Bobyr N.P.,NRC Kurcharov Institute |
Alimov V.K.,Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Garching) |
Alimov V.K.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Khripunov B.I.,NRC Kurcharov Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2015
Abstract Hydrogen isotopes exchange in tungsten was investigated after sequential exposures to low energy deuterium (D) and helium-seeded protium (He-seeded H) plasmas at sample temperatures of 403 and 533 K. Deuterium depth profiles were measured by the D(3He, p)4He nuclear reaction with 3He+ energies between 0.69 and 4.5 MeV allowing determination of the D concentration up to a depth of 8 μm. It was found that a significant part of the deuterium initially retained in tungsten after D plasma exposure was released during sequential exposure to a protium plasma. However, exposure of the D-plasma-exposed W samples to the He-seeded H plasma reduces the amount of released deuterium as compared to pure H plasma exposure. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Sugiyama K.,Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Garching) |
Roth J.,Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Garching) |
Alimov V.Kh.,Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Garching) |
Alimov V.Kh.,University of ToyamaToyama |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2015
Abstract Fe-W binary mixed layers were prepared as a model system for reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel for studying their dynamic erosion behavior resulting from energetic deuterium (D) irradiation. This investigation aims toward an assessment of RAFM steels as plasma-facing material. The surface composition of the model layers is modified by D irradiation. W is enriched at the surface with D irradiation fluence due to the preferential sputtering of Fe. It depends on the D impinging energy as well as the initial W fraction of the Fe-W layer. No significant development of surface topography was observed within the examined conditions. The erosion yield of a Fe-W layer is comparable to that of pure Fe in the low-fluence range and decreases with increasing D fluence. These results indicate that the dynamic change of erosion yield is significantly correlated with the surface W enrichment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Tanaka M.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University |
Hosotani A.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University |
Tachibana Y.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University |
Nakano M.,University of ToyamaToyama |
And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2015
Discoidal high-density lipoproteins generated by the apolipoprotein-mediated solubilization of membrane lipids in vivo can be reconstituted with phospholipids and apolipoproteins in vitro. Recently, it has been reported that such particles can be prepared using the hydrolyzed acid form of styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMAaf) instead of apolipoproteins, but characterization of its physicochemical properties has remained less elucidated. In the present study, with the aim of applying SMAaf-based lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery vehicles of drugs and/or imaging agents, we investigated the preparation conditions and evaluated the physicochemical properties of lipid-SMAaf complexes. SMAaf induced spontaneous turbidity clearance of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles accompanied by the formation of smaller particles not only at the phase transition temperature of DMPC but also above it. Such reductions in the turbidity were not observed with some other amphiphilic synthetic polymers tested under the same experimental conditions. Size exclusion chromatography analyses showed that homogeneously sized particles were prepared at lipid to SMAaf weight ratios of less than 1/1.5. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed that gel-filtered DMPC-SMAaf complexes were approximately 8-10 nm in diameter and discoidal in shape. The DMPC-SMAaf complexes were relatively stable even after lyophilization but were sensitive to pH changes. Fluorescence techniques demonstrated that the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature of DMPC in the discoidal complexes broadened significantly relative to that of liposomes, despite their common bilayer structure, which is a typical feature of discoidal lipid nanoparticles. These results provide fundamental insights into discoidal SMAaf-based lipid nanoparticles for the development of novel delivery vehicles. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
Jawaid P.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Rehman M.U.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Hassan M.A.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Hassan M.A.,University of Sharjah |
And 8 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2016
In this study, we report on the potential use of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs), a superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic antioxidant, in combination with 1 MHz ultrasound (US) at an intensity of 0.4 W/cm2, 10% duty factor, 100 Hz PRF, for 2 min. Apoptosis induction was assessed by DNA fragmentation assay, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Cell killing was confirmed by cell counting and microscopic examination. The mitochondrial and Ca2+-dependent pathways were investigated. Caspase-8 expression and autophagy-related proteins were detected by spectrophotometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation was detected by flow cytometry, while extracellular free radical formation was assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping spectrometry. The results showed that Pt-NPs exerted differential effects depending on their internalization. Pt-NPs functioned as potent free radical scavengers when added immediately before sonication while pre-treatment with Pt-NPs suppressed the induction of apoptosis as well as autophagy (AP), and resulted in enhanced cell killing. Dead cells displayed the features of pyknosis. The exact mode of cell death is still unclear. In conclusion, the results indicate that US-induced AP may contribute to cell survival post sonication. To our knowledge this is the first study to discuss autophagy as a pro-survival pathway in the context of US. The combination of Pt-NPs and US might be effective in cancer eradication. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Taylor C.N.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Shimada M.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Merrill B.J.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Akers D.W.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Hatano Y.,University of ToyamaToyama
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2015
Abstract The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900°C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Kim J.-H.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Yamamoto T.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Lee J.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Yashiro T.,University of ToyamaToyama |
And 3 more authors.
Biomedical Research (Japan) | Year: 2014
Neuro-immune interaction in the gut is substantially involved in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and the pathology of intestinal immune diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mucosal mast cells and nerve fibers containing CGRP, a neurotransmitter of intrinsic enteric sensory neurons, are markedly increased and exist in close proximity to each other in the colon of food allergy (FA) mice. In the present study, a CGRP-receptor antagonist BIBN4096BS significantly alleviated allergic symptoms in the murine FA model. In addition, the elevated numbers of mucosal mast cells in the proximal colon of FA mice were significantly decreased in that of BIBN4096BS-treated FA mice. Thus, we investigated the effects of CGRP on calcium-independent process in degranulation of mucosal mast cells since CGRP increases intracellular cAMP levels, but not Ca2+ concentration. CGRP did not alter a calcium ionophore A23187-increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in mucosal-type bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs), but did augment microtubule reorganization in resting and A23187-activated mBMMCs. Furthermore, CGRP alone failed to cause the degranulation of mBMMCs, but CGRP significantly enhanced the degranulation of mBMMCs induced by A23187. Together, these data indicate that CGRPenhanced microtubule reorganization augments IgE-independent/non-antigenic stimuli-induced mucosal mast cell degranulation, thereby contributing to the development of FA. © 2014 Biomedical Research Press.
Islam M.A.-A.-A.-A.,University of Rajshahi |
Sheikh M.C.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Mumit M.A.,University of Rajshahi |
Miyatake R.,University of ToyamaToyama |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2016
The reaction of S-benzyl dithiocarbazate (SBDTC) with 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde afforded a bidentate NS Schiff base 1 (benzyl-3-N-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylmethylenehydrazine carbodithioate), which on further reaction with M(II) (where M(II) = nickel(II), zinc(II), palladium(II) and copper(II)) in ethanol under reflux yielded bis-chelated inner complexes [ML2] 2–5 with deprotonated L. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by physicochemical techniques, viz., molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, IR, NMR, UV–Vis and mass spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structures of 1 and 5 were also determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure analysis showed that the ligand exists in its thione tautomeric form. In the complexes, each of the two deprotonated ligands chelated the metal ions through the β-nitrogen and the thione sulfur forming five-membered rings. The copper(II) complex (5) exhibited a square-planar geometry, where the two N2S2 chromophores are arranged trans. All the compounds showed strong antibacterial activity against S.-β-hemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoni, and Escherichia coli. The compounds also showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans with the exception of the palladium(II) complex (4) which showed no activity, while all the compounds showed no activity against Fusarium vasinfectum. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Characterization and quantification of monoterpenoids in different types of peony root and the related Paeonia species by liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Shi Y.-H.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Shi Y.-H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine |
Zhu S.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Ge Y.-W.,University of ToyamaToyama |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2016
Monoterpenoids with “cage-like” pinane skeleton are the unique and main bioactive constituents in peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora. A liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) method was developed for characterization and quantification of monoterpenoids in different types of peony root and the roots of related Paeonia species. MS/MS fragmentation patterns of monoterpenoids with paeoniflorin-, albiflorin- and sulfonated paeoniflorin-type of skeletons were elucidated, which provided basic clues enabling subsequent identification of 35 monoterpenoids in LC-MS profiles of Paeonia species. The profiling analysis and further quantification of 15 main monoterpenoids in 56 samples belonged to red peony root (RPR), white peony root (WPR), peony root in Japanese market (PR) and the roots of related Paeonia species revealed that paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, galloylpaeoniflorin, oxypaoniflorin and albiflorin were predominant constituents in all the samples; mudanpioside C was the characteristic component of P. lactiflora, and 4-O-methyl-paeoniflorin was only detected in P. veitchii and P. anomala. Total contents of the 15 monoterpenoids were obviously higher in the roots of P. lactiflora and P. veitchii than in those of P. anomala and P. japonica. Principal component analysis based on the quantitative results showed that the samples derived from P. lactiflora were clearly classified into RPR, WPR/PR, and sulfur-fumigated WPR groups, besides the respective group of P. veitchii and P. anomala. This study clarified the chemical characteristics of the respective type of peony root and the related Paeonia species, as well as the marker constituents for their discrimination. © 2016
Hamazaki K.,University of ToyamaToyama |
Harauma A.,Azabu UniversityKanagawa |
Tanabe S.,Azabu UniversityKanagawa |
Namai M.,Azabu UniversityKanagawa |
And 2 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2016
The results of several epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on antenatal and postnatal depression remain controversial. In a previous case-control study of early pregnancy in Japan, we found an inverse association between eicosapentaenoic acid and risk of psychological distress after adjusting for possible confounders. Here, in a 1:2 matched case-control study, we further investigated the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The psychological distress group (n=71) consisted of subjects with a score of ≥13 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The control group (n=142) was matched for age, educational level, and family income. Fatty acid composition of total lipid was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incidence of psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. Sixty-six percent of blood samples were collected in the second trimester and the remainder in the third. There were no significant differences in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, none of the n-3 PUFAs showed an association with risk of psychological distress. Peripheral n-3 PUFA levels might not influence the risk of psychological distress in later pregnancy. Further research is warranted to clarify this finding. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd