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Naterer G.F.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Suppiah S.,Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd AECL Chalk River | Stolberg L.,Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd AECL Chalk River | Lewis M.,Cemeglas Inc. | And 21 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Advancement of the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for hydrogen production is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Individual unit operations and their linkage into an integrated cycle are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production with the next generation of nuclear reactors. This paper focuses on the consortium's latest advances on the Cu-Cl cycle, particularly with respect to hydrogen production with Canada's Generation IV reactor, called SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor). Other heat sources may also be utilized for the Cu-Cl cycle, such as solar energy or industrial waste heat. In this first of two companion papers, recent developments in Canada's nuclear hydrogen program are reported, specifically unit operation experiments of the Cu-Cl cycle and system integration. The following second companion paper will present system modeling with Aspen Plus, corrosion resistant materials, thermochemistry, safety, and reliability aspects of the Cu-Cl cycle. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

Naterer G.F.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Suppiah S.,Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd AECL Chalk River | Stolberg L.,Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd AECL Chalk River | Lewis M.,Cemeglas Inc. | And 21 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

This second of two companion papers presents the latest advances of an international team on the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle of hydrogen production. It specifically focuses on simulations, thermochemical data, advanced materials, safety, reliability and economics of the Cu-Cl cycle. Aspen Plus simulations of various system configurations are performed to improve the cycle efficiency. In addition, simulations based on exergo-economic and exergy-cost-energy-mass (EXCEM) methods for system design are presented. Modeling of the linkage between nuclear and hydrogen plants demonstrates how the Cu-Cl cycle would be integrated with an SCWR (Super Critical Water Reactor; Canada's Generation IV reactor). Chemical potentials, solubilities, formation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) complexes and properties of Cu2OCl2, Cu(I) and Cu(II) chloride species are reported. In addition, the development of new advanced materials with improved corrosion resistance is presented. In particular, the performance of new anode electrode structures and thermal spray coatings is presented. This companion set of two papers presents new advances in a range of key enabling technologies for the thermochemical copper-chlorine cycle. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

Background and Objectives: Reports suggest that repeat users of detoxification services are less likely to get rehabilitated. The goal of this study is to determine rates and predictors of detoxification unit visits among individuals who are chronically homeless with severe drinking problems compared to those who are housed and in the general homeless population. Methods: Visit records (n=1027) from all inner city Toronto detoxification units (n=5) by men (n=169) over a 6 year period were analyzed and linked to structured interview data for three populations: chronically homeless individuals with severe drinking problems (CHDP, n=50); members of the general homeless population (GH, n=61); and low-income housed individuals (LIH, n=58). Results: The CHDP group had 4.13 (3.86, 4.39) detoxification unit admissions per year, 18.1 (95% CI 12.5-23.7) and 33 (95% CI 21-46) times higher than the GH and LIH groups respectively. Admission rates were 43.8 % (95% CI 32.7-54.9%) higher in the winter than summer months for the CHDP group. The proportions of stays that involved police, leaving without discharge, and staying two days or less were 74%, 75%, and 89% among CHDP, GH, and LIH subjects. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: Rather than being a resource for achieving abstinence, frequent short visits, treatment non-compliance, higher winter visit rates suggest that detoxification units are more likely used by individuals as shelter; high rates of admission related police involvement suggest that they continue to be used as an alternative to judicial intervention into public inebriation. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

Malat J.,University of TorontoToronto | Turner N.E.,Center for Addiction and Mental HealthToronto
American Journal on Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and Objectives: To examine characteristics of treatment-seeking outpatients from a clinic for co-occurring disorders within an urban psychiatric hospital. Methods: Patients (n=131) completed six self-report scales including the Brief Symptom Inventory and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results: The most common substance use disorders were: alcohol (62%), tobacco (50%), cannabis (22%), cocaine/stimulants (18%). The most common psychiatric disorders were: mood (65%), psychotic (24%) and anxiety disorders (24%). Many of the scales correlated with the global psychiatric severity score. Patients with mood disorders had superior interpersonal functioning global scores and reported reduced drug use and reduced advice seeking. Patients with psychotic disorders had higher global psychiatric severity scores and reported higher advice seeking. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: This preliminary study indicates that among a heterogeneous sample of patients with co-occurring disorders the more symptomatic patients may present with a wider range of impairments along with some specific differences based on psychiatric diagnosis. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

Pilliar R.,University of TorontoToronto | Hu E.,University of TorontoToronto
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2016

This article addresses the effects of glycerol (GLY) concentrations on the mechanical properties of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute structures manufactured using binder jetting additive manufacturing. To achieve this goal, nine types of water-based binder solutions were prepared with 10, 12.5, and 15 wt % GLY liquid-binding agent, mixed, respectively, with 0, 0.75, and 1.5 wt % ethylene glycol diacetate (EGD) flow enhancer. The print quality of each of the solutions was established quantitatively using an image processing algorithm. The print quality analysis narrowed down the solutions to three batches containing 1.5 wt % EGD and variable amount of GLY. These solutions were used to manufacture porous CPP bone substitute samples, which were characterized physically to determine shrinkage, porosity, microstructure, and compression strength. The 12.5 wt % GLY, 1.5 wt % EGD solution resulted in the highest mechanical strength after sintering (34.6±5.8 MPa), illustrating similar mechanical properties when compared to previous studies (33.9±6.3 MPa) of additively manufactured CPP bone substitutes using a commercially available binder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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