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Tlaxcala, Mexico

The Autonomous University of Tlaxcala is a Mexican public university based in the state of Tlaxcala. Wikipedia.

Jimenez-Cortes J.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Serrano-Meneses M.A.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala | Cordoba-Aguilar A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Insect Physiology

Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition - phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) " rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) " poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lomanowska A.M.,Laval University | Melo A.I.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Hormones and Behavior

This article is part of a Special Issue on "Parental Care". Maternal behavior has an important function in stimulating adequate growth and development of the young. Several approaches have been used in primates and rodents to deconstruct and examine the influence of specific components of maternal stimulation on offspring development. These approaches include observational studies of typical mother-infant interactions and studies of the effects of intermittent or complete deprivation of maternal contact. In this review, we focus on one unique approach using rats that enables the complete control of maternal variables by means of rearing rat pups artificially without contact with the mother or litter, while maintaining stable nutrition, temperature and exposure to stressful stimuli. This artificial rearing model permits the removal and controlled replacement of relevant maternal and litter stimuli and has contributed valuable insights regarding the influence of these stimuli on various developmental outcomes. It also enables the analysis of factors implicated in social isolation itself and their long-term influence. We provide an overview of the effects of artificial rearing on behavior, physiology, and neurobiology, including the influence of replacing maternal tactile stimulation and littermate contact on these outcomes. We then discuss the relevance of these effects in terms of the maternal role in regulating different aspects of offspring development and implications for human research. We emphasize that artificial rearing of rats does not lead to a global insult of nervous system development, making this paradigm useful in investigating specific developmental effects associated with maternal stimulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Beamonte-Barrientos R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Beamonte-Barrientos R.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala | Velando A.,University of Vigo | Torres R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

Understanding the mechanisms mediating age-dependent reproductive effort in wild animals is a major challenge in evolutionary ecology. The acquisition of molecules able to deter somatic damage could potentially improve reproductive performance, especially in physiologically compromised individuals. Carotenoids are antioxidants and immunoenhancers that animals can only obtain through diet. We tested in male blue-footed boobies whether carotenoid supplementation during incubation improves condition and reproductive performance, particularly of older males. Old birds showed lower levels of peroxidative damage than middle-aged males; however, changes of males' antioxidant capacity and peroxidative damage were not affected by carotenoid supplementation irrespective of age. Experimental old males displayed more colourful feet than control old males after 13 days of first carotenoid supplementation. The effect of carotenoids on male reproductive performance was dependent upon age: young males receiving extra-carotenoids produced chicks with smaller growth rates than control young males, whereas old males receiving extra-carotenoids produced chicks with higher growth rates than control old males. Our results highlight that carotenoids influence the relationship between age and reproductive performance and suggest a positive effect of carotenoids on reproduction of old males. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Sanchez Lopez C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Revista Mexicana de Fisica

In this paper, a high-frequency Chua's chaotic oscillator based on unity gain cells (UGCs) is introduced. Leveraging the internal buffers of the integrated circuit AD844, a voltage mirror (VM) and a positive current follower (CF+) are designed, taking into account the parasitic elements associated to each UGC. Afterwards, the behavior of the nonlinear resistor and of the grounded inductor are designed by using several VMs, CF+s, discrete capacitors and resistors. In this way, Chua's circuit is built by coupling a nonlinear resistor and an active LC tank circuit by using an RC passive filter. Hspice simulations performed at the state space and in the time and frequency domains show that the proposed topology generates chaos at 1.7 MHz. Experimental results are given, verifying that the chaotic spectrum is extended to high-frequency and showing close agreement with theoretical analysis. The proposed topology is compared with other topologies reported in the literature, showing that a number reduced of active devices and passive elements along with smaller supply voltages can be used to generate chaotic oscillations at high-frequency. Sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis are also done in order to research the robustness of the proposed chaotic circuit. Source

Ortega-Torres E.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala | Sanchez-Lopez C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala | Mendoza-Lopez J.,University of Seville
Revista Mexicana de Fisica

In multiscroll chaotic circuit design based on active devices, piece-wise linear (PWL) approaches are often used to model the behavior of nonlinear functions, thereby that the behavior of a chaotic system can be forecasted through numerical simulations. However, although PWL models are relatively easy to build, they do not include any information related on the performance parameters of the active devices to be used. This a serious shortcoming, since PWL-models introduces a level of inaccuracy into a numerical analysis which is more evident when numerical simulations and experimental results are compared. These differences are more pronounced when the chaotic waveforms to be generated are pushed to operate at high-frequency. This paper introduces experimental results on the frequency behavior of a nonlinear function called saturated nonlinear function series based on operational amplifiers. These new results are key not only on the automatic synthesis of chaotic attractors and on the synchronization schemes used in secure communication systems based on chaos, but also on the metrics used to evaluate the complexity of a chaotic system. A mathematical model to characterize the behavior of the nonlinear function is also derived, showing a better accuracy compared with the PWL approach. The theoretical derivations and related results are experimentally validated through implementations from commercially available devices. Source

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