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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: OCEAN.2011-4 | Award Amount: 11.32M | Year: 2012

Environmental policies focus on protecting habitats valuable for their biodiversity, as well as producing energy in cleaner ways. The establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks and installing Offshore Wind Farms (OWF) are important ways to achieve these goals. The protection and management of marine biodiversity has focused on placing MPAs in areas important for biodiversity. This has proved successful within the MPAs, but had little impact beyond their boundaries. In the highly populated Mediterranean and the Black Seas, bordered by many range states, the declaration of extensive MPAs is unlikely at present, so limiting the bearing of protection. The establishment of MPAs networks can cope with this obstacle but, to be effective, such networks must be based on solid scientific knowledge and properly managed (not merely paper parks). OWF, meanwhile, must be placed where the winds are suitable for producing power, but they should not have any significant impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, or on human activities. The project will have two main themes: 1 - identify prospective networks of existing or potential MPAs in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas, shifting from a local perspective (centred on single MPAs) to the regional level (network of MPAs) and finally the basin scale (network of networks). The identification of the physical and biological connections among MPAs will elucidate the patterns and processes of biodiversity distribution. Measures to improve protection schemes will be suggested, based on maintaining effective exchanges (biological and hydrological) between protected areas. The national coastal focus of existing MPAs will be widened to both off shore and deep sea habitats, incorporating them into the networks through examination of current legislation, to find legal solutions to set up transboundary MPAs. 2 - explore where OWF might be established, producing an enriched wind atlas both for the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. OWF locations will avoid too sensitive habitats but the possibility for them to act as stepping-stones through MPAs, without interfering much with human activities, will be evaluated. Socioeconomic studies employing ecosystem services valuation methods to develop sustainable approaches for both MPA and OWF development will also be carried out, to complement the ecological and technological parts of the project, so as to provide guidelines to design, manage and monitor networks of MPAs and OWF. Two pilot projects (one in the Mediterranean Sea and one in the Black Sea) will test in the field the assumptions of theoretical approaches, based on previous knowledge, to find emerging properties in what we already know, in the light of the needs of the project. The project covers many countries and involves researchers across a vast array of subjects, in order to achieve a much-needed holistic approach to environmental protection. It will help to integrate the Mediterranean and Black Seas scientific communities through intense collective activities, combined with strong communications with stakeholders and the public at large. Consequently, the project will create a permanent network of excellent researchers (with cross fertilization and further capacity building) that will also work together also in the future, making their expertise available to their countries and to the European Union.

Han M.,University of Toulon
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the semiclassical behavior of the Lorentzian Engle-Pereira- Rovelli-Livine spinfoam model by taking into account the sum over spins in the large spin regime. The large spin parameter λ and small Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ are treated as two independent parameters for the asymptotic expansion of the spinfoam state sum [such an idea was first pointed out in E. Magliaro and C. Perini, Europhys. Lett. 95, 30007 (2011); E. MagliaroC. PeriniInt. J. Mod. Phys. D 22, 1350001 (2013)]. Interestingly, there are two different spin regimes: 1-1 -2 and λ≥γ -2. The models in the two spin regimes have dramatically different numbers of effective degrees of freedom. In 1-1-2, the model produces, in the leading order, a functional integration of the Regge action, which gives the discrete Einstein equation for the leading contribution. There is no restriction on the Lorentzian deficit angle in this regime. In the other regime, λ≥γ-2, only a small deficit angle is allowed, |Θf|-1λ-1/2 mod 4πZ. When spins become even larger, only a zero deficit angle mod 4πZ is allowed asymptotically. In the transition of the two regimes, only the configurations with a small deficit angle can contribute, which means one needs a large triangulation in order to have oscillatory behavior of the spinfoam amplitude. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Han M.,University of Toulon
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2014

We study the semiclassical behavior of Lorentzian Engle-Pereira-Rovelli- Livine (EPRL) spinfoam model, by taking into account the sum over spins in the large spin regime. We also employ the method of stationary phase analysis with parameters and the so-called, almost analytic machinery, in order to find the asymptotic behavior of the contributions from all possible large spin configurations in the spinfoam model. The spins contributing the sum are written as Jf = λjf, where λ is a large parameter resulting in an asymptotic expansion via stationary phase approximation. The analysis shows that at least for the simplicial Lorentzian geometries (as spinfoam critical configurations), they contribute the leading order approximation of spinfoam amplitude only when their deficit angles satisfy mod . Our analysis results in a curvature expansion of the semiclassical low energy effective action from the spinfoam model, where the UV modifications of Einstein gravity appear as subleading high-curvature corrections. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Han M.,University of Toulon
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

A low-energy perturbation theory is developed from the nonperturbative framework of covariant loop quantum gravity (LQG) by employing the background-field method. The resulting perturbation theory is a two-parameter expansion in the semiclassical and low-energy regime. The two expansion parameters are the large spin and small curvature. The leading-order effective action coincides with the Regge action, which well approximates the Einstein-Hilbert action in the regime. The subleading corrections organized by the two expansion parameters give the modifications of the Regge action in the quantum and high-energy regime from LQG. The perturbation theory developed here shows for the first time that covariant LQG produces the high-curvature corrections to Einstein-Regge gravity. This result means that LQG is not a naive quantization of Einstein gravity; rather, it provides the UV modification. The result of the paper may be viewed as the first step toward understanding the UV completeness of LQG. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Feireisl E.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Novotny A.,University of Toulon
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2012

The Navier-Stokes-Fourier system describing the motion of a compressible, viscous and heat conducting fluid is known to possess global-in-time weak solutions for any initial data of finite energy. We show that a weak solution coincides with the strong solution, emanating from the same initial data, as long as the latter exists. In particular, strong solutions are unique within the class of weak solutions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Lelore T.,University of Toulon | Bouchara F.,University of Toulon
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2013

We present, in this paper, the FAIR algorithm: a fast algorithm for document image restoration. This algorithm has been submitted to different contests where it showed good performance in comparison to the state of the art. In addition, this method is scale invariant and fast enough to be used in real-time applications. The method is based on a double-threshold edge detection approach that makes it possible to detect small details while remaining robust against noise. The performance of the proposition is evaluated on several types of degraded document images where considerable background noise or variation in contrast and illumination exist. © 1979-2012 IEEE.

Lejars M.,University of Toulon | Margaillan A.,University of Toulon | Bressy C.,University of Toulon
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

An overview of the current technologies developed for use as antifouling (AF) coatings and the progress made in Fouling Release Coatings (FRC) from the end of the 1990s is presented. Olsen et al. proposed four requirements for enzyme-based AF systems. These include enzymes must retain activity when mixed with coating components, enzymes must not deteriorate coating performance, enzymes must have a broad-spectrum AF effect, and enzyme activity must have long-term stability in the dry coating and after submersion of a coated surface in the sea. Schultz et al. proposed a model to correlate the measurements of the adhesion strength of barnacles and FR performance on a ship. DeSimone and co-workers pursued their studies on photocurable PFPE with the synthesis of amphiphilic PFPE/PEG networks as FRCs.

University of Toulon | Date: 2015-06-17

A method of commanding and controlling a mobile apparatus (wheelchair) based on the assimilation of visual parameter and brain activity data includes validating a desired position of gaze (the iris) in the environment using the physiological brain characteristics of the potentials mentioned in P300 and SSVEP. These supply a control unit and are used to assess the users state of mental fatigue using an algorithm based on the theory of evidence. A unit detecting the users emotional state is also implemented using the alpha and beta waves from the parietal, central and frontal region of the cerebral cortex and the users heart rhythm. The assimilation between these two units makes it possible to define a mode of operation in real time: manual, semi-autonomous or autonomous, which corresponds to the users emotional or fatigue states as well as the characterization of the environment (safe path, detection of obstacles, locked situation).

University of Toulon | Date: 2013-12-20

An imprinted polymer that is not electrically conductive is obtained by polymerization of at least one monomer with at least one crosslinking agent in the presence of a target. The polymer has in its structure at least one cavity having the shape of a target and at least one redox probe assuming either a polymerizable form or a non-polymerizable form. Methods are for preparing an imprinted polymer, for detecting a target implementing such a polymer. The polymer is used as a sensor, and more particularly an imprinted sensor, an active interface to manufacture electrochemical (bio)sensors, or to manufacture solid-phase extraction substrates.

University of Toulon | Date: 2012-11-14

The present invention concerns a method for segmenting a source image containing an object on a background. The invention produces a possibly binary representation according to which each pixel is associated with an attribute indicating that the pixel describes the object or the background. The segmentation of the image is based on a sub-process to estimate the respective probabilities of describing the object rather than the background of pixels of interest alonei.e. those located in the proximity of transitions between pixel regions describing the object and those describing the background. A representation RV is associated with said image to indicate said probabilities.

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