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San Pedro Pochutla, Mexico

Studying ethnic differences in health not only benefits minority groups but is a powerful tool for scientific analysis and for social action in the wider field of health inequalities. Coronary mortality in developed countries is well-known to be higher for men and women born in south Asia compared to other ethnic groups. The aim of this review is to examine how the knowledge of ethnic differences in coronary health in south Asians has advanced in the last decade. We set out to answer the following: Is the high rate of coronary mortality in south Asians a result of high incidence or high case fatality? Why are there ethnic differences, and are they the result of biology, healthcare or social circumstances? Is the cardiovascular health future for south Asians (and especially the UK-born second generation) any brighter than in their parents? Source

Yu M.,University of Edinburgh | Lamattina L.,University of the Sea | Spoel S.H.,University of Edinburgh | Loake G.J.,University of Edinburgh
New Phytologist | Year: 2014

A major route for the transfer of NO bioactivity is S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of an NO moiety to a protein cysteine thiol to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). This chemical transformation is rapidly emerging as a prototypic, redox-based post-translational modification integral to the life of plants. Here we review the myriad roles of NO and SNOs in plant biology and, where known, the molecular mechanisms underpining their activity. © 2014 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Alegado R.A.,University of the Sea | King N.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

Animals evolved in seas teeming with bacteria, yet the influences of bacteria on animal origins are poorly understood. Comparisons among modern animals and their closest living relatives, the choanoflagellates, suggest that the first animals used flagellated collar cells to capture bacterial prey. The cell biology of prey capture, such as cell adhesion between predator and prey, involves mechanisms that may have been co-opted to mediate intercellular interactions during the evolution of animal multicellularity. Moreover, a history of bacterivory may have influenced the evolution of animal genomes by driving the evolution of genetic pathways for immunity and facilitating lateral gene transfer. Understanding the interactions between bacteria and the progenitors of animals may help to explain themyriad ways in which bacteria shape the biology of modern animals, including ourselves. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. All rights reserved. Source

Calvo E.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal and START Madrid | Ravaud A.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Bellmunt J.,University of the Sea
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2013

Sequential treatment with targeted therapies is the current standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Most patients are initially treated with a first-line vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFr-TKI), but will eventually develop resistance and subsequent disease progression. Patients with mRCC whose disease progresses during initial VEGFr-TKI therapy may continue treatment with a different VEGFr-TKI or they may switch to treatment with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor which has a different mechanism of action. Based on positive results of the phase III RECORD-1 trial, clinical guidelines in the United States and Europe recommend use of everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, in patients with VEGFr-TKI-refractory mRCC. Positive results of the phase III AXIS trial led to recent approval in the United States of the VEGFr-TKI axitinib for use in patients with mRCC who failed one previous therapy. VEGFr-TKIs and mTOR inhibitors have distinct clinical effects with differing safety profiles, but to date, no head-to-head comparisons in the post-VEGFr-TKI second-line setting are available. This review discusses multiple factors that should be considered when selecting a second-line therapy for patients with VEGFr-TKI-refractory mRCC, including evidence-based guidelines, efficacy, safety, patient profile, and clinician familiarity with available agents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Recent analyses of communities have examined the variation of species traits along environmental gradients. These papers highlight a combination of several traits, instead of variation of individual traits, to better explain the effect of urbanization on bird communities. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) allows the identification of an underlying structure of a broad set of data. EFA can be a useful tool for generating functional groups from highly correlated biological traits in bird communities and determining its variation along gradients of urbanization. Birds were counted along an urban-rural gradient during spring 2009-summer 2010. Species were classified using 15 biological traits related to the use of space. The EFA was calculated from a matrix where rows were sampling units (n = 75), and columns represented counts of individuals with each trait (n = 15). Four functional groups were obtained. Functional group 1 comprised resident species feeding gregariously on the grond, nesting in buildings, having an omnivorous diet, and being most abundant in the more urbanized areas. Functional group 2 was most abundant at intermediate levels of urbanization and represented solitary species that nest in trees, feeding on vegetation and with carnivorous and nectarivorous diets. Migratory behavior, insectivorous and granivorous diets, aerial feeding and ground nesting were representative of two functional groups in rural areas. Responses to urbanization by these functional groups are consistent with the classifications of response guilds (urban exploiters, urban adapters, and urban avoiders). Thus, EFA allows a link between concepts generated from the analysis of species and the analysis based on biological traits. © 2013 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. Source

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