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Toyama, Japan

The University of Toyama is a Japanese national university in Toyama Prefecture established in 1949. Wikipedia.

Matsuda K.,University of Toyama
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I, and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint. © 2013 Matsuda. Source

Background: Determinants of warfarin use and anticoagulation levels in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients have not been clarified thoroughly. Methods and Results: A total of 6,324 patients with non-valvular AF and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, prior stroke (CHADS2) score ≥1 were used to investigate determinants of warfarin use, and 6,932 patients with AF receiving warfarin were used to investigate determinants of international normalized ratio (INR) of prothrombin time. Target INR levels for non-valvular AF patients were 1.6-2.6 for patients aged ≥70years and 2-3 for patients aged <70years. Those for patients with valvular AF were 2-3. Patients with non-valvular AF and CHADS2 score ≥1 receiving warfarin (n=5,614) more frequently had permanent AF, congestive heart failure, and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and had higher CHADS2 scores than those not receiving warfarin. Determinants of warfarin use were age (≥60years), AF type (persistent and permanent), and comorbidities (congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke or TIA). Use of antiplatelet drugs was a negative determinant of warfarin use. Only 53% of patients met the target INR levels. Determinants for the meeting of the target INR level (vs. lower INR level) were age (≥60years), permanent AF, hypertension, and prior stroke or TIA. Use of antiplatelet drugs was a negative determinant of the INR level. Conclusions: Currently in Japan, adherence to the guidelines regarding anticoagulation therapy is limited (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000001569). © All rights are reserved to the Japanese Circulation Society. Source

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the common cardiac arrhythmias and is responsible for increased mortality and various morbidities. The prevalence, mortality, morbidity, and treatment strategy for AF might differ between Western countries and Asian countries including Japan. AF prevalence in elderly subjects (≥80 years old) is relatively low in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan as compared with Western countries. In contrast, the prevalence in mainland China is intermediate between Japan and Western countries. CHADS2 score and its new version, CHA2DS2-VASc score, are useful to predict subsequent thromboembolic events in Japanese AF patients. Guidelines in Western countries recommend target anticoagulation levels for prevention of thromboembolic and major hemorrhagic events at prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) of 2-3. However, relatively lower PT-INR levels could be suitable for prevention of these events among patients with nonvalvular AF in Japan and China. New oral anticoagulants have been launched in Japan as an alternative to warfarin. The management strategy for AF patients needs to be modified based on the data obtained from Japanese patients. © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Source

Ueba H.,University of Toyama
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Lateral hopping of a single CO molecule on Pd(110) by Komeda is revisited using a recently proposed formula of reaction yield Y(V) as a function of bias voltage V. The calculated Y(V) using a Lorentzian vibrational density of states (DOS) for the C-O stretch mode meets with a better agreement with the experimental data than using a Gaussian DOS. It is also found that the broadening used in the fitting to the experimental result is very close to the intrinsic vibrational lifetime of the C-O stretch mode on Pd (110). Using the fitting parameters of the transition rate to excite the frustrated translation mode above the barrier, the anharmonic coupling of the C-O stretch mode to the frustrated translation mode is determined for the first time from the analysis of the experimental result. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Freshly isolated human amniotic mesenchymal (fHAM) cells contain somatic stem cells possessing proliferative ability and pluripotency, including a chondrogenic lineage. However, little is known about the biology of amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because fHAM cells can barely survive to expand under culture conditions in vitro for a long time. In this study, we separated fHAM cells and seeded them to isolate MSCs and analyze its character. In addition, suitable chondrogenic growth factor was determined by pellet culture, and their viability under xenogenic environment was examined by transplantation into rabbit knee joints. We succeeded in purifying proliferative subpopulations of fHAM cells, which could continue to proliferate more than 50 cumulative population doubling levels, and designated them as HAMα cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that they were positive for MSC markers (CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105) and negative for hematopoietic cell markers (CD34, CD14, and CD45) and major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (human leukocyte antigen-DR). The expression of various stem-cell markers such as OCT3/4, C-MYC, SOX2, NANOG, CD44, SSEA-3, and SSEA-4 was also proved by immunocytochemical staining. Pellet culture using chondrogenic medium supplemented with transforming growth factor β3, transforming growth factor β3 plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, or BMP-2 implied that supplementation of BMP-2 alone most effectively induced chondrogenesis in vitro. Xenotransplantation of HAMα cells achieved 8-week survival in vivo. These results suggest that HAMα cells correspond to MSCs that are highly proliferative and multipotent. Their chondrogenic potential and low immunogenicity indicate that HAMα cells could be an allotransplantable cell resource for cartilage repair. Source

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