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Kondo M.,University of Tokyo Hospital | Kondo M.,Medinetco. ltd | Izumi T.,University of Tokyo Hospital | Izumi T.,Medinetco. ltd | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2011

Human γδ T cells can recognize and respond to a wide variety of stress-induced antigens, thereby developing innate broad anti-tumor and anti-infective activity. The majority of γδ T cells in peripheral blood have the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor. These cells recognize antigen in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner and develop strong cytolytic and Th1-like effector functions.1Therefore, γδ T cells are attractive candidate effector cells for cancer immunotherapy. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens such as (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is synthesized in bacteria via isoprenoid biosynthesis; and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is produced in eukaryotic cells through the mevalonate pathway. In physiological condition, the generation of IPP in nontransformed cell is not sufficient for the activation of γδ T cells. Dysregulation of mevalonate pathway in tumor cells leads to accumulation of IPP and γδ T cells activation. Because aminobisphosphonates (such as pamidronate or zoledronate) inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), the enzyme acting downstream of IPP in the mevalonate pathway, intracellular levels of IPP and sensitibity to γδ T cells recognition can be therapeutically increased by aminobisphosphonates. IPP accumulation is less efficient in nontransfomred cells than tumor cells with a pharmacologically relevant concentration of aminobisphosphonates, that allow us immunotherapy for cancer by activating γδ T cells with aminobisphosphonates. Interestingly, IPP accumulates in monocytes when PBMC are treated with aminobisphosphonates, because of efficient drug uptake by these cells. Monocytes that accumulate IPP become antigen-presenting cells and stimulate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in the peripheral blood. Based on these mechanisms, we developed a technique for large-scale expansion of γδ T cell cultures using zoledronate and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Other methods for expansion of γδ T cells utilize the synthetic phosphoantigens bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP) or 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1PP). All of these methods allow ex vivo expansion, resulting in large numbers of γδ T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy. However, only zoledronate is an FDA-approved commercially available reagent. Zoledronate-expanded γδ T cells display CD27-CD45RA- effector memory phenotype and thier function can be evaluated by IFN-γ production assay. © 2011 Journal of Visualized Experiments. Source

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