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Bellis M.A.,Liverpool John Moores University | Hughes K.,Liverpool John Moores University | Leckenby N.,Liverpool John Moores University | Jones L.,Liverpool John Moores University | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences - e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration - and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10 696 respondents - 59.7% female - aged 18-25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Findings Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32-2.15) - for physical inactivity - to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98-76.65) - for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Conclusion Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European.

Sopjani M.,University of Prishtina | Rinnerthaler M.,University of Salzburg | Kruja J.,University of Medicine, Tirana | Dermaku-Sopjani M.,University of Prishtina
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

The Klotho protein deficiency is known to participate in premature aging. As an aging suppressor, Klotho is an important molecule in aging processes and its overexpression results in longevity. Due to many reasons, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been considered as a key pathway in aging research. The Klotho gene is closely related to this pathway. The Klotho gene encodes a transmembrane protein that after cleavage is also found as a secreted protein. Importantly, its overexpression suppresses insulin/IGF-1 signaling and thus extends the lifespan. In addition, Klotho participates in the regulation of several other intracellular signaling pathways, including regulation of FGF23 signaling, cAMP, PKC, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), p53/p21, and Wnt signaling. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature that shows the involvement of Klotho in the regulation of several intracellular pathways. The results of our review clearly indicate that Klotho participates in several intracellular signaling pathways, and by regulating them, Klotho is involved in aging and longevity. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Background: The basis for qualitative changes concerning everyday clinical practice are created from epidemiological studies, which not only generalize situations but at the same time provide specific details of the country's features; especially during periods of social transition. The aim of this study was to present demographic and epidemiological features of severe burns treated in the Service of Burns in UHC (University Hospital Center) in Albania and to analyze burn mortality as an important outcome measure. Method: The data used was obtained by the analysis of the medical records of 2337 patients hospitalized in Burns Service ICU near in Tirana, Albania during 1998-2008. Statistical analysis is done with SPSS 15 software. Descriptive analyses, inferential statistics and Chi-square test and Kendall's tau-b are calculated. Logistic regression is used for the prediction of death probability by two risk variables, BSA burned and age. Results: The severe burn incidence was 7 patients per 100,000 persons/year. The overall mean estimated BSA (%) is 22.8 ± 14.7. The main causes of the burn were found to be the scalds in 61.8% of the cases followed by flame (23%), chemicals (10.7%) and electrical injury in 4.5% of the cases. The mean hospital period is 11.6 ± 10. The overall mortality is 10.5%. Based on probability of death, we noticed that older age and larger burn size were associated with a higher likelihood of mortality. Conclusions: The long-term studies and the comparison of our results with the ones of other burn centers has allowed us to determine the actual level of care and as well as to build up contemporary protocols in order to improve the treatment with the objection of decreasing the mortality. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

Sulaj Z.,University of Tirana | Kuqo A.,University of Tirana | Vyshka G.,University of Medicine, Tirana
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas | Year: 2015

Chronic alcoholism is a public health issue, and several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain its nature. The developmental approach to chronic alcoholism has a double contour, with neurobiological theories counting on several aspects of the deleterious effects exerted from ethanol over neural structures. Psychological and neurobiological theories are not intrinsically contradictory to each other. The importance of early experiences and the potential sensory clues leading to ethanol-self administration are integral parts of the developmental neurobiology of an alcoholic. The developmental theories need to consider any further the accumulative and deleterious effects of ethanol during the nervous system maturation. © 2015 Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Vyshka G.,University of Medicine, Tirana | Kruja J.,University of Tirana
International Medical Case Reports Journal | Year: 2013

A 44-year-old Albanian male was consulted and diagnosed with dementia. His magnetic resonance imaging suggested diffuse white matter changes. The suspicion of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) was raised, and a genetic analysis confrmed such a suspicion through uncovering a pathogenic mutation at the level of exon 4 (c.475C>T) of chromosome 19. The patient came from a large family of 13 children, all of whom underwent clinical, genetic, and imaging examination. The pathogenic mutation was found present only in his eldest sister (50 years old), and she presented also very suggestive signs of CADASIL in her respective imaging study, but without any clinically signifcant counterpart. All other siblings were free from clinical and radiological signs of the disorder. Our opinion was that we were dealing with a mutation showing a very low level of penetrance, with only two siblings affected in a large Albanian family with 13 children. © 2013 Vyshka and Kruja.

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