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The University of the State of Amazonas is a Brazilian public university operated by the state of Amazonas, located in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. It was established in 2001 by a state law that turned the University of Technology of Amazonas into the UEA. In 2011 UEA was ranked the best university of the state in an evaluation made by the Ministry of Education. Wikipedia.

Junk W.J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Junk W.J.,University of the State of Amazonas
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2013

The exact size of the wetland area of South America is not known but may comprise as much as 20% of the sub-continent, with river floodplains and intermittent interfluvial wetlands as the most prominent types. A few wetland areas have been well studied, whereas little is known about others, including some that are very large. Despite the fact that most South American countries have signed the Ramsar convention, efforts to elaborate basic data have been insufficient, thereby hindering the formulation of a wetland-friendly policy allowing the sustainable management of these areas. Until now, the low population density in many wetland areas has provided a high level of protection; however, the pressure on wetland integrity is increasing, mainly as a result of land reclamation for agriculture and animal ranching, infrastructure building, pollution, mining activities, and the construction of hydroelectric power plants. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted increasing temperatures, accelerated melting of the glaciers in Patagonia and the Andes, a rise in sea level of 20-60 cm, and an increase in extreme multiannual and short-term climate events (El Niño and La Niña, heavy rains and droughts, heat waves). Precipitation may decrease slightly near the Caribbean coast as well as over large parts of Brazil, Chile, and Patagonia, but increase in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, around the equator, and in southeastern South America. Of even greater impact may be a change in rainfall distribution, with precipitation increasing during the rainy season and decreasing during the dry season. There is no doubt that the predicted changes in global climate will strongly affect South American wetlands, mainly those with a low hydrologic buffer capacity. However, for the coming decades, wetland destruction by wetland-unfriendly development planning will by far outweigh the negative impacts of global climate change. South American governments must bear in mind that there are many benefits that wetlands bring about for the landscape and biodiversity as well as for humans. While water availability will be the key problem for the continent's cities and agroindustries, intact wetlands can play a major role in storing water, buffering river and stream discharges, and recharging subterranean aquifers. © 2012 Springer Basel AG. Source

Teixeira M.S.,National Institute for Space Research | Teixeira M.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Satyamurty P.,National Institute for Space Research | Satyamurty P.,University of the State of Amazonas
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

A new approach to define heavy and extreme rainfall events based on cluster analysis and area-average rainfall series is presented. The annual frequency of the heavy and extreme rainfall events is obtained for the southeastern and southern Brazil regions. In the 1960-2004 period, 510 (98) and 466 (77) heavy (extreme) rainfall events are identified in the two regions. Monthly distributions of the events closely follow the monthly climatological rainfall in the two regions. In both regions, annual heavy and extreme rainfall event frequencies present increasing trends in the 45-yr period. However, only in southern Brazil is the trend statistically significant. Although longer time series are necessary to ensure the existence of long-term trends, the positive trends are somewhat alarming since they indicate that climate changes, in terms of rainfall regimes, are possibly under way in Brazil. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source

Satyamurty P.,University of the State of Amazonas | da Costa C.P.W.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Manzi A.O.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2013

The regions where the divergence of vertically integrated water vapor flux, averaged over a season or a year, is positive (negative) are sources (sinks) of moisture for the atmosphere. An aerial river is defined as a stream of strong water vapor flux connecting a source and a sink. Moisture flux, its divergence, and sources and sinks over the tropics of South and Central America and the adjoining Atlantic Ocean are obtained for dry years and for wet years in the Amazon Basin. Results show that the Amazon Basin is a sink region for atmospheric moisture in all seasons and that there are two source regions for the moisture in the basin, one situated in the South Atlantic and the other in the North Atlantic, both located equator-ward of the respective subtropical high-pressure centers. The convergence of moisture increases over the Amazon Basin in austral summer, and at the same time it decreases in the Pacific and Atlantic ITCZs. Box model calculations reveal that the wet years, on the average, present about 55 % more moisture convergence than the dry years in the Amazon Basin. A reduction in the moisture inflow across the eastern and northern boundaries of the basin (at 45°W and at the Equator, respectively) and an increase in the outflow across the southern boundary (at 15°S) lead to dry conditions. The annual mean contribution of moisture convergence to the precipitation over the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 70 %. In the dry years, it lowers to around 50 %. The net convergence of water vapor flux over the basin is a good indicator of the wet or dry condition. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Guerra-Silveira F.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | Guerra-Silveira F.,University of the State of Amazonas | Abad-Franch F.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans.Methods and Findings:For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ~0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira.Conclusions:Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility. © 2013 Guerra-Silveira, Abad-Franch. Source

Andrade Filho V.S.,University of the State of Amazonas
Revista de saúde pública | Year: 2013

To investigate the effects of fine particulate matter emitted through biomass burning on hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in children living in Manaus, Northern Brazil. Descriptive study with ecologic time series design carried out in Manaus from 2002 to 2009. Hospital admission data were obtained from the Unified Health System database. PM2.5 levels were estimated using aerosol remote sensing through the measurement of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm. Statistical methods were used in the data analysis, with Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression between variables, with a 95% confidence interval. The region of Manaus showed low PM2.5 concentrations when compared to the Southern Amazonian region. Between August and November (dry period in the region), was when the highest mean levels of PM2.5, estimated between 18 to 23 μg/m3, and the largest number of fires were observed. For the rainy season, an average of 12 μg/m3, 66% lower than the dry season measurements (20.6 μg/m3) was observed. The highest rates of hospitalization were observed during the rainy season and April was the month with the highest levels at 2.51/1,000 children. A positive association between hospital admissions and relative humidity (R = 0.126; p-value = 0.005) was observed, while the association between admissions and PM2.5 was negative and statistically significant (R = -0.168; p-value = 0.003). The R 2 of the final model (Hospitalizations = 2.19*Humidity - 1.60*PM2.5 - 0.23*Precipitation) explained 84% of hospitalizations due to respiratory disease in children living in Manaus, considering the independent variables statistically significant (humidity, PM2.5, and precipitation). Hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in children in Manaus, were more related to weather conditions and in particular relative humidity, than to exposure to aerosols emitted by biomass burning in the Amazonian region. Source

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