to lowered competition in the exported paper qualities. Although the mill data has been examined in detail, it only covers one large paper mill with several machine lines. Therefore, the results can only be generalized to some extent to other export-dependent paper industries operating in peripheral areas with minimal local demand. Our study shows that the empiric methods of economic geography offer interesting views highlighting such spatial heterogeneities in the paper industry. The industry's location affects competition through transit costs, and this topic should be included more in location and economic studies. Source


Jamsen E.,Coxa | Eskelinen A.,Coxa | Peltola M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Makela K.,University of Turku
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2014

Background: Use of cementless hip replacements is increasing in many countries, but the best method for fixation for octogenarian patients remains unknown. Questions/purposes: We studied how fixation method (cemented, cementless, hybrid) affects the survival of primary hip replacements and mortality in patients 80 years or older. Specifically, we asked if fixation method affects (1) the risk of revision; (2) the reasons for revision; and (3) the mortality after contemporary primary hip replacement in octogenarian patients. Methods: A total of 4777 primary total hip replacements were performed in 4509 octogenarian patients with primary osteoarthritis in Finland between 1998 and 2009 and were registered in the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Comorbidity data were collected from a nationwide quality register. Survival of hip replacements, using any revision as the end point, and mortality were analyzed using competing risks survival analysis and Cox regression analysis. The average followup was 4 years (range, 1-13 years). Results: Cementless hip replacements were associated with a higher rate of early (within 1 year) revision compared with cemented hip replacements (hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), particularly in women. The difference was not explained by comorbidity or provider-related factors. Periprosthetic fracture was the leading mode of failure of cementless hip replacements. After 1 year, there were no differences in the survival rates although 10-year survival was slightly lower for cementless than cemented and hybrid hip replacements (93.9% [95% CI, 91.1%-96.7%] versus 97.4% [95% CI, 96.9%-98.0%] and 98.1% [95% CI, 96.9%-99.4%], respectively). Fixation method was not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Cementless fixation was associated with an increased risk of revision and did not provide any benefit in terms of lower mortality in octogenarian patients. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2014 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®. Source


Russell J.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Russell J.C.,University of Auckland | Ruffino L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ruffino L.,University of Turku
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Local spatio-temporal resource variations can strongly influence the population dynamics of small mammals. This is particularly true on islands which are bottom-up driven systems, lacking higher order predators and with high variability in resource subsidies. The influence of resource fluctuations on animal survival may be mediated by individual movement among habitat patches, but simultaneously analysing survival, resource availability and habitat selection requires sophisticated analytical methods. We use a Bayesian multi-state capture-recapture model to estimate survival and movement probabilities of non-native black rats (Rattus rattus) across three habitats seasonally varying in resource availability. We find that survival varies most strongly with temporal rainfall patterns, overwhelming minor spatial variation among habitats. Surprisingly for a generalist forager, movement between habitats was rare, suggesting individuals do not opportunistically respond to spatial resource subsidy variations. Climate is probably the main driver of rodent population dynamics on islands, and even substantial habitat and seasonal spatial subsidies are overwhelmed in magnitude by predictable annual patterns in resource pulses. Marked variation in survival and capture has important implications for the timing of rat control. Source


Peltier G.,Aix - Marseille University | Aro E.-M.,University of Turku | Shikanai T.,Kyoto University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Oxygenic photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy in the chloroplasts of plants and microalgae as well as in prokaryotic cyanobacteria using a complex machinery composed of two photosystems and both membrane-bound and soluble electron carriers. In addition to the major photosynthetic complexes photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, and photosystem I (PSI), chloroplasts also contain minor components, including a well-conserved type I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex that functions in close relationship with photosynthesis and likewise originated from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterial ancestor. Some plants and many microalgal species have lost plastidial ndh genes and a functional NDH-1 complex during evolution, and studies have suggested that a plastidial type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) complex substitutes for the electron transport activity of NDH-1. However, although NDH-1 was initially thought to use NAD(P)H as an electron donor, recent research has demonstrated that both chloroplast and cyanobacterial NDH-1s oxidize reduced ferredoxin. We discuss more recent findings related to the biochemical composition and activity of NDH-1 and NDH-2 in relation to the physiology and regulation of photosynthesis, particularly focusing on their roles in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and acclimation to changing environments. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Nordberg A.,Karolinska University Hospital | Rinne J.O.,University of Turku | Kadir A.,Karolinska University Hospital | Lngstrom B.,Uppsala University
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2010

In Alzheimer disease (AD), which is the most common cause of dementia, the underlying disease pathology most probably precedes the onset of cognitive symptoms by many years. Thus, efforts are underway to find early diagnostic markers as well as disease-modifying treatments for this disorder. PET enables various brain systems to be monitored in living individuals. In patients with AD, PET can be used to investigate changes in cerebral glucose metabolism, various neurotransmitter systems, neuroinflammation, and the protein aggregates that are characteristic of the disease, notably the amyloid deposits. These investigations are helping to further our understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie AD, as well as aiding the early and differential diagnosis of the disease in the clinic. In the future, PET studies will also be useful for identifying new therapeutic targets and monitoring treatment outcomes. Amyloid imaging could be useful as early diagnostic marker of AD and for selecting patients for anti-amyloid-Β therapy, while cerebral glucose metabolism could be a suitable PET marker for monitoring disease progression. For the near future, multitracer PET studies are unlikely to be used routinely in the clinic for AD, being both burdensome and expensive; however, such studies are very informative in a research context. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Julkunen I.,University of Turku | Partinen M.,Vitalmed Research Center
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2014

A pandemic influenza vaccine with a specific type of vaccine antigen has been linked to an increased incidence of narcolepsy in children from 2009-2010. However, the recent retraction of an article that reported a putative autoantigen means that the search for the mechanisms behind the vaccine-narcolepsy connection continues. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Photosynthetic electron flow operates in two modes, linear and cyclic. In cyclic electron flow (CEF), electrons are recycled around photosystem I. As a result, a transthylakoid proton gradient (ApH) is generated, leading to the production of ATP without concomitant production of NADPH, thus increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio within the chloroplast. At least two routes for CEF exist: a PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5-PGRL1-and a chloroplast NDH-like complex mediated pathway. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the characteristics of both CEF routes in higher plants, with special emphasis paid on the crucial role of CEF in under challenging environmental conditions and developmental stages. © 2015 Suorsa. Source


Copanitsanou P.,General Hospital of Piraeus Tzaneio | Valkeapaa K.,University of Turku
Journal of Clinical Nursing | Year: 2014

Aims and objectives: To identify and critically appraise studies addressing the implementation of education for children aged 2-12 years undergoing elective surgical procedures and to determine whether education is associated with improvements in children's anxiety and other emotions. Background: Children undergoing surgery often experience anxiety, which may lead to negative health outcomes, such as increased pain, feeding difficulties and sleeping problems. Education of children about their condition according to their individual needs may be correlated with reduced anxiety. Design: Systematic review. Methods: A database search in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library and CINAHL was carried out during February 2011. Using the PICOS acronym, the query was organised into a searchable foreground question: the studies should evaluate (Objective) the effects of education (Intervention) compared with the standard preparation (Control) for children aged 2-12 years old undergoing elective surgeries (Population). The results would be based on randomised controlled studies (Study design). In total, 475 articles were yielded, from which 45 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and finally, 16 studies were included in the review. Results: In 12 of the 16 studies, children in the education groups reported lower anxiety scores. In two studies, no statistically significant effect of education was reported on anxiety. Moreover, education had an age-related effect in two studies, by being more effective to children older than four to six years and having a negative effect on younger children's anxiety. Parents of children in the education groups experienced lower anxiety. Conclusions: Education seems to be especially effective in the reduction in older children's anxiety and to have a negative effect on younger children's anxiety. Relevance to clinical practice: Education can be incorporated into the care provided to children aged four to six years or older undergoing elective surgical procedures, according to their individualised needs. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Mantymaki M.,University of Turku | Salo J.,University of Oulu | Salo J.,Aalto University
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2013

Spending real money on virtual goods and services has become a popular form of online consumer behavior, particularly among teenagers. This study builds on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to examine the role of motivation, social influence, measured with perceived network size as well as user interface and facilitating conditions in predicting the intention to engage in purchasing in social virtual worlds. The research model is tested with data from 1045 users of Habbo Hotel, world's most popular virtual world for teenagers. The results underscore the role of perceived network size and motivational factors in explaining in-world purchase decisions. The study shows that virtual purchasing behavior is substantially influenced by the factors driving usage behavior. Hence, virtual purchasing can be understood as a means to enhance the user experience. For virtual world operators, reinforcing the sense of presence of user's social network offers a means to promote virtual purchasing. © 2013. Source


Kotaja N.,University of Turku
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

In mammals, male gametes are produced inside the testis by spermatogenesis, which has three phases: mitotic proliferation of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and haploid differentiation of spermatids. The genome of male germ cells is actively transcribed to produce phase-specific gene expression patterns. Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to protein-coding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each step of male germ cell differentiation. Genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated the importance of miRNA pathways for normal spermatogenesis, and functional studies have been designed to dissect the roles of specific miRNAs in distinct cell types. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility. This review article discusses the current findings that support the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Mutanen M.,University of Oulu | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku | Kaila L.,University of Helsinki
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) represent one of the most diverse animals groups. Yet, the phylogeny of advanced ditrysian Lepidoptera, accounting for about 99 per cent of lepidopteran species, has remained largely unresolved. We report a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of lepidopteran affinities. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 350 taxa representing nearly 90 per cent of lepidopteran families. We found Ditrysia to be a monophyletic taxon with the clade Tischerioidea \+ Palaephatoidea being the sister group of it. No support for the monophyly of the proposed major internested ditrysian clades, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera and Macrolepidoptera, was found as currently defined, but each of these is supported with some modification. The monophyly or near-monophyly of most previously identified lepidopteran superfamilies is reinforced, but several species-rich superfamilies were found to be para-or polyphyletic. Butterflies were found to be more closely related to 'microlepidopteran' groups of moths rather than the clade Macrolepidoptera, where they have traditionally been placed. There is support for the monophyly of Macrolepidoptera when butterflies and Calliduloidea are excluded. The data suggest that the generally short diverging nodes between major groupings in basal non-tineoid Ditrysia are owing to their rapid radiation, presumably in correlation with the radiation of flowering plants. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source


Kujala H.,University of Helsinki | Vepsalainen V.,Finnish Museum of Natural History | Zuckerberg B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Brommer J.E.,University of Turku
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Global climate warming is predicted to lead to global and regional changes in the distribution of organisms. One influential approach to test this prediction using temporally repeated mapping surveys of organisms was suggested in a seminal paper by Thomas & Lennon (1999, Nature). The Thomas & Lennon approach corrects observed changes in the range margin for changes in the range size, and thus potentially controls for other broad-scale environmental changes between surveys, however the approach does not necessarily account for potential biases in sampling effort. To verify whether the issue of variation in sampling effort affects empirical estimates of shifts in range margin, we reanalyzed all three published studies exploring range margin changes of breeding birds in Great Britain (GB), Finland, and New York State (NY). Accounting for changes in survey effort on range margins lowered the estimated shift for breeding birds in New York, but the shift remained statistically significant. For Great Britain and Finland, for which no direct estimate of survey effort is available, we used species richness (a strong correlate of survey effort in New York) as a proxy and found that in both cases the estimated shift in range margin was significantly reduced and became nonsignificant. To understand how robust the approach is to sampling biases, we use a simulation model to show that the Thomas & Lennon approach is, under certain conditions, sensitive to changes in detection probability (probability to detect true occupancy) which in turn may be affected by changes in surveying effort between surveys. We thus found evidence that temporal changes in the distribution of breeding birds based on repeated mapping surveys may be inflated by changes in survey effort along range boundaries. We discuss possible approaches to deal with this issue in the analysis and design of national or regional surveys.copy; 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Parvinen K.,University of Turku
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

It has recently been demonstrated that ecological feedback mechanisms can facilitate the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in public goods interactions: the replicator dynamics of defectors and cooperators can result, for example, in the ecological coexistence of cooperators and defectors. Here we show that these results change dramatically if cooperation strategy is not fixed but instead is a continuously varying trait under natural selection. For low values of the factor with which the value of resources is multiplied before they are shared among all participants, evolution will always favour lower cooperation strategies until the population falls below an Allee threshold and goes extinct, thus evolutionary suicide occurs. For higher values of the factor, there exists a unique evolutionarily singular strategy, which is convergence stable. Because the fitness function is linear with respect to the strategy of the mutant, this singular strategy is neutral against mutant invasions. This neutrality disappears if a nonlinear functional response in receiving benefits is assumed. For strictly concave functional responses, singular strategies become uninvadable. Evolutionary branching, which could result in the evolutionary emergence of cooperators and defectors, can occur only with locally convex functional responses, but we illustrate that it can also result in coevolutionary extinction. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source


Huhtaniemi I.,Imperial College London | Huhtaniemi I.,University of Turku
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2014

Although suppressed serum testosterone (T) is common in ageing men, only a small proportion of them develop the genuine syndrome of low T associated with diffuse sexual (e.g., erectile dysfunction), physical (e.g. loss of vigor and frailty) and psychological (e.g., depression) symptoms. This syndrome carries many names, including male menopause or climacterium, andropause and partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM). Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) describes it best and is therefore generally preferred. The decrease of T in LOH is often marginal, and hypogonadism can be either due to primary testicular failure (low T, high luteinizing hormone (LH)) or secondary to a hypothalamic-pituitary failure (low T, low or inappropriately normal LH). The latter form is more common and it is usually associated with overweight/obesity or chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty). A problem with the diagnosis of LOH is that often the symptoms (in 20%-40% of unselected men) and low circulating T (in 20% of men >70 years of age) do not coincide in the same individual. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) has recently defined the strict diagnostic criteria for LOH to include the simultaneous presence of reproducibly low serum T (total T <11 nmol l -1 and free T <220 pmol l-1 ) and three sexual symptoms (erectile dysfunction, and reduced frequency of sexual thoughts and morning erections). By these criteria, only 2% of 40- to 80-year-old men have LOH. In particular obesity, but also impaired general health, are more common causes of low T than chronological age per se. Evidence-based information whether, and how, LOH should be treated is sparse. The most logical approach is lifestyle modification, weight reduction and good treatment of comorbid diseases. T replacement is widely used for the treatment, but evidence-based information about its real benefits and short- and long-term risks, is not yet available. In this review, we will summarize the current concepts and controversies in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of LOH. © 2014 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved. Source


Karlsson H.K.,University of Turku
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest opioidergic system dysfunction in morbid obesity, while evidence for the role of the dopaminergic system is less consistent. Whether opioid dysfunction represents a state or trait in obesity remains unresolved, but could be assessed in obese subjects undergoing weight loss. Here we measured brain μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in 16 morbidly obese women twice—before and 6 months after bariatric surgery—using PET with [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride. Data were compared with those from 14 lean control subjects. Receptor-binding potentials (BPND) were compared between the groups and between the pre- and postoperative scans among the obese subjects. Brain MOR availability was initially lower among obese subjects, but weight loss (mean=26.1 kg, s.d.=7.6 kg) reversed this and resulted in ~23% higher MOR availability in the postoperative versus preoperative scan. Changes were observed in areas implicated in reward processing, including ventral striatum, insula, amygdala and thalamus (P's<0.005). Weight loss did not influence D2R availability in any brain region. Taken together, the endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of human obesity. Because bariatric surgery and concomitant weight loss recover downregulated MOR availability, lowered MOR availability is associated with an obese phenotype and may mediate excessive energy uptake. Our results highlight that understanding the opioidergic contribution to overeating is critical for developing new treatments for obesity.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 October 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.153. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


The development of the DNA theory of inheritance culminated in the publication of the molecular structure of DNA 60 years ago. This paper describes this development, beginning with the discovery of DNA as a chemical substance by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, followed by its basic chemical analysis and demonstration of its participation in the structure of chromosomes. Subsequently it was discovered by Oswald Avery in 1944 that DNA was the genetic material, and then Erwin Chargaff showed that the proportions of the bases included in the structure of DNA followed a certain law. These findings, in association with the biophysical studies of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin with Raymond Gosling, led James Watson and Francis Crick to the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953. The paper ends with a short description of the development of the DNA theory of inheritance after the discovery of the double helix. © 2014 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Nevalainen T.J.,University of Turku | Cardoso J.C.R.,University of Algarve
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2012

Vertebrate group XII phospholipases A2 (GXII PLA2, conserved domain pfam06951) are proteins with unique structural and functional features within the secreted PLA2 family. In humans, two genes (GXIIA PLA2 and GXIIB PLA2) have been characterised. GXIIA PLA2 is enzymatically active whereas GXIIB PLA2 is devoid of catalytic activity. Recently, putative homologues of the vertebrate GXII PLA2s were described in non-vertebrates. In the current study a total of 170 GXII PLA2 sequences were identified in vertebrates, invertebrates, non-metazoan eukaryotes, fungi and bacteria. GXIIB PLA 2 was found only in vertebrates and the searches failed to identify putative GXII PLA2 homologues in Archaea. Comparisons of the predicted functional domains of GXII PLA2s revealed considerable structural identity within the Ca2 +-binding and the catalytic sites among the various organisms suggesting that functional conservation may have been retained across evolution. The preservation of GXII PLA2 family members from bacteria to human indicates that they have emerged early in evolution and evolved via gene/genome duplication events prior to Eubacteria. Gene duplicates were identified in some invertebrate taxa suggesting that species-specific duplications occurred. The analysis of the GXII PLA2 homologue genome environment revealed that gene synteny and gene order are preserved in vertebrates. Conservation of GXII PLA2s indicates that important functional roles involved in species survival and were maintained across evolution and may be dependent on or independent of the enzyme's phospholipolytic activity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies show that the number of FcγRI (CD64) on the surface of neutrophils increases in infections. However, in spite of increased research interest in recent years, there is no clear general view on the usability of neutrophil FcγRI in clinical infection diagnostics. This review tries to bring the clarity to this matter. RECENT FINDINGS: It is shown here that although the high number of FcγRI on neutrophils is a sensitive marker of bacterial infection, it is highly expressed also in DNA virus infections. As a consequence, neutrophil FcγRI cannot be used in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections. It is also clear that FcγRI on neutrophils cannot be used in distinguishing between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections or between microbiologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed bacterial infections. In addition, neutrophil FcγRI cannot be used to reliably detect RNA virus infections, inflammatory diseases, or cancer. SUMMARY: The best clinical benefit from the quantitative analysis of FcγRI on neutrophils will be obtained when it is used simultaneously with a reliable bacterial infection marker. DNA virus score point is an efficient novel method in differentiating between DNA and RNA virus infections. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Maund J.R.,Queens University of Belfast | Maund J.R.,Copenhagen University | Reilly E.,Queens University of Belfast | Mattila S.,University of Turku
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

The acquisition of late-time imaging is an important step in the analysis of pre-explosion observations of the progenitors of supernovae. We present late-time Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide-Field Channel observations of the sites of five Type IIP SNe: 1999ev, 2003gd, 2004A, 2005cs and 2006my. Observations were conducted using the F435W, F555W and F814W filters.We confirm the progenitor identifications for SNe 2003gd, 2004A and 2005cs, through their disappearance. We find that a source previously excluded as being the progenitor of SN 2006my has now disappeared. The late-time observations of the site of SN 1999ev cast significant doubt over the nature of the source previously identified as the progenitor in pre-explosion Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images. The use of image subtraction techniques yields improved precision over photometry conducted on just the pre-explosion images alone. In particular, we note the increased depth of detection limits derived on pre-explosion frames in conjunction with late-time images. We use spectral energy distribution fitting techniques to explore the effect of different reddening components towards the progenitors. For SNe 2003gd and 2005cs, the pre-explosion observations are sufficiently constraining that only limited amounts of dust (either interstellar or circumstellar) are permitted. Assuming only a Galactic reddening law, we determine the initial masses for the progenitors of SNe 2003gd, 2004A, 2005cs and 2006my of 8.4 ± 2.0, 12.0 ± 2.1, 9.5+3.4 -2.2 and 9.8 ± 1.7M⊙, respectively. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source


Maksimainen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Paavilainen S.,University of Turku | Hakulinen N.,University of Eastern Finland | Rouvinen J.,University of Eastern Finland
FEBS Journal | Year: 2012

Crystal structures of native and α-d-galactose-bound Bacillus circulans sp. alkalophilusβ-galactosidase (Bca-β-gal) were determined at 2.40 and 2.25 Å resolutions, respectively. Bca-β-gal is a member of family 42 of glycoside hydrolases, and forms a 460 kDa hexameric structure in crystal. The protein consists of three domains, of which the catalytic domain has an (α/β) 8 barrel structure with a cluster of sulfur-rich residues inside the β-barrel. The shape of the active site is clearly more open compared to the only homologous structure available in the Protein Data Bank. This is due to the number of large differences in the loops that connect the C-terminal ends of the β-strands to the N-terminal ends of the α-helices within the (α/β) 8 barrel. The complex structure shows that galactose binds to the active site as an α-anomer and induces clear conformational changes in the active site. The implications of α-d-galactose binding with respect to the catalytic mechanism are discussed. In addition, we suggest that β-galactosidases mainly utilize a reverse hydrolysis mechanism for synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides. Database -The coordinates for free and α-d-galactose-bound Bca-β-gal structures have been deposited in the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) Protein Data Bank under accession codes and, respectively. Crystal structures of native and α-d-galactose-bound Bacillus circulans sp. alkalophilusβ-galactosidase were determined. The shape of the active site is more open compared to the homological structure. The complex structure shows that α-galactose has bound to the active site and induced clear conformational changes in the active site. The implications of structures to catalytic mechanism and transglycosylation are discussed. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS. Source


Toppari J.,University of Turku
Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology | Year: 2010

Cryptorchidism and hypospadias are common genital birth defects that affect 2-9% and 0.2-1% of male newborns, respectively. The incidence of both defects shows large geographic variation, and in several countries increasing trends have been reported. The conditions share many risk factors, and they are also interlinked to the risk of testis cancer and poor semen quality. Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS) may underlie many cases of all these male reproductive health problems. Genetic defects in androgen production or action can cause both cryptorchidism and hypospadias, but these are not common. A monogenic reason for cryptorchidism or hypospadias has been identified only in a small proportion of all cases. Environmental effects appear to play a major role in TDS. Exposure to several persistent chemicals has been found to be associated with the risk of cryptorchidism, and exposure to anti-androgenic phthalates has been shown to be associated with hormonal changes predisposing to male reproductive problems. Despite progress in identification of endocrine-disrupting substances, we are still far from knowing all the risk factors for these birth defects, and advice for prevention must be based on precautionary principles. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Lainema T.,University of Turku
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2010

A key element in organizational decision making is the progress of time and the ability to live with it. This article discusses the factor of time in decision making and how time can be taken into account in computerized simulation gaming. The discussion is based on recent definitions and classifications of time. The author reflects on these classifications and argues that embedding a richer time conception could increase the application domain of simulation gaming in the organizational context. Finally, the author theorizes on the implications of continuous processing in simulation gaming. The results indicate that continuous gaming provides an intense and meaningful learning environment. © The Author(s) 2010. Source


Sainio J.,University of Turku
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2010

This paper presents, to the author's knowledge, the first graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated program that solves the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. We present the implementation in NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and compare the performance to other similar programs in chaotic inflation models. We report speedups between one and two orders of magnitude depending on the used hardware and software while achieving small errors in single precision. Simulations that used to last roughly one day to compute can now be done in hours and this difference is expected to increase in the future. The program has been written in the spirit of LATTICEEASY and users of the aforementioned program should find it relatively easy to start using CUDAEASY in lattice simulations. The program is available at http://www.physics.utu.fi/theory/particlecosmology/cudaeasy/ under the GNU General Public License. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Hilakivi-Clarke L.,Georgetown University | De Assis S.,Georgetown University | Warri A.,Georgetown University | Warri A.,University of Turku
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2013

Women are using estrogens for many purposes, such as to prevent pregnancy or miscarriage, or to treat menopausal symptoms. Estrogens also have been used to treat breast cancer which seems puzzling, since there is convincing evidence to support a link between high lifetime estrogen exposure and increased breast cancer risk. In this review, we discuss the findings that maternal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in both exposed mothers and their daughters. In addition, we review data regarding the use of estrogens in oral contraceptives and as postmenopausal hormone therapy and discuss the opposing effects on breast cancer risk based upon timing of exposure. We place particular emphasis on studies investigating how maternal estrogenic exposures during pregnancy increase breast cancer risk among daughters. New data suggest that these exposures induce epigenetic modifications in the mammary gland and germ cells, thereby causing an inheritable increase in breast cancer risk for multiple generations. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Rantala M.J.,University of Turku
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice. Source


Paakkonen M.,University of Helsinki | Paakkonen M.,University of Turku | Peltola H.,University of Helsinki
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2012

Acute septic arthritis of childhood is a potentially devastating disease that causes permanent disability and can result in death. Traditional treatment consists of a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics combined with aggressive surgery. However, this approach is challenged by trials showing satisfactory outcomes with shorter treatment and less invasive surgery. Diagnostic arthrocentesis alone and an antibiotic for a fortnight, including initial intravenous administration for 2-4 days, suffice in most non-neonatal cases. A good penetrating agent, such as clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, exceptionally high doses, and administration four times a day are probably key factors. If the symptoms and signs subside within a few days, and the serum C-reactive protein level drops below 20 mg/l, the antibiotic can usually be safely discontinued. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a concern, but fortunately, most strains have retained susceptibility to clindamycin. The above guidance is not applicable to neonates and immunocompromised patients who may require a different approach. Source


Chonmaitree T.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Ruohola A.,University of Turku | Hendley J.O.,University of Virginia
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2012

Viruses play an important role in acute otitis media (AOM) pathogenesis, and live viruses may cause AOM in the absence of pathogenic bacteria. Detection of AOM pathogens generally relies on bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. When viral culture is used and live viruses are detected in the middle ear fluid of children with AOM, the viruses are generally accepted as AOM pathogens. Because viral culture is not sensitive and does not detect the comprehensive spectrum of respiratory viruses, polymerase chain reaction assays are commonly used to detect viral nucleic acids in the middle ear fluid. Although polymerase chain reaction assays have greatly increased the viral detection rate, new questions arise on the significance of viral nucleic acids detected in the middle ear because nucleic acids of multiple viruses are detected simultaneously, and nucleic acids of specific viruses are detected repeatedly and in a high proportion of asymptomatic children. This article first reviews the role of live viruses in AOM and presents the point-counterpoint arguments on whether viral nucleic acids in the middle ear represent an AOM pathogen or a bystander status. Although there is evidence to support both directions, helpful information for interpretation of the data and future research direction is outlined. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Ruminski A.M.,University of California at San Diego | King B.H.,University of California at San Diego | Salonen J.,University of Turku | Snyder J.L.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Sailor M.J.,University of California at San Diego
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2010

Sensing of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and heptane in air using sub-millimeter porous silicon-based sensor elements is demonstrated in the concentration range 50-800 ppm. The sensor elements are prepared as one-dimensional photonic crystals (rugate filters) by programmed electrochemical etch of p++ silicon, and analyte sensing is achieved by measurement of the wavelength shift of the photonic resonance. The sensors are studied as a function of surface chemistry: ozone oxidation, thermal oxidation, hydrosilylation (1-dodecene), electrochemical methylation, reaction with dicholorodimethylsilane and thermal carbonization with acetylene. The thermally oxidized and the dichlorodimethylsilane-modified materials show the greatest stability under atmospheric conditions. Optical microsensors are prepared by attachment of the porous Si layer to the distal end of optical fibers. The acetylated porous Si microsensor displays a greater response to heptane than to IPA, whereas the other chemical modifications display a greater response to IPA than to heptane. The thermal oxide sensor displays a strong response to water vapor, while the acetylated material shows a relatively weak response. The results suggest that a combination of optical fiber sensors with different surface chemistries can be used to classify VOC analytes. Application of the miniature sensors to the detection of VOC breakthrough in a full-scale activated carbon respirator cartridge simulator is demonstrated. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Karlsson H.K.,Turku Center | Tuominen L.,Turku Center | Tuulari J.J.,Turku Center | Hirvonen J.,Turku Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Neurochemical pathways involved in pathological overeating and obesity are poorly understood. Although previous studies have shown increased µ-opioid receptor (MOR) and decreased dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in addictive disorders, the role that these systems play in human obesity still remains unclear. We studied 13 morbidly obese women [mean body mass index (BMI), 42 kg/m2] and 14 nonobese age-matched women, and measured brain MOR and D2R availability using PET with selective radioligands [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride, respectively. We also used quantitative meta-analytic techniques to pool previous evidence on the effects of obesity on altered D2R availability. Morbidly obese subjects had significantly lower MOR availability than control subjects in brain regions relevant for reward processing, including ventral striatum, insula, and thalamus. Moreover, in these areas, BMI correlated negatively with MOR availability. Striatal MOR availability was also negatively associated with self-reported food addiction and restrained eating patterns. There were no significant differences in D2R availability between obese and nonobese subjects in any brain region. Meta-analysis confirmed that current evidence for altered D2R availability in obesity is only modest. Obesity appears to have unique neurobiological underpinnings in the reward circuit, whereby it is more similar to opioid addiction than to other addictive disorders. The opioid system modulates motivation and reward processing, and low µ-opioid availability may promote overeating to compensate decreased hedonic responses in this system. Behavioral and pharmacological strategies for recovering opioidergic function might thus be critical to curb the obesity epidemic. © 2015 the authors. Source


Nocentini A.,University of Florence | Menesini E.,University of Florence | Salmivalli C.,University of Turku
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2013

The development of bullying behavior was examined across three years in a sample of 515 adolescents (46% females) from 41 classrooms. At time 1, the students were in grades 9 and 10 (mean age. =. 14.5 years; SD. =. .54). Results of a multilevel growth model showed that both baseline level and change of bullying varied significantly across individuals as well as across classrooms. At the individual level, gender, aggression and competition for social dominance were related with baseline level of bullying. Competition for social dominance and class change were additionally associated with increases in bullying over time. At the classroom level, pro-bullying behaviors were associated with higher baseline level of bullying, whereas anti-bullying behaviors with decreases in bullying over time. Finally, a cross-level interaction underlined that the link between aggression and bullying was moderated by the pro-bullying behaviors within each class. Results are discussed according to the child by environment perspective. © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Source


Pellonpaa J.-P.,University of Turku
Foundations of Physics | Year: 2014

We define a complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) as a measurement of the maximally refined (rank-1) version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information on the multiplicities of the measurement outcomes and can be viewed as state preparation procedures. We show that any POVM can be measured completely by using sequential measurements or maximally refinable instruments. Moreover, the ancillary space of a complete measurement can be chosen to be minimal. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


In Northern Namibia, the climate is highly polarised between dry and wet seasons, and local communities have lived with these varying weather extremes for centuries. However, the recent changes in socio-environmental dynamics—associated with urbanisation, inappropriate spatial planning, and population growth—have disturbed the river system in the area. These changes, together with torrential seasonal rains, have aggravated the social impacts of the flood events. By using various qualitative and quantitative data sources, and comparative analyses between the flood dynamics in urban and rural environments, this research studies local residents’ coping strategies to endure the irregular flood events from the perspective of socio-ecological resilience. Particular interest is placed on the learning processes that enhance the residents’ capability to cope and the role of indigenous knowledge. Indigenous knowledge (IK) has been emphasised as a source of resilience in both theory and practice, as it is built upon learning from past experiences of natural hazards. The findings reveal that the floods are a result of complex and relational development without the necessary linear relationship between the causes and effects. The abrupt socio-ecological changes, together with the multiple stressors related to poverty, have made residents more vulnerable to the flood events and attenuated the communities’ coping strategies based on IK. Instead of focusing on the communities’ capacity to self-organise, the focus of resilience building needs to be directed to emphasising the broader socio-political processes, which are making the communities vulnerable in the first place. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Syrjanen K.,University of Turku | Syrjanen K.,Teaching and Research Institute
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

Background: Since the first reports (in 1979) suggesting an etiological role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in bronchial squamous cell carcinoma, literature reporting HPV detection in lung cancer has expanded rapidly, but a comprehensive meta-analysis has yet to be published. We performed a systematic review and formal meta-analysis of the literature reporting on HPV detection in lung cancer. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Current Contents were searched through April 2012. The effect size was calculated as event rates and their 95% Confidence intervals (CI), with homogeneity testing using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of study-level co-variates (HPV detection method, geographical origin of study, cancer histology) on effect size, and potential publication bias was estimated using funnel plot symmetry (Begg and Mazumdar rank correlation, Egger's regression, and Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill method). Results: One hundred studies were eligible, covering 7,381 lung cancer cases from different geographical regions. Altogether, 1,653 (22.4%) samples tested HPV-positive; effect size was 0.348 (95% CI=0.333-0.363; fixed-effects model), and 0.220 (95% CI=0.18-0.259; random effects model). There was significant heterogeneity between the studies stratified by HPV detection technique, but the random effects in between-strata comparison was not significant (p=0.193). When stratified by i) different geographical regions, and ii) different histological types, the between-strata comparison was significant (p=0.0001). However, in meta-regression, HPV detection method (p=0.473), geographical origin (p=0.298) and histological type (p=0.589) were not significant study-level co-variates. No evidence for significant publication bias was found in funnel plot symmetry testing. In sensitivity analysis, all meta-analytic results seemed robust to all one-by-one study removals. Conclusion: These meta-analytic results imply that the reported variability in HPV detection rates in lung cancer is better explained by geographical study origin and histological types of cancer than by the HPV detection method itself. In formal meta-regression, however, none of these three factors were significant study-level co-variates accounting for the heterogeneity of the summary effect size estimates, i.e. HPV prevalence in lung cancer. Source


Korkeila E.,University of Turku
Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja | Year: 2012

In Finland, the 5-year survival rate of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is 3%. Surgery is the only treatment that may be curative. Adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery is beneficial and patients with locally advanced disease may also benefit from chemoradiotherapy. The treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer, expert symptomatic and palliative care is essential. New therapeutic approaches, e.g. combined cytostatics and/or targeted biologic drugs are being investigated to improve patient outcome. Source


Islam A.K.M.N.,University of Turku
Computers and Education | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the outcomes of e-learning systems adoption and use by conceptualizing three e-learning systems adoption outcome constructs namely perceived learning assistance, perceived community building assistance and perceived academic performance. Utilizing these constructs, the paper proposes a research model for assessing the possible outcomes of e-learning systems adoption and use. The study collected longitudinal survey data from 249 university students participating in hybrid courses using a popular learning management system, Moodle. Partial least squares (PLS) approach was then used to test the research model. The findings suggest that beliefs about perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and how an e-learning system is used influence students' perceived learning assistance and perceived community building assistance. In turn, perceived learning assistance and perceived community building assistance influence the students' perceived academic performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Steward J.L.,Florida State University | Navon I.M.,Florida State University | Zupanski M.,Colorado State University | Karmitsa N.,University of Turku
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2012

We investigate the issue of variational and sequential data assimilation with nonlinear and non-smooth observation operators using a two-dimensional limited-area shallow-water equation model and its adjoint. The performance of the four-dimensional variational approach (4D-Var: two dimensions plus time) compared with that of the maximum-likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF), a hybrid ensemble/variational method, is tested in the presence of non-smooth observation operators. Following the work of Lewis & Overton and Karmitsa, we investigate minimization of the data-assimilation cost functional using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm originally intended for smooth optimization and the limited-memory bundle method (LMBM) algorithm specifically designed to address large-scale non-smooth minimization problems. Numerical results obtained for the MLEF method show that the LMBM algorithm yields results superior to the L-BFGS method. Results for 4D-Var suggest that L-BFGS performs well when the non-smoothness is not extreme, but fails for non-smooth functions with large Lipschitz constants. The LMBM method is found to be a suitable choice for large-scale non-smooth optimization, although additional work is needed to improve its numerical stability. Finally, the results and methodologies of 4D-Var and MLEF are compared and contrasted. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society. Source


De Luca A.,University of Naples Federico II | Zamboni L.Q.,University of Turku | Zamboni L.Q.,Camille Jordan Institute
Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series A | Year: 2016

Given a finite coloring (or finite partition) of the free semigroup A+ over a set A, we consider various types of monochromatic factorizations of right sided infinite words x∈Aω. Some stronger versions of the usual notion of monochromatic factorization are introduced. A factorization is called sequentially monochromatic when concatenations of consecutive blocks are monochromatic. A sequentially monochromatic factorization is called ultra monochromatic if any concatenation of arbitrary permuted blocks of the factorization has the same color of the single blocks. We establish links, and in some cases equivalences, between the existence of these factorizations and fundamental results in Ramsey theory including the infinite Ramsey theorem, Hindman's finite sums theorem, partition regularity of IP sets and the Milliken-Taylor theorem. We prove that for each finite set A and each finite coloring ϕ:A+→C, for almost all words x∈Aω, there exists y in the subshift generated by x admitting a ϕ-ultra monochromatic factorization, where "almost all" refers to the Bernoulli measure on Aω. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Skilton M.R.,University of Sydney | Raitakari O.T.,University of Turku | Celermajer D.S.,University of Sydney
Hypertension | Year: 2013

Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (<10th centile) compared with normal birth weight (≥10th centile), consistent with previous findings, although not statistically significant (P=0.40); however, pulse pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval,-9.7 to-0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval,-15.0 to-0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Toppari J.,University of Turku
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Carcinoma in situ in the testis has its origin in the fetal gonad and leads to testicular cancer in young adulthood. It can be detected in a testicular biopsy and treated with irradiation, which can preserve testosterone production of the man. These are the key findings of Niels E. Skak-kebaek that changed our view of testicular tumourigenesis during the last fifty years. These and other findings are discussed in this interview-based review of testicular germ cell cancer. © 2013 UBC Press. Source


Lu H.-F.,National Chiao Tung University | Hollanti C.,University of Turku | Hollanti C.,University of Tampere
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

In multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) communications, the notion of asymmetric channel refers to the situation when the number of transmit antennas is strictly larger than the number of receive antennas. Such channels can often be found in MIMO downlink transmissions. While existing cyclic-division-algebra (CDA)-based codes can still be employed to achieve the optimal diversitymultiplexing tradeoff (DMT) at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such codes cannot be directly decoded using, for example, the pure sphere decoding method. Although other means of decoding methods such as minimum mean square error generalized decision feedback equalizer (MMSE-GDFE) with lattice search and regularized lattice decoding are available, an alternative approach is to constrain the number of active transmit antennas in each channel use to be no larger than the number of receive antennas. The resulting system is coined constrained asymmetric MIMO system. Two general types of asymmetrical channels are considered in this paper, namely, 1) when there are two receive antennas and the number of transmit antennas is arbitrary, and 2) when the number of transmit antennas is one larger than the number of receive antennas. Explicit optimal transmission schemes as well as the corresponding code constructions for such constrained asymmetric MIMO channels are presented, and are shown to achieve the same DMT performance as their unconstrained counterparts. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Kuusniemi K.,University of Turku
The Journal of international medical research | Year: 2012

These studies evaluated the feasibility of using oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN PR) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Three studies were undertaken: (i) the analgesic efficacy of OXN PR was compared with prolonged-release oxycodone (OXY PR) in patients with knee arthroplasty in an immediate postoperative period (IPOP) study; (ii) OXN PR treatment was compared with other opioids during rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty in a noninterventional study (NIS); and (iii) surgical patients on other opioids were switched to OXN PR postoperatively during a quality improvement programme (QIP). In the IPOP study, the pain intensity at rest score decreased by a similar amount in the OXN PR and OXY PR groups, indicating similar analgesic efficacies. In the NIS, patient assessments indicated enhanced efficacy and tolerability for OXN PR compared with other opioids. The QIP indicated significant improvements in bowel function and less difficulty passing urine at the end of OXN PR treatment compared with baseline. No safety concerns were raised. The analgesic efficacies of OXN PR and OXY PR were similar in postoperative pain settings. OXN PR reduced the degree of restriction in relation to patients carrying out physiotherapy compared with other opioids, and improved bowel and bladder function. Source


Wichmann O.,University of Jyvaskyla | Sillanpaa R.,University of Jyvaskyla | Lehtonen A.,University of Turku
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

Aminobisphenols with side-arm donors are versatile tetradentate ligands that effectively coordinate to the metal ions in a tripodal fashion. Most of the metal ions form electrically neutral isolable complexes with aminobisphenolates with different side chains. However, some anionic complexes and zwitterions are also described. The coordination geometry of the metal centre can be controlled by the ligand design. Especially, the ortho-substituents of the phenolate moieties as well as the nature of side-arm donor influence the structure and reactivity of the complexes formed. Depending on the metal ion and the ligand environment, the complexes formed can be monomeric or dimeric ones. Several heterobimetallic complexes are also known. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Revonsuo A.,University of Turku
Journal of Consciousness Studies | Year: 2015

I argue that the hard problem of consciousness should be viewed from the perspective of the philosophy of science. In this context, the hard problem can be reformulated as a serious anomaly for the currently dominating research programme in the cognitive neuro-sciences. I cite empirical evidence from dream research to argue that for this research programme, consciousness is a phenomenon located inside the brain, but for whose constitution no plausible (or even possible) underlying constitutive mechanisms can at the moment be pointed out. Evidence from dream research demonstrates the anomaly in a particularly clear and challenging form, and the empirical facts of dreaming also demonstrate that externalist, embodied, and enactive explanations of consciousness will not be able to solve the problem. © Imprint Academic, 2015. Source


Hamilton C.E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Helander M.,University of Turku | Saikkonen K.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species are in all types of organisms from microbes to higher plants and animals. They are by-products of normal metabolism, such as photosynthesis and respiration, and are responsive to abiotic and biotic stress. Accumulating evidence suggests reactive oxygen species play a vital role in programmed cell death, stress responses, plant defense against pathogens and systemic stress signaling in conjunction with antioxidant production. Here, we propose that reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, as both universal and evolutionarily conserved, are likely to play important role(s) in symbiotic interactions. To support this hypothesis we review the root and foliar fungal endophyte literature specific to fungal-plant symbiotum production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in response to stress. These asymptomatic fungi can produce antioxidants in response to both biotic and abiotic stress when grown in culture as well as in planta. In addition, there is a growing but nascent literature reporting a significant impact of endophyte colonization on the antioxidant activity of colonized (E+) hosts when compared to uncolonized (E-) hosts, especially when exposed to stress. Here we summarize general patterns emerging from the growing literature specific to antioxidant activity of endophytes in colonized hosts and bring up possible future research questions and approaches. The consequences of changes in reactive oxygen species production and increased antioxidant activity in the symbiotum appear to be beneficial in many instances; but costs are also indicated. Unexplored questions are: 1) to what extent do antioxidants originating from the fungal endophyte mediate host metabolism, and thereby control host responses to endophyte colonization; (2) what role do fungal, plant, or symbiotum produced reactive oxygen species and antioxidants have in determining symbiotic outcome between extremes of pathogenicity and mutualism; and (3) what role if any, do the production of reactive oxygen species and their antioxidant counterparts play in the symbiotum's ability to respond to changing selection pressures? If as the literature suggests, such endophyte imposed mediation can be utilized to foster increases in plant production in resource limited habitats then the utilization of fungal endophytes may prove useful in agronomic and conservation settings. © 2012 The Mushroom Research Foundation. Source


Portinari L.,University of Turku | Salucci P.,International School for Advanced Studies
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. The colour and metallicity gradients observed in spiral galaxies suggest that the mass-to-light ratio (M*/L) of the stellar disc is a function of radius. This is indeed predicted by chemo-photometric models of galactic discs. Aims. We investigate the distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies, taking into account the radial dependence of the stellar M*/L, which is usually assumed to be constant in studies of the mass structure. Methods. From earlier chemo-photometric models and in agreement with the observed radial profiles of galaxy colours, we derive the typical average M*/L profile of the stellar discs of spiral galaxies. We computed the corresponding variable mass-to-light (VML) stellar surface density profile and then the VML disc contribution to the circular velocity. We used the latter, combined with a well-studied dark matter velocity profile, to mass model co-added rotation curves. Results. By investigating rotation curves in the framework of VML stellar discs, we confirm the scenario obtained with the constant M*/L assumption: a dark matter halo with a shallow core, an inner baryon-dominated region, and a larger proportion of dark matter in smaller objects. However, the resulting size of the the dark halo core and of the inner baryon dominance region are somewhat smaller. The stronger role that VML discs have in the innermost regions is important for constraining the galaxy mass structure in both Λ Cold Dark Matter and MOND scenarios. © 2010 ESO. Source


Nummenmaa L.,Aalto University | Nummenmaa L.,University of Turku | Calvo M.G.,University of La Laguna
Emotion | Year: 2015

Happy facial expressions are recognized faster and more accurately than other expressions in categorization tasks, whereas detection in visual search tasks is widely believed to be faster for angry than happy faces. We used meta-analytic techniques for resolving this categorization versus detection advantage discrepancy for positive versus negative facial expressions. Effect sizes were computed on the basis of the r statistic for a total of 34 recognition studies with 3,561 participants and 37 visual search studies with 2,455 participants, yielding a total of 41 effect sizes for recognition accuracy, 25 for recognition speed, and 125 for visual search speed. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate effect sizes at population level. For recognition tasks, an advantage in recognition accuracy and speed for happy expressions was found for all stimulus types. In contrast, for visual search tasks, moderator analysis revealed that a happy face detection advantage was restricted to photographic faces, whereas a clear angry face advantage was found for schematic and "smiley" faces. Robust detection advantage for nonhappy faces was observed even when stimulus emotionality was distorted by inversion or rearrangement of the facial features, suggesting that visual features primarily drive the search. We conclude that the recognition advantage for happy faces is a genuine phenomenon related to processing of facial expression category and affective valence. In contrast, detection advantages toward either happy (photographic stimuli) or nonhappy (schematic) faces is contingent on visual stimulus features rather than facial expression, and may not involve categorical or affective processing. © 2015 American Psychological Association. Source


Majumdar S.,University of Turku | Majumdar H.S.,Abo Akademi University | Majumdar H.S.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications | Year: 2012

This article addresses the most challenging question facing the organic spintronics community today - what causes the universal loss of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) signal in organic spin valve devices made with different spin-polarized electrodes and organic semiconductor spacers? Careful analysis of our own and other experimental results available in literature indicate that transition of transport from polaron tunneling limit (suggested by the variable range hopping model) to thermally activated hopping limit (in the temperature range of 40-58 K) marks the most significant decrease of spin relaxation in organic semiconductors. With increasing occupancy of the available hopping sites by the thermally activated carriers, chances of spin flip inside the organic semiconductors increases significantly causing fast spin relaxation in the spin-valves. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Merivirta R.,University of Turku
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association | Year: 2013

The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of subacromial bupivacaine infusion and a transdermal fentanyl patch in the treatment of postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Sixty patients with rotator cuff disease scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled in the study. For the treatment of postoperative pain, 30 patients constituted group F and received a 12.0-μg/h fentanyl patch for 72 hours and saline solution infusion in a subacromial manner at the rate of 4 mL/h. The remaining 30 patients constituted group B and received a placebo patch and an infusion of 2.5-mg/mL bupivacaine in a subacromial manner for 72 hours. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative numerical rating scale pain score. The consumption of opioids, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen was also recorded. The Constant scores and general recovery were followed up until the 90th postoperative day. There was no statistically significant difference in the numerical rating scale scores (P = .60) between the groups. No differences in the use of rescue analgesic were observed except that the patients receiving bupivacaine used more ibuprofen (median, 1,200 mg v 600 mg) during the day of surgery (P = .042). No difference was found in general recovery between the groups. A fentanyl patch delivering 12-μg/h fentanyl offers an easy and safe treatment option as a part of multimodal analgesia with few adverse effects in the treatment of postoperative pain in a carefully selected patient group after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Ihamaki P.,University of Turku
International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning | Year: 2014

This paper presents the experiences of 2nd and 4th-class pupils in centrally located schools in Pori, Finland (110 students); here, the self-report method was used to collect information about student's experiences on the Pori Cultural Heritage Road. This paper gives a descriptive account of children's interactions using letterboxing and geocaching treasure hunt games as a creative pedagogical design where technology was exploited to solve clues. The study findings demonstrate that the children reported most positive experiences of this treasure hunt game. To summarise the results, the application of treasure hunt games for education as a new pedagogical design allows a new, innovative educational culture to emerge and invites further exploration of the learning impact of such games. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Lyyra P.,University of Jyvaskyla | Wikgren J.,University of Jyvaskyla | Ruusuvirta T.,University of Turku | Astikainen P.,University of Jyvaskyla
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Change blindness is a failure of reporting major changes across consecutive images if separated, e.g., by a brief blank interval. Successful change detection across interrupts requires focal attention to the changes. However, findings of implicit detection of visual changes during change blindness have raised the question of whether the implicit mode is necessary for development of the explicit mode. To this end, we recorded the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of the event-related potentials (ERPs) of the brain, an index of implicit pre-attentive visual change detection, in adult humans performing an oddball-variant of change blindness flicker task. Images of 500 ms in duration were presented repeatedly in continuous sequences, alternating with a blank interval (either 100 ms or 500 ms in duration throughout a stimulus sequence). Occasionally (P = 0.2), a change (referring to color changes, omissions, or additions of objects or their parts in the image) was present. The participants attempted to explicitly (via voluntary button press) detect the occasional change. With both interval durations, it took 10-15 change presentations in average for the participants to eventually detect the changes explicitly in a sequence, the 500 ms interval only requiring a slightly longer exposure to the series than the 100 ms one. Nevertheless, prior to this point of explicit detectability, the implicit detection of the changes vMMN could only be observed with the 100 ms intervals. These findings of explicit change detection developing with and without implicit change detection may suggest that the two modes of change detection recruit independent neural mechanisms. © 2012 Lyyra, Wikgren, Ruusuvirta and Astikainen. Source


Addis C.,Heriot - Watt University | Bylicka B.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Chruscinski D.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Maniscalco S.,University of Turku
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper we present a detailed critical study of several recently proposed non-Markovianity measures. We analyze their properties for single-qubit and two-qubit systems in both pure-dephasing and dissipative scenarios. More specifically we investigate and compare their computability, their physical meaning, their Markovian to non-Markovian crossover, and their additivity properties with respect to the number of qubits. The bottom-up approach that we pursue is aimed at identifying similarities and differences in the behavior of non-Markovianity indicators in several paradigmatic open system models. This, in turn, allows us to infer the leading traits of the variegated phenomenon known as non-Markovian dynamics. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Kaufmann R.K.,Boston University | Kauppi H.,University of Turku | Mann M.L.,George Washington University | Stock J.H.,Harvard University
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

By construction, the time series for radiative forcing that are used to run the 20c3m experiments, which are implemented by climate models, impart non-stationary movements (either stochastic or deterministic) to the simulated time series for global surface temperature. Here, we determine whether stochastic or deterministic trends are present in the simulated time series for global surface temperature by examining the time series for radiative forcing. Statistical tests indicate that the forcings contain a stochastic trend against the alternative hypothesis that the series are trend stationary with a one-time structural change. This result is consistent with the economic processes that impart a stochastic trend to anthropogenic emissions and the physical processes that integrate emissions in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the stochastic trend in the aggregate measure of radiative forcing also is present in the simulated time series for global surface temperature, which is consistent with the relation between these two variables that is represented by a zero dimensional energy balance model. Finally, we propose that internal weather variability imposed on the stochastic trend in radiative forcings is responsible for statistical results, which gives the impression that global surface temperature is trend stationary with a one-time structural change. We conclude that using the ideas of stochastic trends, cointegration, and error correction can generate reliable conclusions regarding the causes of changes in global surface temperature during the instrumental temperature record. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Niiranen T.J.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Niiranen T.J.,University of Turku | Maki J.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Puukka P.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2014

Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is considered as the gold standard of BP measurement although it has not been shown to be more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk than is home BP. Our objective was to compare the prognostic value of office, home, and ambulatory BP for cardiovascular risk in 502 participants examined in 1992 to 1996. The end point was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and coronary intervention. We assessed the prognostic value of each BP in multivariable-adjusted Cox models. The likelihood χ ratio value was used to test whether the addition of a BP variable improved the model's goodness of fit. After a follow-up of 16.1±3.9 years, 70 participants (13.9%) had experienced â‰11 cardiovascular event. Office (systolic/diastolic hazard ratio per 1/1 mm Hg increase in BP, 1.024/1.018; systolic/diastolic 95% confidence interval, 1.009-1.040/0.994-1.043), home (hazard ratio, 1.029/1.028; 95% confidence interval, 1.013-1.045/1.005-1.052), and 24-hour ambulatory BP (hazard ratio, 1.033/1.049; 95% confidence interval, 1.019-1.047/1.023-1.077) were predictive of cardiovascular events. When all 3 BP variables were included in the model simultaneously, only systolic/diastolic ambulatory BP was a significant predictor of cardiovascular events (P=0.002/<0.001). Home systolic/diastolic BP improved the fit of the model only marginally when added to a model including office BP (χ=3.0/4.0, P=0.09/0.047). Ambulatory BP, however, improved the fit of model more clearly when added to office and home BP (χ=9.0/12.3, P=0.001/<0.001). Our findings suggest that ambulatory BP is prognostically superior to office and home BP. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Johansson M.,University of Turku
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2014

In this study, the main objective is to analyze the agency of social actors in terms of reading an online newspaper. The data consists of material from two online newspapers, the French lemonde.fr and the British guardian.co.uk. The methodology builds on the notion of framing that allows us to distinguish between two main frames. The activities that users perform are interactional, language-related, and include semiotic and technologically based activities. The first frame concerns how the news content is organized. It involves the opening page of an online newspaper. The users monitor and choose to read, remediate, share news texts, manage, and/or archive information. They can also generate and send items to the newspaper. The second frame concerns how news content is represented. It focuses one multimodal, thematic news presentation in a screen setting. Here, users are readers, viewers, listeners, and writers who assemble the news stories that they want to focus on. In addition, they can express their standpoint in a comment section. The positioning includes an evaluation of the newsworthiness and credibility of the news information. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mulo P.,University of Turku
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2011

Ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a ubiquitous flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding enzyme encoded by a small nuclear gene family in higher plants. The chloroplast targeted FNR isoforms are known to be responsible for the final step of linear electron flow transferring electrons from ferredoxin to NADP+, while the putative role of FNR in cyclic electron transfer has been under discussion for decades. FNR has been found from three distinct chloroplast compartments (i) at the thylakoid membrane, (ii) in the soluble stroma, and (iii) at chloroplast inner envelope. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that besides the membrane-bound FNR, also the soluble FNR is photosynthetically active. Two chloroplast proteins, Tic62 and TROL, were recently identified and shown to form high molecular weight protein complexes with FNR at the thylakoid membrane, and thus seem to act as the long-sought molecular anchors of FNR to the thylakoid membrane. Tic62-FNR complexes are not directly involved in photosynthetic reactions, but Tic62 protects FNR from inactivation during the dark periods. TROL-FNR complexes, however, have an impact on the photosynthetic performance of the plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Kurppa K.J.,University of Turku
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Recent efforts to comprehensively characterize the mutational landscape of non-small cell lung cancer have identified frequent mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB4. However, the significance of mutated ERBB4 in non-small cell lung cancer remains elusive. Here, we have functionally characterized nine ERBB4 mutations previously identified in lung adenocarcinoma. Four out of the nine mutations, Y285C, D595V, D931Y and K935I, were found to be activating, increasing both basal and ligand-induced ErbB4 phosphorylation. According to structural analysis, the four activating mutations were located at critical positions at the dimerization interfaces of the ErbB4 extracellular (Y285C and D595V) and kinase (D931Y and K935I) domains. Consistently, the mutations enhanced ErbB4 dimerization and increased the trans activation in ErbB4 homodimers and ErbB4-ErbB2 heterodimers. The expression of the activating ERBB4 mutants promoted survival of NIH 3T3 cells in the absence of serum. Interestingly, serum starvation of NIH 3T3 cells expressing the ERBB4 mutants only moderately increased the phosphorylation of canonical ErbB signaling pathway effectors Erk1/2 and Akt as compared with wild-type ERBB4. In contrast, the mutations clearly enhanced the proteolytic release of signaling-competent ErbB4 intracellular domain. These results suggest the presence of activating driver mutations of ERBB4 in non-small cell lung cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 8 June 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.185. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Nikkanen L.,University of Turku
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Plants have adopted a number of mechanisms to restore redox homeostasis in the chloroplast under fluctuating light conditions in nature. Chloroplast thioredoxin systems are crucial components of this redox network, mediating environmental signals to chloroplast proteins. In the reduced state, thioredoxins control the structure and function of proteins by reducing disulfide bridges in the redox active site of a protein. Subsequently, an oxidized thioredoxin is reduced by a thioredoxin reductase, the two enzymes together forming a thioredoxin system. Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems, including two reductases dependent on ferredoxin and NADPH as reducing power, respectively, several types of thioredoxins, and the system to deliver thiol redox signals to the thylakoid membrane and lumen. Light controls the activity of chloroplast thioredoxin systems in two ways. First, light reactions activate the thioredoxin systems via donation of electrons to oxidized ferredoxin and NADP(+), and second, light induces production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts which deactivate the components of the thiol redox network. The diversity and partial redundancy of chloroplast thioredoxin systems enable chloroplast metabolism to rapidly respond to ever-changing environmental conditions and to raise plant fitness in natural growth conditions. Source


Ifuku K.,Kyoto University | Endo T.,Kyoto University | Shikanai T.,Kyoto University | Aro E.-M.,University of Turku
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2011

The chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) was first discovered based on its similarity to complex I in respiratory electron transport, and is involved in electron transport from photoproduced stromal reductants such as NADPH and ferredoxin to the intersystem plastoqunone pool. However, a recent study suggested that it is a ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reductase rather than an NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. Furthermore, recent advances in subunit analysis of NDH have revealed the presence of a novel hydrophilic subcomplex on the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane, as well as an unexpected lumenal subcomplex. This review discusses these new studies on the structure of NDH, and proposes a unified nomenclature for newly discovered NDH subunits. © 2011 The Author. Source


Lehto J.,University of Turku
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We study the applicability of the Zhu-Nakamura theory to a class of time-dependent quantum mechanical level-crossing models called superparabolic level-glancing models. The phenomenon of a level glancing, being on the borderline between a proper crossing of energy levels and an avoided crossing, is also an important special case between the two different approximative expressions in the Zhu-Nakamura theory. It is seen that the application of the theory to these models is not straightforward. We discuss some possible causes of these difficulties and also compare the approximative formulas of Zhu-Nakamura theory to those obtained by the generalization of the Dykhne-Davis-Pechukas theory. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Lonnberg T.,University of Turku
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2011

Large ribozymes are unique among catalytic RNA molecules in that their reactions involve intermolecular nucleophilic attack on an RNA phosphodiester linkage. Crystal structures of near-atomic resolution are now available for the group I and group II self-splicing introns and the RNA subunit of RNase P. The structural data agrees well with the earlier models proposed on the basis of biochemical studies and the evidence at hand suggests that all of the large ribozymes utilize a mechanism in which coordination of MgII ions reduces the negative charge on the scissile phosphodiester linkage, as well as assists both the nucleophilic attack and the departure of the leaving group. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Discourse studies indicate a tendency for verbs of cognition to co-occur with 1st person subjects. This article looks more closely into the patterning of verbs of cognition with different kinds of subjects in Finnish conversation. Based on a morphosyntactically coded database of conversational Finnish, I show that there are several recurring patterns with verbs of cognition which can be viewed as "emergent discourse patterns" (cf. Scheibman, 2002) or prefabs (Bybee, 2006). The analysis suggests that crystallization of recurrent patterns does in fact occur; this crystallization, however, shows features that are specific to individual verbs and types of subject (zero vs. pronominal vs. full NP). Also relevant are polarity and tense. It is shown that the components of these prefabs retain associations with other occurrences of the lexical elements of the components. Furthermore, the prefabs are associated with the more general constructions from which they arose. Thus, the patterns in question are based on regular grammatical processes such as agreement, but at the same time, exhibit certain features of crystallization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Rantanen M.,University of Turku
International journal of dental hygiene | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the current patient education practices of dental hygienists by exploring their views concerning their skills and knowledge related to patient education and by determining the implementation of patient education in their work, with regard to both method and content. METHODS: The target group consisted of 416 dental hygienists (n = 222, 53%) The research strategy used was a survey. The material was gathered using questionnaire. RESULTS: According to the dental hygienists, their skills and knowledge about patient education were good. However, the implementation of education was not in line with these assessments. The content of the education given focused mostly on the functional dimension. Little use was made of various educational methods, and the dental hygienists felt that they were not in good enough command of the methods. The patient's expectations and learning were not assessed systematically. The education provided and the assessment of the need for education often focused on the professional him/herself and the standpoint of the patient empowerment was disregarded. CONCLUSIONS: These results lay the foundation for additional research aimed at developing the patient education given by these professionals and making it support the empowerment of each patient. Source


This study investigates the factors that generate user satisfaction and the factors that generate user dissatisfaction during post-adoption usage of an information system. Drawing on the theoretical assumptions from Oliver's expectation-confirmation theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory and Kano's satisfaction model, we propose a generic theoretical framework that argues environmental factors and job-specific outcome factors may generate satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The framework extends our understanding of user satisfaction and dissatisfaction and helps to clarify and categorize the factors that are salient for generating user satisfaction and dissatisfaction. By collecting text data responses using open-ended survey questions following critical incident technique and analyzing them, we identify a list of factors that generate user satisfaction and a list of factors that generate dissatisfaction in a learning management system utilization context. The results of our research are that satisfaction is generated by both environmental and job-specific factors, while dissatisfaction is generated only by environmental factors. Overall, the results suggest that sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction mostly differ in a particular context. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Trotta A.,University of Turku
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

The evolutionary history of plants is tightly connected with the evolution of microbial pathogens and herbivores, which use photosynthetic end products as a source of life. In these interactions, plants, as the stationary party, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense, signal and respond to the presence of external stress agents. Chloroplasts are metabolically versatile organelles that carry out fundamental functions in determining appropriate immune reactions in plants. Besides photosynthesis, chloroplasts host key steps in the biosynthesis of amino acids, stress hormones and secondary metabolites, which have a great impact on resistance against pathogens and insect herbivores. Changes in chloroplast redox signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species metabolism also mediate local and systemic signals, which modulate plant resistance to light stress and disease. Moreover, interplay among chloroplastic signalling networks and plasma membrane receptor kinases is emerging as a key mechanism that modulates stress responses in plants. This review highlights the central role of chloroplasts in the signalling crosstalk that essentially determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions in plants. Source


Okhotin A.,University of Turku
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2014

The well-known parsing algorithm for context-free grammars due to Valiant (1975) [25] is analyzed and extended to handle the more general Boolean grammars, which are context-free grammars augmented with conjunction and negation operators in the rules. The algorithm reduces construction of a parsing table to computing multiple products of Boolean matrices of various sizes. Its time complexity on an input string of length n is O(BMM(n)logn), where BMM(n) is the number of operations needed to multiply two Boolean matrices of size n×n, which is O(nω) with ω<2.373 as per the current knowledge. A parse tree can be constructed in time MM(n)logO( 1)n (where MM(n) is the complexity of multiplying two integer matrices), by applying a known efficient procedure for determining witnesses for Boolean matrix multiplication. The algorithm has a succinct proof of correctness and is ready to be implemented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fujii H.,University of Turku | Zhu J.-K.,Purdue University
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Plants face various kinds of environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperature, which cause osmotic stress. An understanding of the plant signaling pathways that respond to osmotic stress is important for both basic biology and agriculture. In this review, we summarize recent investigations concerning the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 2 kinase family, which play central roles in osmotic stress responses. SnRK2s are activated by osmotic stress, and a mutant lacking SnRK2s is hypersensitive to osmotic stress. Many questions remain about the signaling pathway upstream and downstream of SnRK2s. Because some SnRK2s also functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, which has recently been well clarified, study of SnRK2s in ABA signaling can provide clues regarding their roles in osmotic stress gnaling. © Springer Basel AG 2012. Source


Hanke G.,University of Osnabruck | Mulo P.,University of Turku
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2013

Ferredoxin (Fd) is a small [2Fe-2S] cluster-containing protein found in all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Fd is the first soluble acceptor of electrons on the stromal side of the chloroplast electron transport chain, and as such is pivotal to determining the distribution of these electrons to different metabolic reactions. In chloroplasts, the principle sink for electrons is in the production of NADPH, which is mostly consumed during the assimilation of CO2. In addition to this primary function in photosynthesis, Fds are also involved in a number of other essential metabolic reactions, including biosynthesis of chlorophyll, phytochrome and fatty acids, several steps in the assimilation of sulphur and nitrogen, as well as redox signalling and maintenance of redox balance via the thioredoxin system and Halliwell-Asada cycle. This makes Fds crucial determinants of the electron transfer between the thylakoid membrane and a variety of soluble enzymes dependent on these electrons. In this article, we will first describe the current knowledge on the structure and function of the various Fd isoforms present in chloroplasts of higher plants and then discuss the processes involved in oxidation of Fd, introducing the corresponding enzymes and discussing what is known about their relative interaction with Fd. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Helenius I.,University of Turku
Journal of Children's Orthopaedics | Year: 2013

Anterior open scoliosis surgery using the dual rod system is a safe and rather effective procedure for the correction of scoliosis (50-60 %). Thoracic hypokyphosis and rib hump correction with open anterior rather than posterior instrumentation appear to be the better approaches, although the latter is somewhat controversial with current posterior vertebral column derotation devices. In patients with Risser grade 0, hyperkyphosis and adding-on may occur with anterior thoracic spine instrumentation. Anterior thoracoscopic instrumentation provides a similar correction (65 %) with good cosmetic outcomes, but it is associated with a rather high risk of instrumentation (pull-out, pseudoarthrosis) and pulmonary complications. Approximately 80 % of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) curves of >70° have restrictive lung disease or smaller than normal lung volumes. AIS patients undergoing anterior thoracotomy or anteroposterior surgery will demonstrate a significant decrease in percentage of predicted lung volumes during follow-up. The thoracoabdominal approach and thoracoscopic approach without thoracoplasty do not produce similar changes in detrimental lung volume. In patients with severe AIS (>90°), posterior-only surgery with TPS provides similar radiographic correction of the deformity (44 %) with better pulmonary function outcomes than anteroposterior surgery. Vascular spinal cord malfunction after segmental vessel ligation during anterior scoliosis surgery has been reported. Based on the current literature, the main indication for open anterior scoliosis instrumentation is Lenke 5C thoracolumbar or lumbar AIS curve with anterior instrumentation typically between T11 and L3. © 2012 EPOS. Source


Jarvelainen J.,University of Turku
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2013

Information technology (IT) incidents that make data inaccessible may cause businesses to lose customers, reputation and market position. Previous studies on information management have identified data availability as a key priority, and the literature on disaster recovery and business continuity describes ways of preparing for and avoiding IT incidents. However, no frameworks for information system continuity management (ISCM) have yet been validated. This research draws on a framework for business continuity management, and extends it to the context of information systems. The framework is validated in a survey of IT managers and chief information officers in large private and public organisations operating in Finland. The results suggest that the embeddedness of continuity practices in an organisation has perceived business impacts whereas, in contradiction of previous theory, there is no such direct relation in the case of organisational alertness and preparedness. The theoretical contribution is to validate the ISCM framework statistically. On the practical level, social factors such as committed managers and employees are influential in decreasing negative business impacts. Further research on the embeddedness of continuity practices is called for. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Shibasaki K.,Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory NAOJ | Alissandrakis C.E.,University of Ioannina | Pohjolainen S.,University of Turku
Solar Physics | Year: 2011

Solar radio emission provides valuable information on the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere above the temperature minimum. We review the background and most recent observational and theoretical results on the quiet Sun and active region studies, covering the entire radio range from millimeter to decameter wavelengths. We examine small- and large-scale structures, at short and long time scales, as well as synoptic aspects. Open questions and challenges for the future are also identified. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Rantala V.,University of Turku
NAD Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs | Year: 2013

AIMS - This study analyses how contemporary American films on "new", behavioural addictions (sex, gambling and shopping) visualise the inner experience of being addicted. DESIGN - A close-reading of cinematic techniques (such as cinematography, editing, sound and colour) at the beginning of six films explores how the spectator is invited into an affective engagement with the film, and how being addicted can be visualised through these techniques. RESULTS - Despite genre differences and various types of addiction problems, the analysed films all employ expressive techniques that resonate with each other. Being addicted is imagined through confessional monologues which provide access into the anomalous inner experience, through a sensualising of the objects of addiction as both enticing and repelling, and through an aesthetics of disconnections and distance. While similar modes recur, the cinematic image of being addicted can also be subversive. CONCLUSION - The affective modes of the films emphasise intimacy and exploration of the self, central to the modern strategies of managing addiction problems. However, the cinematic images also enable subversive affective registers of images of addiction as an inner experience. Source


Casey T.R.,Aalto University | Toyli J.,University of Turku
Technovation | Year: 2012

This article aims to analyze the strategic management of two-sided platforms from the view point of a mobile communications platform manager and elaborate on the dynamics that result in either platform success or failure. A framework is created to model the endogenous formation and diffusion process of a two-sided platform, describing the interplay of strategy levers that platform managers have at their disposal and factors affecting user willingness to create platform affiliation. The framework is applied to the diffusion of public wireless local area access services and configured with extensive data reflecting a large European city and platform deployment costs. The results show the effect of subsidization, revenue sharing, and alliance strategies and highlight the importance of understanding feedback structure and dynamic complexity around two-sided platforms. The results also point out how strategy opportunities vary for different types of platform managers, for example mobile operators extending their mobile infrastructure or large internet companies managing adjacent service platforms and striving for disruptive platform envelopment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pellonpaa J.-P.,University of Turku
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

The structure of completely positive quantum instruments is analyzed thoroughly. We characterize the extreme points of the convex set of instruments. The characterization holds also for nondiscrete instruments in infinite dimensions, and is applied to quantum observables, channels, and preparations which are special cases of instruments. We show that extreme instruments are discrete in finite dimensions. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Pellonpaa J.-P.,University of Turku
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

For any quantum observable (positive operator valued measure (POVM)), we show that its compatible quantum instruments can be identified with certain channels and can be seen as combinations of Lüders operations and channels. We prove that a POVM is rank-1 exactly when its compatible instruments are nuclear and their associate channels are entanglement-breaking. Any instrument can be maximally refined into a rank-1 instrument. We present a characterization for (minimal) pure realizations of instruments and characterize completely the minimal pure measurement models of POVMs. The standard model of quantum measurement theory is generalized for arbitrary observables. Finally, we study post measurement states. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Wagner M.,Abo Akademi University | Kvarnstrom C.,University of Turku | Ivaska A.,Abo Akademi University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were used in electrochemical polymerization and in doping studies (oxidation and reduction) of poly(para-phenylene) (PPP). Cyclic voltammetry was used simultaneously with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Electropolymerization and doping of PPP were done by potential scanning in acetonitrile (ACN + 0.1 M TBAPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) and butylmethylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([BMP][Tf2N]). The cyclic voltammograms recorded during polymerization of the PPP film indicate that the best film growth was achieved in [BMIM][PF6]. The films made in [BMP][Tf2N] were more stable than films made in ACN (0.1 M TBAPF6). Results from p-doping studies show that doping can be made at higher potentials in RTILs than in ACN (0.1 M TBAPF6). It was also found that n-doping can be performed in RTILs at higher negative potentials (-2.2 V) than in ACN (0.1 M TBAPF6) (-1.8 V). The best n-doping response was achieved in [BMP][Tf2N]. Also, n-doping in [BMIM][PF6] was better than in ACN (0.1 M TBAPF6). The in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to study p- and n-doping of PPP films. During both p- and n-doping the spectra indicated formation of infrared active vibration bands (IRAV) in the wavenumber region 1600-800 cm-1. The obtained IRAV bands correlate to the theoretical modes calculated by Zerbi and co-workers according to the effective conjugation coordinate theory (ECC). All these results indicate that RTILs are good solvents in spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of conducting polymers. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Keskinen E.,University of Turku
IATSS Research | Year: 2014

IATSS Research Vol. 38, no. 1 2014: "Designing Mobility for the Coming Age". Esko Keskinen, University of Turku, Finland. Education for older drivers in the future. Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE) model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers. © 2014 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences. Source


Lindahl G.,Linkoping University | Saarinen N.,Linkoping University | Saarinen N.,University of Turku | Abrahamsson A.,Linkoping University | Dabrosin C.,Linkoping University
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β promote tumor angiogenesis that might be counteracted by the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), anakinra, a clinically approved agent. A diet with high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as flaxseed (Flax), genistein (GEN), and the mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), may affect breast cancer progression in a similar fashion as the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Both cancer cells and tumor stroma may be targets for cancer therapy. By using microdialysis in a model of human breast cancers in nude mice, we could perform species-specific analyses of released proteins in the microenvironment. We show that tumors treated with tamoxifen and fed Flax or ENL exhibited decreased in vivo release of IL-1β derived from the murine stroma and decreased microvessel density whereas dietary GEN had no effects. Cancer cell-released IL-1Ra were approximately 5 times higher than stroma-derived IL-1Ra. Tamoxifen, Flax, and ENL increased IL-1Ra levels significantly whereas GEN did not. The tumor stroma contained macrophages, which expressed the estrogen receptor. In vitro, estradiol decreased IL-1Ra released from breast cancer cells and from cultured macrophages. IL-1Ra decreased endothelial cell proliferation significantly in vitro whereas breast cancer cell proliferation was unaffected in presence of estradiol. Finally, IL-1Ra therapy of tumor-bearing mice opposed estrogen-dependent breast cancer growth and decreased angiogenesis. We conclude that the release of IL-1s both by cancer cells and the stroma, where macrophages are a key component, may offer feasible targets for antiestrogen therapy and dietary interventions against breast cancer. ©2011 AACR. Source


Mattila P.K.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Mattila P.K.,University of Turku | Feest C.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Depoil D.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

A key role is emerging for the cytoskeleton in coordinating receptor signaling, although the underlying molecular requirements remain unclear. Here we show that cytoskeleton disruption triggered signaling requiring not only the B cell receptor (BCR), but also the coreceptor CD19 and tetraspanin CD81, thus providing a mechanism for signal amplification upon surface-bound antigen stimulation. By using superresolution microscopy, we demonstrated that endogenous IgM, IgD, and CD19 exhibited distinct nanoscale organization within the plasma membrane of primary B cells. Upon stimulation, we detect a local convergence of receptors, although their global organization was not dramatically altered. Thus, we postulate that cytoskeleton reorganization releases BCR nanoclusters, which can interact with CD19 held in place by the tetraspanin network. These results not only suggest that receptor compartmentalization regulates antigen-induced activation but also imply a potential role for CD19 in mediating ligand-independent " tonic" BCR signaling necessary for B cell survival. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Heinosaari T.,University of Turku
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

Two quantum effects are considered coexistent if they can be measured together. It is known that commutativity and comparability are sufficient but not necessary for the coexistence of two effects. We unify those two conditions to a simple but more widely applicable sufficient condition. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Okhotin A.,University of Turku
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2016

Linear conjunctive grammars define the same family of languages as one-way real-time cellular automata (A. Okhotin, "On the equivalence of linear conjunctive grammars to trellis automata", RAIRO ITA, 2004), and this family is known to be incomparable with the context-free languages (V. Terrier, "On real-time one-way cellular array", Theoret. Comput. Sci., 1995). This paper demonstrates the containment of the languages accepted by input-driven pushdown automata (a.k.a. visibly pushdown automata) in the family of linear conjunctive languages, which is established by a direct simulation of an input-driven automaton by a one-way real-time cellular automaton. On the other hand, it is shown that the language families defined by the unambiguous grammars, the LR(k) grammars and the LL(k) grammars are incomparable with the linear conjunctive languages. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Klika K.D.,University of Turku
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2010

The application of the QDEPT and QHSQC principles to long-range interactions for the direct detection of non-proton-bearing 15N is proffered as a general solution together with multiselective polarization transfer and triple INEPT for overcoming convoluted responses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Nikinmaa M.,University of Turku
An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology is an introductory reference for all aspects of toxicology pertaining to aquatic environments. As water sources diminish, the need to understand the effects that contaminants may have on aquatic organisms and ecosystems increases in importance. This book will provide you with a solid understanding of aquatic toxicology, its past, its cutting-edge present and its likely future. An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology will introduce you to the global issue of aquatic contamination, detailing the major sources of contamination, from where they originate, and their effects on aquatic organisms and their environment. State-of-the-art toxicological topics covered include nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, as well as water management and the toxicological effects of major environmental issues such as algal blooms, climate change and ocean acidification. This book is intended for anyone who wants to know more about the impact of toxicants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, or to keep up to date with recent and future developments in the field. • Provides with the latest perspectives on the impacts of toxicants on aquatic environments, such as nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, ocean acidification and eutrophication • Offers a complete overview, beginning with the origins of aquatic toxicology and concluding with potential future challenges • Includes guidance on testing methods and a glossary of aquatic toxicology terms. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Okhotin A.,University of Turku
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Linear conjunctive grammars define the same family of languages as one-way real-time cellular automata (Okhotin, "On the equivalence of linear conjunctive grammars to trellis automata", RAIRO ITA, 2004), and this family is known to be incomparable to the context-free languages (Terrier, "On real-time one-way cellular array", Theoret. Comput. Sci., 1995). This paper investigates subclasses of the context-free languages for possible containment in this class. It is shown that every visibly pushdown automaton (Alur, Madhusudan, "Visibly pushdown languages", STOC 2004) can be simulated by a one-way real-time cellular automaton, but already for LL(1) context-free languages and for one-counter DPDAs no simulation is possible. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Harkonen K.,University of Turku
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

The dynamics of a non-Markovian open quantum system described by a general time-local master equation is studied. The propagation of the density operator is constructed in terms of two processes: (i) deterministic evolution and (ii) evolution of a probability density functional in the projective Hilbert space. The analysis provides a derivation for the jump probabilities used in the recently developed non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) method (Piilo et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 180402). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Blennow K.,Gothenburg University | Zetterberg H.,Gothenburg University | Rinne J.O.,University of Turku | Salloway S.,Brown University | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2012

Background: Given the slow and variable clinical course of Alzheimer disease, very large and extended clinical trials are needed to identify a beneficial clinical effect of disease-modifying treatments. Therefore, biomarkers are essential to prove that an anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) drug candidate affects both Aβ metabolism and plaque load as well as downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers reflecting Aβ homeostasis, neuronal degeneration, and tau-related pathology in patients with Alzheimer disease. Design: Two phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 12-month duration. Setting: Academic centers in the United States (Study 201) and England and Finland (Study 202). Patients: Forty-six patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Interventions: Patients received either placebo (n = 19) or bapineuzumab (n = 27) in 3 or 4 ascending dose groups. Main Outcome Measures: Changes between end of study and baseline in the exploratory CSF biomarkers Aβ1-42, AβX-42, AβX-40; total tau (T-tau); and phosphorylated tau (P-tau). Results: Within the bapineuzumab group, a decrease at end of study compared with baseline was found both for CSF T-tau (-72.3 pg/mL) and P-tau (-9.9 pg/mL). When comparing the treatment and placebo groups, this difference was statistically significant for P-tau (P = .03), while a similar trend for a decrease was found for T-tau (P = .09). No clear-cut differences were observed for CSF Aβ. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that passive Aβ immunotherapy with bapineuzumab results in decreases in CSF T-tau and P-tau, which may indicate downstream effects on the degenerative process. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers may be useful to monitor the effects of novel disease-modifying anti-Aβ drugs in clinical trials. Trial Registrations : clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00112073, EudraCT Identifier: 2004-004120-12, and isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN17517446. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Palsa mires are sub-Arctic peatland complexes, vulnerable ecosystems with patches of permafrost. Permafrost thawing in palsa mires occurs throughout Fennoscandia, probably due to local climatic warming. In palsa mires, permafrost thaw alters hydrological conditions, vegetation structure and microhabitat composition with unknown consequences for invertebrate fauna. This study's objectives were to examine the role of microhabitat heterogeneity and the effects of permafrost dynamics and thaw on oribatid mite communities in palsa mires. Oribatid mites were sampled in two palsa mires in Finland and Norway. Three different types of microhabitats were examined: graminoiddominated wet sites, herb-dominated small hummocks and evergreen shrubdominated permafrost-underlain palsa hummocks. The results indicate that permafrost dynamics are an important factor structuring oribatid mite communities in palsa mires. The community composition of oribatid mites differed remarkably among microhabitats. Six species were significantly more abundant in permafrost-underlain microhabitats in relation to non-permafrost microhabitats. None of the species identified occurred exclusively in permafrost-underlain microhabitats. Findings suggest that permafrost thaw may not have an impact on species diversity but may alter community composition of oribatid mites in palsa mire ecosystems. © 2014 I. Markkula. Source


BACKGROUND:: Traditional growing rods have a reported wound and implant complication rate as high as 58%. It is unclear whether the use of magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) will affect this rate. This study was performed to characterize surgical complications following MCGR in early onset scoliosis. METHODS:: A multicenter retrospective review of MCGR cases was performed. Inclusion criteria were: (1) diagnosis of early onset scoliosis of any etiology; (2) 10 years and younger at time of index surgery; (3) preoperative major curve size >30 degrees; (4) preoperative thoracic spine height <22 cm. Complications were categorized as wound related and instrumentation related. Complications were also classified as early (<6 mo from index surgery) versus late (>6 mo). Distraction technique and interval of distraction was surgeon preference without standardization across sites. RESULTS:: Fifty-four MCGR patients met inclusion criteria. There were 30 primary and 24 conversion procedures. Mean age at initial surgery was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11 y), and mean duration of follow-up 19.4 months. Twenty-one (38.8%) of 54 patients had at least 1 complication. Fifteen (27.8%) had at least 1 revision surgery. Six (11.1%) had broken rods (2 to 4.5 and 4 to 5.5 mm rods); two 5.5 mm rods failed early (4 mo) and 4 late (mean=14.5 mo). Six (11.1%) patients experienced 1 episode of lack or loss of lengthening, of which 4 patients subsequently lengthened. Seven patients (13.0%) had either proximal or distal fixation-related complication at average of 8.4 months. Two patients (3.7%) had infections requiring incision and drainage; 1 early (2 wk) with wound drainage and 1 late (8 mo). The late case required removal of one of the dual rods. CONCLUSIONS:: This study shows that compared with traditional growing rods, MCGR has a lower infection rate (3.7% vs. 11.1%). MCGR does not appear to prevent common implant-related complications such as rod or foundation failure. The long-term implication remains to be determined. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Talo S.A.,University of Turku
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research | Year: 2016

The transformation of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps into International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) meant a lot for those needing to communicate in terms of functioning concept in their daily work. With ICF’s commonly understood language, the decades’ uncertainty on what concepts and terms describe functioning and disabilities seemed to be dispelled. Instead, operationalizing ICF to measure the level of functioning along with the new nomenclature has not been as unambiguous. Transforming linguistic terms into quantified functioning seems to need another type of theorizing. Irrespective of challenging tasks, numerous projects were formulated during the past decades to apply ICF for measurement purposes. This article updates one of them, the so-called biopsychosocial-ICF model, which uses all ICF categories but classifies them into more components than ICF for measurement purposes. The model suggests that both disabilities and functional resources should be described by collecting and organizing functional measurement data in a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial data matrice. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Cayuela L.,University of Granada | De la Cruz M.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Ruokolainen K.,University of Turku
Ecography | Year: 2011

Researchers in ecology commonly use multivariate analyses (e.g. redundancy analysis, canonical correspondence analysis, Mantel correlation, multivariate analysis of variance) to interpret patterns in biological data and relate these patterns to environmental predictors. There has been, however, little recognition of the errors associated with biological data and the influence that these may have on predictions derived from ecological hypotheses. We present a permutational method that assesses the effects of taxonomic uncertainty on the multivariate analyses typically used in the analysis of ecological data. The procedure is based on iterative randomizations that randomly re-assign non identified species in each site to any of the other species found in the remaining sites. After each re-assignment of species identities, the multivariate method at stake is run and a parameter of interest is calculated. Consequently, one can estimate a range of plausible values for the parameter of interest under different scenarios of re-assigned species identities. We demonstrate the use of our approach in the calculation of two parameters with an example involving tropical tree species from western Amazonia: 1) the Mantel correlation between compositional similarity and environmental distances between pairs of sites, and; 2) the variance explained by environmental predictors in redundancy analysis (RDA). We also investigated the effects of increasing taxonomic uncertainty (i.e. number of unidentified species), and the taxonomic resolution at which morphospecies are determined (genus-resolution, family-resolution, or fully undetermined species) on the uncertainty range of these parameters. To achieve this, we performed simulations on a tree dataset from southern Mexico by randomly selecting a portion of the species contained in the dataset and classifying them as unidentified at each level of decreasing taxonomic resolution. An analysis of covariance showed that both taxonomic uncertainty and resolution significantly influence the uncertainty range of the resulting parameters. Increasing taxonomic uncertainty expands our uncertainty of the parameters estimated both in the Mantel test and RDA. The effects of increasing taxonomic resolution, however, are not as evident. The method presented in this study improves the traditional approaches to study compositional change in ecological communities by accounting for some of the uncertainty inherent to biological data. We hope that this approach can be routinely used to estimate any parameter of interest obtained from compositional data tables when faced with taxonomic uncertainty. © 2011 The Authors. Source


Hanninen P.E.,University of Turku
Journal of the European Optical Society | Year: 2015

Optics has been in the headlines this year due to the UN-sponsored International Year of Light 2015 (IYL 2015), and due to its presence in the 2014 Nobel Prize awards. The purpose of this article is to highlight the innovation-enabling elements that were behind the work of one of the Nobel Laureates-and the stream of innovations that followed, beyond the Nobel work. I will further, from this and my personal experience, expand some thoughts on the enabling elements of academic innovation and draw some conclusions-and, in particular, try and answer the question “How can academic success be repeated?” © 2015 European Optical Society (EOS). All rights reserved. Source


Einstein A.J.,Columbia University | Knuuti J.,University of Turku
European Heart Journal | Year: 2012

The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. © 2011 The Author. Source


Lehtonen S.,University of Turku
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

In the past two decades, molecular systematic studies have revolutionized our understanding of the evolutionary history of ferns. The availability of large molecular data sets together with efficient computer algorithms, now enables us to reconstruct evolutionary histories with previously unseen completeness. Here, the most comprehensive fern phylogeny to date, representing over one-fifth of the extant global fern diversity, is inferred based on four plastid genes. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses provided a mostly congruent results and in general supported the prevailing view on the higher-level fern systematics. At a deep phylogenetic level, the position of horsetails depended on the optimality criteria chosen, with horsetails positioned as the sister group either of Marattiopsida-Polypodiopsida clade or of the Polypodiopsida. The analyses demonstrate the power of using a 'supermatrix' approach to resolve large-scale phylogenies and reveal questionable taxonomies. These results provide a valuable background for future research on fern systematics, ecology, biogeography and other evolutionary studies. © 2011 Samuli Lehtonen. Source


Kari O.,University of Helsinki | Saari K.M.,University of Turku
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2012

About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms, and 40% to 80% of them have eye symptoms. Atopic conjunctivitis is divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. The treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is simple: antihistamines, antiinflammatory agents, or cromoglycate. Perennial allergic conjunctivitis needs longer therapy with mast cell stabilizers and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis requires long-term treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis mainly affects children and young people. It commonly calms down after puberty. It demands intensive therapy, often for many years, to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a foreign body reaction in contact lens users or patients with sutures following ocular surgery. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis affects mostly middle-aged and older women with eosinophilic conjunctivitis and dry eye. Contact allergic blepharoconjunctivitis is often caused by cosmetics and eye medication. Work-related ocular allergies should be considered as a cause of resistant ocular symptoms in workplaces. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Heinosaari T.,University of Turku | Miyadera T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We show that any jointly measurable pair of quantum observables can be obtained in a sequential measurement scheme, even if the second observable will be decided after the first measurement. This means that it is possible to perform a measurement of any quantum observable in a way that does not disturb the subsequent measurements more than is dictated by joint measurability. Only measurements with a specific structure have this universality feature. As a supplementing result, we provide a characterization of all possible joint measurements obtained from a sequential measurement lacking universality. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source


Lehtonen S.,University of Turku
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

The behavior of nodal support and stability in the presence of long branches were examined under simulations and an analysis of real data. Relatively short branches were typically correctly resolved, received high bootstrap support, and were stable in sensitivity analyses. Longer branches received lower support and stability measures, and were often incorrectly resolved due to the long-branch attraction. Support and stability does not always correlate, and in the case of mammalian mitochondrial tree, well supported but unstable nodes were typically associated with long-branch attraction. Very long branches, on the other hand, may be incorrectly resolved with high support and stability indices. These patterns were observed both in simulations, and in the real data. The results indicate that sensitivity analysis may help to reveal phylogenetic uncertainty hidden behind artificially high support. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ferris H.,University of California at Davis | Tuomisto H.,University of Turku
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

The soil provides a great variety of microhabitats for myriad organisms of different size, physiological activity, behavior and ecosystem function. Besides abundance of participating soil organisms, their species diversity facilitates maximum exploitation of the resources available in the different habitats. At various levels of resolution, species can be categorized into classes performing ecosystem functions and, within each functional class, into guilds of species with similar life course characteristics. Measurement of the diversity and abundance of species within a functional class provides insights into the nature of ecosystem functions and services and to the health of the soil. At higher resolution, species diversity within guilds of a functional class may infer the degree of exploitation of available resources and the complementarity of an ecosystem service; diversity among the guilds of a functional class may indicate successional complementarity of the services. A diversity of guilds within a functional class expands the range of conditions over which ecosystem services are performed while species diversity within a functional class and its guilds contributes to the magnitude of the services. Consequently, diversity of species within functional classes is a key element of the biological component of soil health. In the context of ecosystem services and soil health, the biomass or metabolic activity of species are more useful measures of their abundance than numbers of individuals. Thus, understanding of soil health and ecosystem function requires, besides knowledge of species diversity within functional classes, assessment of the range of functions currently performed in the system and the abundances of organisms by which they are performed. We propose a diversity-weighted abundance product for comparison of the functional magnitude of different assemblages of like organisms. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tripathi S.K.,Abo Akademi University | Tripathi S.K.,University of Turku | Lahesmaa R.,Abo Akademi University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: Combined with TCR stimuli, extracellular cytokine signals initiate the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into specialized effector T-helper (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets. The lineage specification and commitment process occurs through the combinatorial action of multiple transcription factors (TFs) and epigenetic mechanisms that drive lineage-specific gene expression programs. In this article, we review recent studies on the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of distinct Th cell lineages. Moreover, we review current study linking immune disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms with distal regulatory elements and their potential role in the disease etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previously been investigated in detail by Road Accident Investigation Teams.Most of the accidents took place at passive level crossings. Compared to active level crossings, and related to the number of fatal accidents, passive level crossings have become proportionally more risky during the study period. Almost all the immediate risk factors in the accidents were of the human error type. Observation errors on the part of the road user were typical at passive level crossings, and risk taking at active level crossings. The environment did not support safe crossing in most of the accidents at passive level crossings. The speed limits of both the road and rail were high, visibility was insufficient, and the level crossing was often situated uphill.Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices - low cost or conventional - would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing. © 2015. Source


Pelto M.,University of Turku
Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2015

Let G = (V, E) be a simple undirected graph. We call any subset C ⊆ V an identifying code if the sets I(v) = {c ∈C|{v, c} ∈ E or v = c} are distinct and non-empty for all vertices v ∈ V. A graph is called twin-free if there is an identifying code in the graph. The identifying code with minimum size in a twin-free graph G is called the optimal identifying code and the size of such a code is denoted by γ(G). Let GS denote the induced subgraph of G where the vertex set S ⊂ V is deleted. We provide a tight upper bound for γ(GS) - γ(G) when both graphs are twin-free and |V| is large enough with respect to |S|. Moreover, we prove tight upper bound when G is a bipartite graph and |S| = 1. © 2015 Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DMTCS). Source


Honkala J.,University of Turku
RAIRO - Theoretical Informatics and Applications | Year: 2015

We study finitely generated monoids consisting of endomorphisms of a free monoid. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for such a monoid to be infinite and show that this condition is decidable. As a special case we discuss the morphism torsion problem. © 2015 EDP Sciences. Source


Suikkanen S.,Finnish Environment Institute | Kremp A.,Finnish Environment Institute | Hautala H.,University of Turku | Krock B.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Harmful Algae | Year: 2013

Dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium ostenfeldii complex (A. ostenfeldii, A. peruvianum) are capable of producing different types of neurotoxins: paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), spirolides and gymnodimines, depending on the strain and its geographic origin. While Atlantic and Mediterranean strains have been reported to produce spirolides, strains originating from the brackish Baltic Sea produce PSTs. Some North Sea, USA and New Zealand strains contain both toxins. Causes for such intraspecific variability in toxin production are unknown. We investigated whether salinity affects toxin production and growth rate of 5 A. ostenfeldii/. peruvianum strains with brackish water (Baltic Sea) or oceanic (NE Atlantic) origin. The strains were grown until stationary phase at 7 salinities (6-35), and their growth and toxin production was monitored. Presence of saxitoxin (STX) genes (sxtA1 and sxtA4 motifs) in each strain was also analyzed. Salinity significantly affected both growth rate and toxicity of the individual strains but did not change their major toxin profile. The two Baltic Sea strains exhibited growth at salinities 6-25 and consistently produced gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, GTX3 and STX. The two North Sea strains grew at salinities 20-35 and produced mainly 20-methyl spirolide G (20mG), whereas the strain originating from the northern coast of Ireland was able to grow at salinities 15-35, only producing 13-desmethyl spirolide C (13dmC). The effects of salinity on total cellular toxin concentration and distribution of toxin analogs were strain-specific. Both saxitoxin gene motifs were present in the Baltic Sea strains, whereas the 2 North Sea strains lacked sxtA4, and the Irish strain lacked both motifs. Thus sxtA4 only seems to be specific for PST producing strains. The results show that toxin profiles of A. ostenfeldii/peruvianum strains are predetermined and the production of either spirolides or PSTs cannot be induced by salinity changes. However, changes in salinity may lead to changed growth rates, total cellular toxin concentrations as well as relative distribution of the different PST and spirolide analogs, thus affecting the actual toxicity of A. ostenfeldii/. peruvianum populations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fischer D.,University of Tampere | Oja H.,University of Turku
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2015

We present the R package gMWT which is designed for the comparison of several treatments (or groups) for a large number of variables. The comparisons are made using certain probabilistic indices (PI). The PIs computed here tell how often pairs or triples of observations coming from different groups appear in a specific order of magnitude. Classical two and several sample rank test statistics such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, or Jonckheere-Terpstra test statistics are simple functions of these PI. Also new test statistics for directional alternatives are provided. The package gMWT can be used to calculate the variable-wise PI estimates, to illustrate their multivariate distribution and mutual dependence with joint scatterplot matrices, and to construct several classical and new rank tests based on the PIs. The aim of the paper is first to brie y explain the theory that is necessary to understand the behavior of the estimated PIs and the rank tests based on them. Second, the use of the package is described and illustrated with simulated and real data examples. It is stressed that the package provides a new exible toolbox to analyze large gene or microRNA expression data sets, collected on microarrays or by other high-throughput technologies. The testing procedures can be used in an eQTL analysis, for example, as implemented in the package GeneticTools. © 2015, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Rantala M.J.,University of Turku
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2011

Predation selects for numerous traits in many animal species, with sick or parasitized prey often being at high risk. When challenged by parasites and pathogens, prey with poor immune functions are thus likely to be at a selective disadvantage. We tested the hypothesis that predation by birds selects for increased immune function in a wild population of male damselflies Calopteryx splendens, while controlling for a trait known to be under selection by bird predation, dark wing-spots. We found that selection on both immune function and wing-spot size was significantly positive, and that selection on either trait was independent of selection on the other. We found no evidence of nonlinear quadratic or correlational selection. In contrast to previous studies, we found no phenotypic correlation between immune function and wing-spot size. There was also no difference in immune response between territorial and non-territorial males. Our study suggests that predation may be an important agent of selection on the immune systems of prey, and because the selection we detected was directional, has the potential to cause phenotypic change in populations. Source


Kari J.,University of Turku | Taati S.,University Utrecht | Taati S.,Leiden University
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2015

Reversible cellular automata are seen as microscopic physical models, and their states of macroscopic equilibrium are described using invariant probability measures. We establish a connection between the invariance of Gibbs measures and the conservation of additive quantities in surjective cellular automata. Namely, we show that the simplex of shift-invariant Gibbs measures associated to a Hamiltonian is invariant under a surjective cellular automaton if and only if the cellular automaton conserves the Hamiltonian. A special case is the (well-known) invariance of the uniform Bernoulli measure under surjective cellular automata, which corresponds to the conservation of the trivial Hamiltonian. As an application, we obtain results indicating the lack of (non-trivial) Gibbs or Markov invariant measures for “sufficiently chaotic” cellular automata. We discuss the relevance of the randomization property of algebraic cellular automata to the problem of approach to macroscopic equilibrium, and pose several open questions. As an aside, a shift-invariant pre-image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map between shifts of finite type turns out to be always a Gibbs measure. We provide a sufficient condition under which the image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map is not a Gibbs measure. We point out a potential application of pre-injective factor maps as a tool in the study of phase transitions in statistical mechanical models. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Heinosaari T.,University of Turku
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2016

One of the central features of quantum theory is that there are pairs of quantum observables that cannot be measured simultaneously. This incompatibility of quantum observables is a necessary ingredient in several quantum phenomena, such as measurement uncertainty relations, violation of Bell inequalities, and steering. Two quantum observables that admit a simultaneous measurement are, in this respect, classical. A finer classification of classicality can be made by formulating four symmetric relations on the set of observables that are stronger than compatibility; they are broadcastability, one-side broadcastability, mutual nondisturbance, and nondisturbance. It is proven that the five relations form a hierarchy and their differences in terms of the required devices needed in a simultaneous measurement are explained. All four relations that are stronger than compatibility are completely characterized in the case of qubit observables. © 2016 American Physical Society. Source


Sillanpaa M.,University of Turku | Schmidt D.,Epilepsy Research Group
Epilepsia | Year: 2010

Purpose: Our aim was to determine the long-term employment and predictive factors in adults with childhood-onset epilepsy living in the community. Methods: A population-based incidence cohort of 144 children prospectively followed since their first unprovoked seizure before the age of 16 years up to a mean age of 48. Results: At a mean age of 23 years (range 18-35 years) 85 (71%) of 119 patients living in the community were employed. Predictive of employment at a mean age of 23 were normal intelligence [odds ratio (OR) 14.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-46.8, p < 0.01], vocational education( OR 15.2, 95% CI 2.9-79.9, p < 0.01), and age at onset of epilepsy older than 6 years (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3-19.2, p = 0.02). At the mean age of 48 years (range 43-59 years), 45 (59%) of 76 patients living in the community were employed, as were 63 (78%) of 81 controls (patients vs. controls, p = 0.01). In 40 (53%) of 76 surviving patients employed between age 23 and 48, four factors were found to predict employment: normal intelligence (OR 15.8; 95% CI 2.4-102.4, p < 0.01), having offspring (OR 6.1; 1.5-25.0, p = 0.01), uninterrupted 5-year terminal remission(5YTR) from age 23 to age 48 (OR 4.8; 1.1-19.9, p = 0.03), and no history of status epilepticus (OR 12.8; 1.8-90.9, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Normal intelligence, onset of epilepsy at age older than 6, and good vocational education appear to predict employment in early adulthood. Normal intelligence, having offspring, uninterrupted remission, and no history of status epilepticus appear to predict lasting employment into middle age. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy. Source


Nikinmaa M.,University of Turku
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2013

The possibilities for interactions between toxicants and ocean acidification are reviewed from two angles. First, it is considered how toxicant responses may affect ocean acidification by influencing the carbon dioxide balance. Second, it is introduced, how the possible changes in environmental conditions (temperature, pH and oxygenation), expected to be associated with climate change and ocean acidification, may interact with the toxicant responses of organisms, especially fish. One significant weakness in available data is that toxicological research has seldom been connected with ecological and physiological/biochemical research evaluating the responses of organisms to temperature, pH or oxygenation changes occurring in the natural environment. As a result, although there are significant potential interactions between toxicants and natural environmental responses pertaining to climate change and ocean acidification, it is very poorly known if such interactions actually occur, and can be behind the observed disturbances in the function and distribution of organisms in our seas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Laine A.,Abo Akademi University | Westermarck J.,Abo Akademi University | Westermarck J.,University of Turku
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Induction of terminal proliferation arrest, senescence, is important for in vivo tumor-suppressive function of p53. Moreover, p53-mutant cells are highly resistant to senescence induction by either oncogenic signaling during cellular transformation or in response to different therapies. Senescence resistance in p53-mutant cells has been attributed mostly to inhibition of the checkpoint function of p53 in response to senescence-inducing stress signals. Here, we review very recent evidence that offers an alternative explanation for senescence resistance in p53-defective cancer cells: p21-mediated E2F1 expression.Wediscuss the potential relevance of these findings for senescence-inducing therapies and highlight cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and mechanisms downstream of retinoblastoma protein (RB) as prospective prosenescence therapeutic targets. In particular, we discuss recent findings indicating an important role for the E2F1-CIP2A feedback loop in causing senescence resistance in p53-compromised cancer cells. We further propose that targeting of the E2F1-CIP2A feedback loop could provide a prosenescence therapeutic approach that is effective in both p53-deficient and RB-deficient cancer cells, which together constitute the great majority of all cancer cells. Diagnostic evaluation of the described senescence resistance mechanisms in human tumors might also be informative for patient stratification for already existing therapies. ©2014 AACR. Source


Olkkola K.T.,University of Turku | Kontinen V.K.,University of Helsinki | Saari T.I.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kalso E.A.,University of Helsinki
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2013

Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic that is increasingly used for the treatment of acute, cancer, and chronic non-malignant pain. Oxycodone was synthesized in 1917 but its pharmacological properties were not thoroughly studied until recently. Oxycodone is a fairly selective μ-opioid receptor agonist, but there is a striking discrepancy between the relatively low binding potential and G protein activation by oxycodone and its analgesic efficacy. It has been claimed that this is because of active metabolites and enhanced passage to the central nervous system by active transport. We critically review studies on the basic pharmacology of oxycodone and on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans. In particular, the role of pharmacogenomics and population pharmacokinetics in understanding the properties of oxycodone is discussed in detail. We compare oxycodone with morphine, the standard opioid in clinical use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Brommer J.E.,University of Turku
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2014

Genetic correlations between behaviors underlying a behavioral syndrome may constrain the capacity of a population to respond to selection on these behaviors. Average autonomy quantifies the extent in which estimated genetic (co)variances constrain the rate of evolutionary change of behavioral traits forming a syndrome when these traits are under selections in all possible directions of multivariate trait-space. However, it is not clear whether a calculated average autonomy value of an observed syndrome constitutes a significant evolutionary constraint or not. I here outline an approach for testing evolutionary constraint in a syndrome, which is based on comparing the observed genetic (co)variance structure to the one where the genetic covariances are assumed to be zero and taking onboard the uncertainty in the (co)variances between behaviors into the calculations of average autonomy. The approach can be implemented in the context of parametric bootstrap or Bayesian statistics, and I provide a worked example of the latter. I further highlight that when genetic (co)variances are unattainable, the between-individual (co)variances act as an interesting proxy, which is within reach for many behavioral studies. I provide R code for all calculations. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Sainio J.,University of Turku
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We study the thermalization process in the self-interacting curvaton preheating scenario. We solve the evolution of the system with classical lattice simulations with a recently released symplectic PyCOOL program during the resonance and the early thermalization periods and compare the results to the inflaton preheating. After this, we calculate the generated non-Gaussianity with the ΔN formalism and the separate universe approximation by running a large number of simulations with slightly different initial values. The results indicate a high level of non-Gaussianity. We also use this paper to showcase the various postprocessing functions included with the PyCOOL program that is available from https://github.com/jtksai/PyCOOL. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Pellonpaa J.-P.,University of Turku
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

A complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) is a measurement of the maximally refined version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information on multiplicities of measurement outcomes and can be used as state preparation procedures. Moreover, any observable can be measured completely. In this Letter, we show that a complete measurement breaks entanglement completely between the system, ancilla and their environment. Finally, consequences for the quantum Zeno effect and complete position measurements are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Woodard J.,University of Turku | Hetherington C.J.,Texas Tech University
Precambrian Research | Year: 2014

New geochronological data from monazite and zircon in the Naantali carbonatite, southwest Finland is presented. Inclusion free, light pink, gemmy zircon grains were analysed with the ion microprobe. The zircon data indicate that carbonatite emplacement occurred at 1796 ± 9. Ma (2. σ). The calcite-prehnite-epidote-actinolite assemblage in the Naantali fenites indicates emplacement was in the upper crust at pressures of <2. kbar. This is the earliest age reported for upper-crustal magmatism related to tectonic extension in southwest Finland. Fluorapatite phenocrysts displaying irregular zoning patterns and inclusion-rich alteration zones were analysed by electron microprobe. Unaltered domains of the fluorapatite are enriched in Th-Si-LREEs and have positive Eu anomalies. Altered domains have lower concentrations of Th, Si and the LREEs and contain inclusions of monazite-(Ce), quartz, allanite-(Ce) ± bastnäsite-(Ce). The textures of the altered domains are characteristic of dissolution-reprecipitation reactions that indicate disequilibrium between early fluorapatite and late carbonatitic fluid. Electron probe microanalysis total U-Th-Pb ages for monazite inclusions in the fluorapatite are 1797 ± 34. Ma (2. σ). Correlation of the zircon age data with field relationships and textural observations indicates that fluorapatite alteration occurred via reaction with late magmatic fluid during dyke emplacement and crystallisation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Eskelinen A.,University of Oulu | Eskelinen A.,University of California at Davis | Harrison S.,University of California at Davis | Tuomi M.,University of Helsinki | Tuomi M.,University of Turku
Ecology | Year: 2012

The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America. Source


Kaaja R.,University of Turku
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2011

Until now, vascular complications in diabetic pregnancy are mainly related to hyperglycemia caused by type 1 diabetes (Type 1 DM). Progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) occurs at least temporarily during pregnancy and postpartum. There is a short-term increase in the level of retinopathy during pregnancy that persisted into the first year postpartum. Nephropathy is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia, nephrotic syndrome, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, and perinatal mortality [1]. Presence of retinopathy increases also risk of preeclampsia and also poor glycemic control. The pregnancy itself (first or subsequent) is not a long-term risk factor for developing microalbuminuria, any retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, or neuropathy. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (Type 2 DM) is rising leading to similar or even worse pregnancy outcome than in T1 DM. Micro- and macroangiopathic complications still rather rare in the mother will also become more prevalent with increasing age, obesity and more severe forms of Type 2 DM. Good glycemic control, normotension, lack of nephropathy as well as lack of pre-proliferative/proliferative changes of diabetic retinopathy and lack of signs of macroangiopathies are good prognostic factors as regards the progression of vascular complications during pregnancy. Women with diabetes should be evaluated before pregnancy for microangiopathies, treated and followed closely during pregnancy by obstetrician, internist/diabetologue, cardiologist and ophthalmologist and nephrologist. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Pakkanen S.H.,University of Helsinki | Kantele J.M.,University of Turku | Kantele A.,University of Helsinki
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: There are no vaccines against paratyphoid fever in clinical use. The disease has become more wide-spread and there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance among the strains. Previous reports suggest that the oral live Salmonella Typhi Ty21a-vaccine confers protection against paratyphoid B fever. Data on efficacy against paratyphoid A fever are somewhat contentious. The present study investigated the immunological basis for such efficacy reports at a single-cell level: plasmablasts (identified as antibody-secreting cells, ASC) were studied for secretion of antibodies cross-reactive with Salmonella Paratyphi in the circulation of patients with enteric fever and of volunteers vaccinated with Ty21a. Materials and methods: Thirty volunteers immunized with Ty21a and five patients with enteric fever were investigated for Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A/B/C-specific circulating plasmablasts. PBMC were sorted by their expression of homing receptors (HR) for the intestine (α4β7), peripheral lymph node (. l-selectin) and skin (CLA) and typhoid- and paratyphoid-specific plasmablasts were enumerated with ELISPOT. Results: Before vaccination, no cross-reactive ASC were found in the volunteers. In addition to the Salmonella Typhi-specific response, a significant cross-reactive immune response was mounted against Salmonella Paratyphi A and B both in the patients and the vaccinees. The magnitude of the response increased in the order Salmonella Paratyphi A (median 30 ASC/106 PBMC)→Salmonella Paratyphi B (median 81)→Salmonella Typhi (median 301) in the vaccinees. Both in patients and in vaccinees, the homing receptor (HR) selection favored homing to the gut, indicating a humoral intestinal immune response. Conclusions: These immunological data provide evidence consistent with previous reports describing certain levels of cross-protective efficacy of Ty21a against paratyphoid fever. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate cross-protective efficacy. In the current situation where paratyphoid fever is emerging and no vaccines are available, any level of cross-protective capacity is valuable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Berendonk T.U.,TU Dresden | Manaia C.M.,Catholic University of Portugal | Merlin C.,CNRS Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology for the Environment | Fatta-Kassinos D.,University of Cyprus | And 13 more authors.
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Peuravuori J.,University of Turku
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Photolysis experiments with diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solutions under different artificial irradiations were performed to characterise the influence of natural chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) and nitrate ions (NO3-) on the transformation rate of DCF. The irradiations were carried out by a low-energy UVA-vis (315-400-800 nm) and powerful UVB-uva (280-315-400 nm) lights simulating natural conditions. Alterations of molecular size distributions and optical properties of CDOM after different irradiation intervals were also detected. The kinetic measurements and principal structural determinations of the transformation products were performed by a GC-EI-MS (gas chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry) technique. The capacity of the CDOM for production of •OH radicals or/and different reactive transient oxidants was not enough powerful to initiate the indirect photolysis of the DCF even assisted by ions. As a consequence, the CDOM acts as a quencher reducing the photochemical transformation rate of DCF, and in the applied conditions the phototransformation of DCF takes place alone through direct photolysis even under the UVB-uva radiation. Likewise, the action of ions as photoinductors under the applied conditions was not so significant as usually expected. The kinetic half-life for the phototransformation of DCF was at the best less than one hour corresponding to an apparent quantum yield of 0.097. Structural compositions of detected transformation products were analogous with the conventional ones. The only exception was the formation of a quite UV-resistant carbazole-dione derivative. Irradiation of DCF in pure laboratory water generated practically generated this carbazole-dione derivative solely, thus confirming the photocyclisation as the main phototransformation pathway. However, in the presence of CDOM the main phototransformation pathways were photocyclisation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. It may be that CDOM does not necessarily stimulate pathways but rather decreases the importance of photocyclisation in front of dehydration and decarboxylation competitive pathways. The main photoproducts in the presence of CDOM were: a carbazole-dione derivative, carbazole-1-acetic acid, 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one, and 2-2-(chlorophenylamino)benzaldehyde. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Niinimaki T.,University of Oulu | Eskelinen A.,Coxa | Makela K.,University of Turku | Ohtonen P.,University of Oulu | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2014