STMicroelectronics and University of Tours | Date: 2016-11-17
A vertical power component includes a silicon substrate of a first conductivity type with a well of the second conductivity type on a lower surface of the substrate. The first well is bordered at a component periphery with an insulating porous silicon ring. An upper surface of the porous silicon ring is only in contact with the substrate of the first conductivity type. The insulating porous silicon ring penetrates into the substrate down to a depth greater than a thickness of the well. The porous silicon ring is produced by forming a doped well in a first surface of a doped substrate, placing that first surface of the substrate into an electrolytic bath, and circulating a current between an opposite second surface of the substrate and the electrolytic bath.
French Atomic Energy Commission and University of Tours | Date: 2015-06-16
The invention relates to an ionic liquid, comprising the association of a cation, chosen from the following cations of formulas (I) to (III): in which: R^(1 )to R^(4 )for formulas (I) and (II), and R^(1 )to R^(3 )for formula (III) represent, independently from one another, a hydrogen atom or an aliphatic or cyclic hydrocarbon group, under the condition that at least one of the groups R^(1 )to R^(4), for formulas (I) and (II) and at least one of the groups R^(1 )to R^(3 )for formula (III) represents an aliphatic hydrocarbon group comprising at least two carbon atoms and at least one of the groups R^(1 )to R^(4 )for formulas (I) and (II) and at least one of the groups R^(1 )to R^(3 )for formula (III) represents a hydrogen atom; and an anion chosen from the following anions of formulas (IV) and (V): in which: R^(5 )is a cyclic hydrocarbon group; n1 is an integer equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6; andn2 is an integer equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-11-2015 | Award Amount: 5.07M | Year: 2016
Non-invasively imaging small numbers of molecular probes, to help image particular targets or pathways in vivo, is currently undergoing a technological revolution. Recent breakthroughs in molecular hyperpolarization proved > 10,000-fold increase in sensitivity on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, thus providing insight into previously unseen metabolic processes with enormous potential for socioeconomic relevant diseases. E.g. pyruvate-based hyperpolarized imaging was clinically demonstrated to be effective for prostate cancer diagnostics in human patients. However, the current state-of-the-art hyperpolarization methods are expensive and cumbersome, limiting the access to hyperpolarization technology, and require long hyperpolarization times of 60-90 minutes per dosage; hyperpolarization probes exhibit short hyperpolarization duration (1-5 minutes), limiting the usage of hyperpolarization to metabolic imaging. A quantum technological breakthrough, Nitrogen-Vacancy defects (NV centres) in diamonds, is set to revolutionize the field of hyperpolarization for both hyperpolarizer and probes. The primary objective of HYPERDIAMOND is the development and commercialization of two new molecular imaging technologies for sensitive diagnosis and treatment monitoring, based on NV centres: The Diamond Hyperpolarizer will offer a cost- and time-effective solution for hyperpolarization that easily fits current MRI layouts, hyperpolarizes within 5 minutes, and improves clinical viability. The Nano-diamond (ND) Probe will introduce the first targeted MRI probe capable of achieving comparable molecular sensitivity to positron emission tomography (PET) with MRI systems, exhibiting extremely long hyperpolarization duration (~1 hour), and enabling non-metabolic hyperpolarized imaging. HYPERDIAMOND will bridge the gap between novel quantum and nanotechnology and their applications in hyperpolarized imaging, producing innovation not feasible with current technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-IA | Phase: ECSEL-18-2015 | Award Amount: 82.27M | Year: 2016
The goal of EnSO is to develop and consolidate a unique European ecosystem in the field of autonomous micro energy sources (AMES) supporting Electronic European industry to develop innovative products, in particular in IoT markets. In summary, EnSO multi-KET objectives are: Objective 1: demonstrate the competitiveness of EnSO energy solutions of the targeted Smart Society, Smart Health, and Smart Energy key applications Objective 2: disseminate EnSO energy solutions to foster the take-up of emerging markets. Objective 3: develop high reliability assembly technologies of shapeable micro batteries, energy harvester and power management building blocks Objective 4: Develop and demonstrate high density, low profile, shapeable, long life time, rechargeable micro battery product family. Objective 5: develop customizable smart recharge and energy harvesting enabling technologies for Autonomous Micro Energy Source AMES. Objective 6: demonstrate EnSO Pilot Line capability and investigate and assess the upscale of AMES manufacturing for competitive very high volume production. EnSO will bring to market innovative energy solutions inducing definitive differentiation to the electronic smart systems. Generic building block technologies will be customizable. EnSO manufacturing challenges will develop high throughput processes. The ENSo ecosystem will involve all the value chain from key materials and tools to many demonstrators in different fields of application. EnSO work scope addresses the market replication, demonstration and technological introduction activities of ECSEL Innovation Action work program. EnSO relates to several of the Strategic Thrusts of ECSEL MASP. EnSO innovations in terms of advanced materials, advanced equipment and multi-physics co-design of heterogeneous smart systems will contribute to the Semiconductor Process, Equipment and Materials thrust. The AMES will be a key enabling technology of Smart Energy key applications.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-11-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2017
Current orthopaedic treatments permit spontaneous bone regeneration to unite and heal 90% bone injuries. Non-union associates pain and disability, often requiring biological enhancement. Regenerative medicine research suggests to the general public that alternative treatments based on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are already available. However, early clinical trials only explore its potential benefit. Underreported results and absence of early trial confirmation in adequately powered prospective randomized clinical trials (RCT) indicate that evidence is not available to transfer any technique into routine clinical application. This ORTHOUNION Project was developed from FP7-Project (REBORNE). Its results confirmed 92% bone healing rate (Gmez-Barrena et al, 2016 submitted manuscript) with an autologous ATMP of GMP expanded bone marrow derived human MSC in non-unions, where the reported bone healing rate after surgery with standard bone autograft is 74%. Any further development requires adequately powered prospective RCTs. This will be the main aim of ORTHOUNION: to assess clinically relevant efficacy of an autologous ATMP with GMP multicentric production in a well-designed, randomized, controlled, three-arm clinical trial under GCP, versus bone autograft, gold-standard in fracture non-unions. A non-inferiority analysis will evaluate if cell dose can be lowered. ATMP has been authorized by the National Competent Authorities of the participating countries in 3 previous trials (REBORNE) and will be monitored by ECRIN-ERIC to ensure quality and credibility of RCT results. Secondary aims include innovative strategies to increase manufacturing capacity and lower costs to pave translation into routine clinical treatments, biomaterial refinement to facilitate surgery, personalized medicine supportive instruments for patient selection and monitoring, and health economic evaluation. Results in this project may help define the future of bone regenerative medicine
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-09-2016 | Award Amount: 6.20M | Year: 2017
Due to lack of targeted interventions, compliance issues, insufficient effect sizes and a high non-responder rate to currently available interventions, there is an urgent need to develop innovative and new interventions for chronic paediatric neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to be an innovative, effective and safe alternative treatment approach for neuropsychiatric disorders in adults. Here, for the first time, the effect of tDCS on core neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes will be proven in children and adolescents. First, effect sizes and safety of standard tDCS in the clinical setting targeting core brain regions and disorder specific cognitive tasks will be established by three phase-IIa randomized, double blind, sham-controlled studies in ADHD and ASD. Second, the impact of brain development and age-dependent anatomical / functional features on effects of tDCS will be studied systematically using methods of modern neurophysiology, neuroimaging and electric current modeling. This involves an additional phase-I clinical trial. Third, mechanisms of tDCS on brain function will be studied, and biomarkers will be developed in order to predict individual response to standard and individualized stimulation protocols. Finally, the applicability of tDCS in children and adolescents will be improved by developing an innovative personalized home-based treatment option in combination with a telemental health service, which will be tested by a fifth, phase-IIa clinical trial. Throughout the entire project, ethical concerns of the target population will be addressed. This project opens a new avenue for the application of tDCS as an alternative treatment for a great number of chronic neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents and will allow flexible integration of tDCS in the daily routine of families.
Volkov M.S.,University of Tours
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012
We study black holes in the recently proposed ghost-free theory with two gravitons, one of which is massive and another is massless. These black holes possess a regular event horizon which is common for both metrics and has the same values of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature with respect to each metric. The ratio of the event horizon radii measured by the two metrics is a free parameter that labels the solutions. We present a numerical evidence for their existence and find that they comprise several classes. Black holes within each class approach the same AdS-type asymptotic at infinity but differ from each other in the event horizon vicinity where the short-range massive modes reside. In addition, there are solutions showing a curvature singularity at a finite proper distance from the horizon. For some special solutions the graviton mass may become effectively imaginary, causing oscillations around the flat metric at infinity. The only asymptotically flat black hole we find-the Schwarzschild solution obtained by identifying the two metrics-seems to be exceptional, since changing even slightly its horizon boundary conditions completely changes the asymptotic behavior at infinity. We also construct globally regular solutions describing "lumps of pure gravity" which can be viewed as black hole remnants in the limit where the event horizon shrinks. Finally, adding a matter source we obtain globally regular and asymptotically flat solutions exhibiting the Vainstein mechanism of recovery of General Relativity in a finite region. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Volkov M.S.,University of Tours
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012
Within the recently proposed ghost-free bigravity theory, we present the most general cosmological solution for which the physical metric is homogeneous and isotropic, while the second metric is inhomogeneous. The solution includes a matter source and exists for generic values of the theory parameters. The physical metric describes a universe with an effective cosmological term mimicked by the graviton mass, which causes the late time acceleration. When perturbed, this universe should rest approximately homogeneous and isotropic in space regions small compared to the graviton Compton length. In the limit where the massless graviton decouples, the solution fulfills the equations of the ghost-free massive gravity. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Belzung C.,University of Tours
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014
Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Solodukhin S.N.,University of Tours
Living Reviews in Relativity | Year: 2011
The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as 't Hooft's brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.