The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. Wikipedia.
Tepass U.,University of Toronto
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012
Epithelial tissue formation and function requires the apical-basal polarization of individual epithelial cells. Apical polarity regulators (APRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of key factors that govern polarity and several other aspects of epithelial differentiation. APRs compose a diverse set of molecules including a transmembrane protein (Crumbs), a serine/threonine kinase (aPKC), a lipid phosphatase (PTEN), a small GTPase (Cdc42), FERM domain proteins (Moesin, Yurt), and several adaptor or scaffolding proteins (Bazooka/Par3, Par6, Stardust, Patj). These proteins form a dynamic cooperative network that is engaged in negative-feedback regulation with basolateral polarity factors to set up the epithelial apical-basal axis. APRs port the formation of the apical junctional complex and the segregation of the junctional domain from the apical membrane. It is becoming increasingly clear that APRs interact with the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking machinery, regulate morphogenesis, and modulate epithelial cell growth and survival. Not surprisingly, APRs have multiple fundamental links to human diseases such as cancer and blindness. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Warner E.,University of Toronto
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
A healthy, 42-year-old white woman wants to discuss breast-cancer screening. She has no breast symptoms, had menarche at the age of 14 years, gave birth to her first child at the age of 26 years, is moderately overweight, drinks two glasses of wine most evenings, and has no family history of breast or ovarian cancer. She has never undergone mammography. She notes that a friend who maintained the "healthiest lifestyle possible" is now being treated for metastatic breast cancer, and she wants to avoid the same fate. What would you advise? Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source
Stephan D.W.,University of Toronto
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015
ConspectusFrustrated Lewis pair (FLP) chemistry has emerged in the past decade as a strategy that enables main-group compounds to activate small molecules. This concept is based on the notion that combinations of Lewis acids and bases that are sterically prevented from forming classical Lewis acid-base adducts have Lewis acidity and basicity available for interaction with a third molecule. This concept has been applied to stoichiometric reactivity and then extended to catalysis. This Account describes three examples of such developments: hydrogenation, hydroamination, and CO2 reduction.The most dramatic finding from FLP chemistry was the discovery that FLPs can activate H2, thus countering the long-existing dogma that metals are required for such activation. This finding of stoichiometric reactivity was subsequently evolved to employ simple main-group species as catalysts in hydrogenations. While the initial studies focused on imines, subsequent studies uncovered FLP catalysts for a variety of organic substrates, including enamines, silyl enol ethers, olefins, and alkynes. Moreover, FLP reductions of aromatic anilines and N-heterocycles have been developed, while very recent extensions have uncovered the utility of FLP catalysts for ketone reductions.FLPs have also been shown to undergo stoichiometric reactivity with terminal alkynes. Typically, either deprotonation or FLP addition reaction products are observed, depending largely on the basicity of the Lewis base. While a variety of acid/base combinations have been exploited to afford a variety of zwitterionic products, this reactivity can also be extended to catalysis. When secondary aryl amines are employed, hydroamination of alkynes can be performed catalytically, providing a facile, metal-free route to enamines.In a similar fashion, initial studies of FLPs with CO2 demonstrated their ability to capture this greenhouse gas. Again, modification of the constituents of the FLP led to the discovery of reaction systems that demonstrated stoichiometric reduction of CO2 to either methanol or CO. Further modification led to the development of catalytic systems for the reduction of CO2 by hydrosilylation and hydroboration or deoxygenation.As each of these areas of FLP chemistry has advanced from the observation of unusual stoichiometric reactions to catalytic processes, it is clear that the concept of FLPs provides a new strategy for the design and application of main-group chemistry and the development of new metal-free catalytic processes. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source
Jamal S.A.,University of Toronto
Lancet | Year: 2013
Phosphate binders (calcium-based and calcium-free) are recommended to lower serum phosphate and prevent hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, but their effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes are unknown. We aimed to update our meta-analysis on the effect of calcium-based versus non-calcium-based phosphate binders on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. We did a systematic review of articles published in any language after Aug 1, 2008, up until Oct 22, 2012, by searching Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. We included all randomised and non-randomised trials that compared outcomes between patients with chronic kidney disease taking calcium-based phosphate binders with those taking non-calcium-based binders. Eligible studies, determined by consensus with predefined criteria, were reviewed, and data were extracted onto a standard form. We combined data from randomised trials to assess the primary outcome of all-cause mortality using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. Our search identified 847 reports, of which eight new studies (five randomised trials) met our inclusion criteria and were added to the ten (nine randomised trials) included in our previous meta-analysis. Analysis of the 11 randomised trials (4622 patients) that reported an outcome of mortality showed that patients assigned to non-calcium-based binders had a 22% reduction in all-cause mortality compared with those assigned to calcium-based phosphate binders (risk ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·61-0·98). Non-calcium-based phosphate binders are associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality compared with calcium-based phosphate binders in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are needed to identify causes of mortality and to assess whether mortality differs by type of non-calcium-based phosphate binder. None. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
University of Toronto | Date: 2015-11-30
Contemplated methods and devices comprise performing electrochemical sample analysis in a multiplexed electrochemical detector having reduced electrical cross-talk. The electrochemical detector includes electrodes that share a common lead from a plurality of leads. The sample, which may be a liquid sample, is introduced into one or more sample wells and a signal is applied to at least one of the electrodes. A response signal is measured while simultaneously applying a substantially fixed potential to each of a remainder of the plurality of leads.