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Konishi S.,The University of TokyoTokyo | Konishi S.,University of Washington | O'Connor K.A.,University of Washington
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Objectives: Elevated and suppressed concentrations of cortisol have been linked with less favorable metabolic biomarkers, such as elevated lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Based on recent work reporting that some individuals secrete more cortisol into saliva (high saliva-to-blood cortisol ratio; high secretors) than others after correcting for blood cortisol concentrations, our objectives were to examine (1) whether lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin varied across cortisol and salivary secretor status; and (2) if blood and saliva provide the same results with respect to metabolic markers. Methods: Matched saliva and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens collected once a week for four weeks (N = 48 healthy women, 192 specimens) were assayed for cortisol. Fasting blood specimens collected once from each woman were quantified for cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL), triglycerides and HbA1c. Results: Low salivary cortisol secretors showed significantly higher triglyceride and HbA1c compared to high-secretors (P<0.05; t-test). The only significant correlation with mean blood or salivary cortisol concentration was a negative correlation between salivary cortisol and HbA1c (P = 0.021, r = −0.333). Conclusions: Triglycerides, HDL, and especially HbA1c were associated with salivary cortisol secretor status but not with DBS cortisol concentrations. These results suggest that blood and saliva cortisol measures might provide different health outcome information, and that salivary cortisol secretor status may provide additional information on health status. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:539–544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bae D.-H.,Sejong University | Koike T.,The University of TokyoTokyo | Awan J.A.,Sejong University | Lee M.-H.,Sejong University | Sohn K.-H.,Sejong University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

This study investigated the future climate change impacts on water resources and delineated the highly susceptible zones in the Asian monsoon region. Three General Circulation Models (GCMs) were employed for future climate change projections. The change factor method with bilinear interpolation was used to project climate change at 0.5° horizontal gird resolution. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrological model was employed to project runoff using future climate change scenarios. Average temperature, precipitation and runoff were projected to increase by all future periods i.e., 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. In particular by 2080s, they were projected to increase by 3.7 °C, 10.7 and 11.1%, respectively. Latitudinal and longitudinal analysis was performed to investigate the features of future climate change at different latitudes and longitudes. The climate change projections revealed susceptible regions in East Asia over southern China, and in South Asia over the Tibetan plateau, India and Pakistan. Southern China was projected to be adversely affected by climate change with precipitation and runoff increase during summer and autumn seasons, and decrease during winter and spring seasons. Similarly, distinct climate change features were projected over the Tibetan plateau and north Pakistan with significant increase of average annual temperature and decrease of average annual precipitation and runoff. This change is alarming for the world's longest glaciers outside the Polar Regions. On the other hand, the precipitation and runoff were projected to significantly increase over southwest India and south Pakistan. That may have positive impact over extremely water-scarce regions i.e., the Thar © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015.

Iwata Y.,The University of TokyoTokyo | Yoshida Y.,Preferred Infrastructure
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

In this paper, we introduce a methodology, called decompositionbased reductions, for showing the equivalence among various problems of bounded-width. First, we show that the following are equivalent for any α > 0: – SAT can be solved in O∗ (2αtw) time, – 3-SAT can be solved in O∗ (2αtw) time, – Max 2-SAT can be solved in O∗(2αtw) time, – Independent Set can be solved in O∗(2αtw) time, and – Independent Set can be solved in O∗ (2αcw) time, where tw and cw are the tree-width and clique-width of the instance, respectively. Then, we introduce a new parameterized complexity class EPNL, which includes Set Cover and TSP, and show that SAT, 3-SAT, Max 2-SAT, and Independent Set parameterized by path-width are EPNLcomplete. This implies that if one of these EPNL-complete problems can be solved in O∗ (ck) time, then any problem in EPNL can be solved in O∗(ck) time. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Takatori S.,The University of TokyoTokyo | Fujimoto T.,Nagoya University
Communicative and Integrative Biology | Year: 2016

We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3, 5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns (3, 5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3, 5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3, 5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3, 5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3, 5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nanoscale distribution of PtdIns(3, 5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes. © 2016 Sho Takatori and Toyoshi Fujimoto.

Yamamoto M.,Sapporo Medical University | Yajima H.,Sapporo Medical University | Takahashi H.,Sapporo Medical University | Yokoyama Y.,Sapporo Medical University | And 17 more authors.
Modern Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease entity that has only been identified this century. Clinical information is thus lacking. We established the Sapporo Medical University and Related Institutes Database for Investigation and Best Treatments of IgG4- related Disease (SMART) to clarify the clinical features of IgG4-RD and provide useful information for clinicians. Methods. Participants comprised 122 patients with IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and/or sialadenitis (IgG4-DS), representing lacrimal and/or salivary lesions of IgG4-RD, followed-up in December 2013. We analyzed the sex ratio, mean age at onset, organ dysfunction, history or complications of malignancy, treatments, rate of clinical remission, and relapse. Results. The sex ratio was roughly equal. Mean age at diagnosis was 59.0 years. Positron emission tomography revealed that the ratio of other organ involvements was 61.4%. Complications of malignancy were observed in 7.4% of cases. Glucocorticoid was used to treat 92.1% of cases, and the mean maintenance dose of prednisolone was 4.8 mg/day. Rituximab was added in three cases, and showed good steroid-sparing effect. The clinical remission rate was 73.8%, and the annual relapse rate was 11.5%. Half of the cases experienced relapses within 7 years of initial treatment. Conclusion. We analyzed the clinical features and treatments of IgG4-DS using SMART, providing useful information for everyday clinical practice. © 2014 Japan College of Rheumatology.

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