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Coughlan M.R.,University of Georgia | Gragson T.L.,University of Georgia | Gragson T.L.,University Of Toulouse Jean Jaures
Human Ecology | Year: 2016

This paper examines local processes of agricultural abandonment, socioeconomic changes, and associated landscape transition in a Pyrenean mountain village. We analyze the effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to changes in parcel level land use and ownership from 1830 to 1958. We use an event-history analysis to examine how individual etxe (Basque households) influenced the pace and character of landscape transition through their internal composition and their mediation of market pressures. Contrary to conventional narratives of agricultural transitions, our analysis suggests that more rapid “abandonment” of the landscape was prevented by etxe that were able to both engage in markets and maintain higher fertility rates. We conclude that the capacity of agropastoral landscapes to absorb broad-scale change is directly tied to local institutions, such as the etxe, which ultimately mediate socioeconomic drivers of change. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Sauret M.-J.,University Of Toulouse Jean Jaures | Zapata C.,LCPI
Cliniques Mediterraneennes | Year: 2016

This article seek to show how science, politics and psychoanalysis, as discourses, are knotted together; it does so by describing the principal moments of a process that could account for the logic at work in today's world. It shows how the discourse of analysis emerges "in the real" precisely in response to those aspects of subjectivization that are rejected by the discourses of science and capitalism, while simultaneously making them available to these discourses. The author opens up the question of what future psychoanalysis may have, a future that, in our neoliberal context, will depend on its ability to dissociate the object, cause of desire, from the object of the market, or, in other terms, surplus jouissance from surplus value. This with the aim of restoring or maintaining the function of the cause of desire and returning to the subject responsibility for its position.


If jazz and psychoanalysis are undoubtedly the major cultural events of the aesthetic and epistemic twentieth century, it would appear that some more subtle homologies and rapports between them exist. A special relationship with the knowledge, the truth and the act which can be find in their practices of improvisation for one and, for the other, of interpretation. In addition, more than other disciplines or styles in their fields, they seem promote a "discourse", a form of "social bond" based on the language: assumption that this article seeks to demonstrate.


The defeat of Pierre Cohen at the 2014 Toulouse municipal elections was largely due to his project of a BRT (BHNS in French) that was to link Toulouse, Tournefeuille and Plaisance-du-Touch. This paper examines the various actors involved in the fight for, or against, this new urban transport scheme, and notably their strategies and their actions. In Lardenne, citizens' associations hostile to the project -on local grounds-took advantage of the soon-tocome elections to gain the attention of the main challenger of the mayor who, in his turn, was to skilfully use this Nimby conflict for his own political advantage.


Touze O.,University of Liège | Flas D.,University of Toulouse Jean Jaures | Pesesse D.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available documentation is unfortunately limited by the earliness of the excavations conducted at most sites. Stratified records in karstic context, primarily excavated in the 19th century, are particularly affected by this situation. The analysis of Gravettian lithic technological behaviours can, however, rely on two open air sites excavated in the late 20th century which provide more rigorous data: Maisières-Canal and Station de l'Hermitage. These two sites have been the focus of comparisons that highlight their similarities, both in terms of the lithic industry and location. In fact, the former stands out for the presence of tanged tools, a typological marker which is usually associated with the Early Gravettian of Western Europe. In this article, we present a new study that evidences the differences in the lithic technical systems represented at these sites. After a presentation of the most recent data, we consider the causes that may be responsible for such diversity, highlighting the possible role of the chronological factor, but also of the existence of an original technical tradition in north-western Europe during the appearance and development of the Gravettian. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Tourism is usually defined as an activity that allows individuals (tourists) to visit spaces outside their usual environment. In a globalized context, however, the meaning of close and far, of known and unknown, has been distorted. This phenomenon has been identified as an opportunity by a segment of the tourism sector, resulting in tourism proposals specifically aimed at the inhabitants of the visited destination. This paper focuses on Barcelona, an international tourist destination where residents have become potential tourists. By analysing the offering of guided cultural visits mainly for the local public and the geographical and perceived origin of these participants, this paper aims to enhance knowledge about the “unknown but close” attractions which are or can be developed through tourism. © 2015, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. All rights reserved.


Touzet L.,University Of Toulouse Jean Jaures | Corbeil P.,editions fpc
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2015

Aim. This article presents the pioneering work of Vital Roux, a French businessman and author who proposed, in the 1800s, a teaching method to train business people which closely resembles the experiential method central to today’s business games. Background. This presentation indirectly discusses the fundamental issue of business games’ success as an educational innovation. We recall briefly that the roots of business games are distant, multiple, and far-ranging. Method. The pedagogy advocated by Vital Roux is revealed and innovative aspects of his educational system are noted and discussed. Roux’s obscurity is underlined, and a plausible explanation for the relative failure of his project is proposed. A social and historical hypothesis is then suggested to explain the success which business games have won in the United States a century and a half later. Conclusion. Roux’s key thoughts are summarized, suggesting he can appear as a forgotten forerunner of modern business games. © 2015, © 2015 SAGE Publications.


PubMed | University Blaise Pascal and University Of Toulouse Jean Jaures
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Memory (Hove, England) | Year: 2016

The unconscious-thought effect occurs when distraction improves complex decision-making. In two experiments using the unconscious-thought paradigm, we investigated the effect of presentation format of decision information (i) on memory for decision-relevant information and (ii) on the quality of decisions made after distraction, conscious deliberation or immediately. We used the process-dissociation procedure to measure recollection and familiarity. The two studies showed that presenting information blocked per criterion led participants to recollect more decision-relevant details compared to a presentation by option. Moreover, a Bayesian meta-analysis of the two studies provided strong evidence that conscious deliberation resulted in better decisions when the information was presented blocked per criterion and substantial evidence that distraction improved decision quality when the information was presented blocked per option. Finally, Study 2 revealed that the recollection of decision-relevant details mediated the effect of presentation format on decision quality in the deliberation condition. This suggests that recollection contributes to conscious deliberation efficacy.


PubMed | University of Toulouse Jean Jaures
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuropsychologia | Year: 2016

The objective of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between manual asymmetries and hemispheric specialization by focusing on the development of hand preference and cerebral lateralization of language. We first sought to describe the development of manual asymmetries for different activities (i.e., grasping and manipulating objects vs. communicating through gestures), and the development of cerebral asymmetries, before examining available data on the association between hand preference and HS for language. We also analyzed behavioral studies on the relation between hand preference and language development, as well as more specific studies on the relation between the cerebral control of gestures and language. Finally, we aimed at providing a wider view on functional asymmetries by emphasizing the need to study hemispheric specialization for functions other than language, and in particular for visual attention.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University Paul Sabatier, University of Toulouse Jean Jaures, Toulouse University Hospital Center and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD | Year: 2016

There is a large body of research on discourse production in Alzheimers disease (AD). Some studies have focused on pause production, revealing that patients make extensive use of pauses during speech. This has been attributed to lexical retrieval difficulties, but pausing may also reflect other forms of cognitive impairment as it increases with cognitive load. The aim of the present study was to analyze autobiographical discourse impairment in AD from a broad perspective, looking at pausing behavior (frequency, duration, and location). Our first objective was to characterize discourse changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Our second objective was to determine the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of these changes. Fifteen patients with MCI due to AD and 15 matched cognitively normal controls underwent an ecological episodic memory task, a full neuropsychological assessment, and a 3D T1-weighted MRI scans. Autobiographical discourse collected from the ecological episodic memory task was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, focusing on pausing. Intergroup comparisons showed that although patients did not produce more pauses than controls overall, they did make more between-utterance pauses. The number of these specific pauses was positively correlated with patients episodic memory performance. Furthermore, neuroimaging analysis showed that, in the patient group, their use was negatively correlated with frontopolar area (BA 10) grey matter density. This region may therefore play an important role in the planning of autobiographical discourse production. These findings demonstrate that pauses in early AD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for improving mental time travel and memory retrieval.

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