Brisbane, Australia

University of The Sunshine Coast
Brisbane, Australia

The University of the Sunshine Coast is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. Having opened in 1996 as the Sunshine Coast University College with 524 students, it was renamed the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999. As at Semester 1 2013 the student body was ~8,900. About 100 kilometres north of Brisbane, the campus is a 100 hectare flora and fauna reserve, adjoining the Mooloolah River National Park.Undergraduate and postgraduate programs are offered in both faculties , with the majority of the university's research focussed in two main areas, sustainability and regional engagement. The university also offers dual degree programs in conjunction with the Sunshine Coast Institute of TAFE. Study areas are divided into seven disciplines: Business and Information Technology, Communication and Design, Education, Health, Humanities and Social science, Law and Science and Engineering. The Law discipline area is under development, with the first intake to be Semester 1, 2014The university is listed on the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students. Wikipedia.

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Paquola C.,University of Sydney | Bennett M.R.,University of Sydney | Lagopoulos J.,University of Sydney | Lagopoulos J.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2016

Childhood trauma has been associated with long term effects on prefrontal-limbic grey matter. A literature search was conducted to identify structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of adults with a history of childhood trauma. We performed three meta-analyses. Hedges’ g effect sizes were calculated for each study providing hippocampal or amygdala volumes of trauma and non-trauma groups. Seed based differential mapping was utilised to synthesise whole brain voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies. A total of 38 articles (17 hippocampus, 13 amygdala, 19 whole brain VBM) were included in the meta-analyses. Trauma cohorts exhibited smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes bilaterally. The most robust findings of the whole brain VBM meta-analysis were reduced grey matter in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus amongst adults with a history of childhood trauma. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions showed results were moderated by age, gender, the cohort's psychiatric health and the study's definition of childhood trauma. We provide evidence of abnormal grey matter in prefrontal-limbic brain regions of adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010

CLIMSAVE will develop and apply an integrated methodology for stakeholder-led, climate change impact and vulnerability assessment that explicitly evaluates regional and continental scale adaptation options, and cross-sectoral interactions between the key sectors driving landscape change in Europe (agriculture, forests, biodiversity, coasts/floodplains, water resources, urban development and transport). A range of sectoral meta-models will be linked within a common assessment platform that is user-friendly, interactive and web-based to allow the rapid reproduction of climate change impacts by stakeholders themselves. The meta-models will be derived from detailed state-of-the-art models which represent the latest results on impacts of, and vulnerability to, climate change and which are appropriate for multi-scale spatially explicit impact studies. Indicator metrics, which translate the outputs from the integrated models into ecosystem services outcomes, will create a standardised approach across sectors ensuring comparability in quantifying impacts and vulnerability. The integrated assessment platform will use these metrics to identify hotspots of climate change vulnerability and provide the ability to assess adaptation strategies for reducing these vulnerabilities, in terms of their cost-effectiveness and cross-sectoral benefits and conflicts. Methods for reducing uncertainties and increasing the transparency of model and scenario assumptions will be implemented to inform the development of robust policy responses. A series of professionally facilitated workshops will identify stakeholder needs and test an innovative methodology for participatory scenario development specifically geared towards interactive climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Two sets of three workshops at two levels (European and regional) will ensure that the CLIMSAVE methodologies work at different scales and provide for continuity of engagement and mutual learning.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-21-2015 | Award Amount: 5.17M | Year: 2016

Background We propose a holistic view of interrelated frailties: cognitive decline, physical frailty, depression and anxiety, social isolation and poor sleep quality, which are a major burden to older adults and social and health care systems. Early detection and intervention are crucial in sustaining active and healthy ageing (AHA) and slowing or reversing further decline. Aims and Relevance The main aim of my-AHA is to reduce frailty risk by improving physical activity and cognitive function, psychological state, social resources, nutrition, sleep and overall well-being. It will empower older citizens to better manage their own health, resulting in healthcare cost savings. my-AHA will use state-of-the-art analytical concepts to provide new ways of health monitoring and disease prevention through individualized profiling and personalized recommendations, feedback and support. Approach An ICT-based platform will detect defined risks in the frailty domains early and accurately via non-stigmatising embedded sensors and data readily available in the daily living environment of older adults. When risk is detected, my-AHA will provide targeted ICT-based interventions with a scientific evidence base of efficacy, including vetted offerings from established providers of medical and AHA support. These interventions will follow an integrated approach to motivate users to participate in exercise, cognitively stimulating games and social networking to achieve long-term behavioural change, sustained by continued end user engagement with my-AHA. Scale and Sustainability The proposed platform provides numerous incentives to engage diverse stakeholders, constituting a sustainable ecosystem with empowered end users and reliable standardised interfaces for solutions providers, which will be ready for larger scale deployment at project end. The ultimate aim is to deliver significant innovation in the area of AHA by cooperation with European health care organizations, SMEs, NGOs.

McCallum A.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Journal of Glaciology | Year: 2014

Commercial cone penetration testing (CPT) equipment was adapted to allow penetrative testing in hard polar firn to depths of 10 m. The apparatus is hydraulically driven, rate-controllable and able to penetrate firn with a resistance of 10 MPa. It can be mounted on many types of typical polar vehicles, requiring connection to only hydraulics and 12V electricity. Data recorded include both cone tip resistance and sleeve friction, a parameter not previously examined through such testing. This paper describes the development and calibration of the equipment and examines factors including snow density, penetration rate and cone size and shape that are shown to affect CPT interpretation. CPT can be used efficiently in polar environments to potentially provide estimates of physical parameters in hard firn to substantial depth. © 2014 Publishing Technology.

Bachmann N.L.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Polkinghorne A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Timms P.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Burkett B.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Data Sources: Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. Main Results: There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Conclusions: Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Schlacher T.A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Thompson L.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

Ocean beaches are prime recreational assets and are becoming increasingly urbanised: more beaches today front metropolitan regions, are mechanically cleaned, and are used for recreation by increasing numbers of residents and tourists. This 'urbanisation' of beaches presents complex management and conservation challenges, including the accurate determination of ecological effects caused by human beach use. Here we tested whether spatial variation in recreational beach use translates into ecological changes in the benthic invertebrate assemblages inhabiting the intertidal zone in Eastern Australia. Detected faunal changes were consistent with an interpretation of trampling impacts on the lower part of the beach: here, reductions in key ecological measures were significant in terms of total abundance (-72% to -44% lower than control areas), and species richness (-55% to -5%), resulting in significant shifts in community structure. Conversely, upper-shore assemblages were structurally similar between trampling treatments. Because benthic invertebrates are structurally and functionally important in beach ecosystems (e.g. nutrient cycling, trophic links), human impacts from recreation are likely to propagate beyond the macrobenthos and hence require mitigation. Conservation measures for beaches are challenging in urban settings. However, a practicable approach to systematic conservation planning for urban beaches that recognises the social and political reality of beaches having a prime role as recreational assets while maximising environmental outcomes via spatial zoning and visitor management is not unrealistic. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sayers M.G.L.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

This study assessed the relationships between linear running velocity and change of direction (CoD) ability and how assessing CoD ability over distances ≤5 m influences test reliability. Participants (n 15) from amateur rugby league teams performed 3 trials of a 20-m sprint test (light gates at 5, 10, and 20 m) and 6 trials of the 5-0-5 agility test. Twelve participants repeated the 5-0-5 test several weeks later. A three-dimensional motion capture system (250 Hz) was used to track the center of mass at 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m either side of the turn and identify specific CoD phase times. Pearson's correlations showed strong significant relationships between the 5-0-5 time and 5-m (r 0.89, p < 0.001), 10-m (r 0.91, p < 0.001), and 20-m sprint times (r 0.93, p < 0.001). However, the strength of these relationships decreased (r < 0.65, p > 0.05) when CoD ability was measured over distances less than 0.5 m. Analysis of coefficient of variation (CV%) data indicated that the 5-0-5 test had high intratest (CV% 2.8) and intertest reliability (CV% 1.3), with these data decreasing for distances less than 1 m (CV% 3.5-6.9). Specific movement phase times were the least reliable measures of CoD ability (CV% 4.7-53.6). Results suggest a bias between high-speed linear running ability and 5-0-5 time. However, an effective compromise can be found between test reliability and the external validity by assessing CoD ability over 1 m. Findings indicate that the current practice of assessing CoD ability over large distances in questionable. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Trueman S.J.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Macadamia is a widely-grown tree crop that produces edible kernels with high oil content. The macadamia kernel is the single embryo of the fruit, and so factors that influence fruit set and embryo development are critical regulators of yield and quality. This review summarises over 75 years of research on floral induction, floral structure, pollen transfer, the breeding system and fruit development of macadamia, highlighting features such as insect pollination and partial self-incompatibility that limit orchard productivity and affect kernel quality. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Keays S.L.,University of The Sunshine Coast
The American journal of sports medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The incidence of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is disturbingly high, with reports of nearly 50% of patients developing mild to moderate osteoarthritis 6 years after surgery. Few studies have assessed the factors involved in the development of osteoarthritis. HYPOTHESIS: The following 10 factors will be found to be predictive of osteoarthritis: meniscectomy, chondral damage, patellar tendon grafting, age at surgery, time delay between injury and surgery, type and intensity of postsurgery sport, quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio, and residual joint laxity. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Fifty-six subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were followed for 6 years after surgery. Assessment included KT-1000 arthrometer testing, isokinetic strength testing, a return-to-sport questionnaire, and a radiograph assessment. A discriminant analysis was performed to assess which of the 10 factors could discriminate between those patients who developed tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis and those who did not. RESULTS: Five factors were found to be predictive of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Meniscectomy (r = .72) and chondral damage (r = .41) were the strongest discriminators, followed by patellar tendon grafting (r = .37) (chi(2) [7, n = 56] = 25.48; P = .001). Weak quadriceps (r = .39) and low quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratios (r = .6) were very close discriminators (chi(2) [8, n = 42] = 15.02; P = .059). For patellofemoral osteoarthritis, meniscectomy (r = .45), chondral damage (r = .75), and age at surgery (r = .65) were predictors or close predictors (chi(2) [7, n = 54] = 13.30; P = .065). CONCLUSION: As not all 10 factors studied were predictive of osteoarthritis, the hypothesis was only partially proven. Preventing further meniscal and chondral damage in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency is critical. Grafting using the hamstring tendons and restoration of quadriceps-to-hamstring strength balance are associated with less osteoarthritis.

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