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De Dear R.J.,University of Sydney | Akimoto T.,Shibaura Institute of Technology | Arens E.A.,University of California at Berkeley | Brager G.,University of California at Berkeley | And 9 more authors.
Indoor Air | Year: 2013

Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | Kurume University, Seinan Gakuin University and University of the Sacred Heart of Japan
Type: | Journal: Eating behaviors | Year: 2016

Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychosomatic disorders that commonly occur in girls during adolescence. An increase in earlier onset ED has recently been suggested. Therefore, accurate assessment of eating attitudes in children is a necessary part of school mental health. The 26-item Childrens Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT-26) is widely used internationally to assess abnormal eating attitudes. The present study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the ChEAT-26. Participants were 7076 school children (aged 10-15years) from large, medium-sized, and small cities, and 44 children with anorexia nervosa. We examined the average ChEAT-26 score by participant attributes, including sex, age, geographical region, and school style. Factor analysis of the ChEAT-26 content was performed with varimax rotation. The optimal cut-off point was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The mean ChEAT-26 score was 7.94 for girls and 5.86 for boys. The mean score was significantly higher in children from larger cities than small cities, and was higher with increasing age, and private schools. Five factors explained 31.4% of the variance. The Cronbachs alpha was 0.81 for the scale. The area under the ROC curve was 0.83; sensitivity was 0.69 and specificity was 0.93 for a cut-off score of 18. The Japanese version of the ChEAT-26 is a reliable and valid psychometric tool that may be useful in the triage and assessment of children with anorexia nervosa.


PubMed | University of the Sacred Heart of Japan, Japan Women's College of Physical Education, Ibaraki University, University of Tokyo and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of cancer education : the official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to describe the cancer-screening intention, sources of cancer information, and cancer understanding among Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional nationwide survey involving a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Response rates of the target schools were 46.4 % (n=103) for junior high schools and 55.8 % (n=116) for high schools. From these, we analyzed the data of 2960 junior high school students (1520 males, 1440 females) and 3703 high school students (1546 males, 2157 females) to examine the association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer-related information and understanding. A significant association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer information and cancer understanding was observed. The screening intention group identified more sources of cancer information than the no-screening intention group did. Understanding about cancer was reported by a higher proportion of students in the screening intention group compared with the no-screening intention group. Recognition that healthy people must take part in cancer screening was significantly associated with screening intention in both junior high (odds ratio (OR), 1.859; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.582-2.185; P<0.001) and high school (OR, 2.485; 95% CI, 2.139-2.887; P<0.001) students. Health education at school was indicated by a high proportion of students as a source of cancer-related information, although the association was not significant. The present survey indicated that those in of our sample who intended to undergo future cancer screening (67.8 %) had more sources of information and understanding regarding cancer. Thus, schools should enrich health education curricula with more information and understanding about cancer to promote cancer-screening intention among Japanese adolescents.


Nagai J.-I.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Yokosawa K.,University of Tokyo | Asano M.,Rikkyo University
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2016

Associations between graphemes and colours in a nonsynaesthetic Japanese population were investigated. Participants chose the most suitable colour from 11 basic colour terms for each of 40 graphemes from the four categories of graphemes used in the Japanese language (kana characters, English alphabet letters, and Arabic and kanji numerals). This test was repeated after a three-week interval. In their responses, which were not as temporally consistent as those of grapheme–colour synaesthetes, participants showed biases and regularities that were comparable to those of synaesthetes reported in past studies. Although it has been believed that only synaesthetes, and not nonsynaesthetes, tended to associate graphemes with colours based on grapheme frequency, Berlin and Kay's colour typology, and colour word frequency, participants in this study tended in part to associate graphemes with colours based on the above factors. Moreover, participants that were nonsynaesthetes tended to associate different graphemes that shared sounds and/or meanings (e.g., Arabic and kanji numerals representing the same number) with the same colours, which was analogous to the findings in Japanese synaesthetes. These results support the view that grapheme–colour synaesthesia might have its origins in cross-modal association processes that are shared with the general population. © 2015 The Experimental Psychology Society.


Hatanaka M.,Meijo University | Matsui Y.,University of Tsukuba | Ando K.,Toyo University | Inoue K.,Yokohama National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2010

Job-related traumatic stress experienced by broadcast journalists in Japan was investigated. A questionnaire inquiring about the most traumatic event they faced when covering the news and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered to 270 journalist participants working for Japanese news companies. Of these, 6% met the IES-R criterion for potential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, posttraumatic stress reactions at the time of the survey were strongly related to symptoms of stress experienced during the stressful assignment. The early assessment of stress symptoms in journalists that experience traumatic news coverage is important for preventing the development of PTSD symptoms. © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.


Nishihara N.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Wargocki P.,Technical University of Denmark | Tanabe S.-I.,Waseda University
Building and Environment | Year: 2014

The effects of indoor air quality on symptoms, perceptions, task performance, cerebral blood flow, fatigue, and mental effort of individuals working in an office were investigated. Twenty-four right-handed Danish female subjects in an office were exposed in groups of two at a time to two air pollution levels created by placing or removing a pollution source (i.e. a used carpet) behind a screen. During the exposure, the subjects performed four different office tasks presented on a computer monitor. The tasks were performed at two paces: normal and maximum. When the pollution source was present, the air quality was perceived to be worse and more errors were made when subjects typed text at the maximum pace. No other changes in subjective responses, performance, or physiological measurements were associated with different exposures. Although cerebral blood flow and voice analysis did not detect any effects caused by modifying pollution exposure, they were well correlated with increased mental effort when the tasks were performed at maximum pace and subjectively reported fatigue, which increased during the course of exposure, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nakayama H.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan
Infant Behavior and Development | Year: 2015

Amae is defined as "wishing to be loved (Scheidlinger (1999). The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27(1), p. 91)". Amae crying is known as crying of infants when seeking intimate emotional communication with caregivers. The objective of this study was to delineate when and how amae crying emerges in early infancy. Crying episodes of four infants were observed bimonthly, in the natural context of their homes, from birth to 6 months of age, for approximately 60. min per session. Crying episodes (total = 275) as determined by two coders were analyzed with respect to several behavioral measures. Results indicated that amae crying emerged at the age of 2 months, and consistently accounted for 30-40% of the total crying episodes after the ages of 3 months. Amae crying could be accurately identified when infants were not in acute discomfort and had already got the attention of their mothers. At such times, infants did not shed tears, cried with a fussy voice, and frequently looked at their mothers. Mothers responded to amae crying more promptly than they did to other types of crying behaviors. It is concluded that 3 months of age, when infants probably begin to use crying as a social communication tool is a major turning point for crying behavior from the perspective of its biological and social roles. It is suggested that amae crying might play an important role in strengthening and encouraging mother-infant interactions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Kawakami K.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Takai-Kawakami K.,Japan Women's University
Infant Behavior and Development | Year: 2015

Peer-directed behaviors of toddlers were longitudinally recorded in a naturalistic preschool setting. An observer (O, the first author) recorded children's behaviors during play sessions with an IC recorder. One-year-old children (N= 13) and children under the age of 12 months (N= 8) were observed for 15. min, 6 times in a year. Their teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors were analyzed in detail. Results indicated that peer-directed behaviors of one-year-olds increased dramatically. It is concluded that toddlers are sophisticated social being. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Tanabe S.-I.,Waseda University | Iwahashi Y.,Waseda University | Tsushima S.,Waseda University | Nishihara N.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan
Architectural Science Review | Year: 2013

Little is known of workers comfort and productivity under special conditions, particularly after large disasters. The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused enormous damage, leading to a 15% peak-power reduction to address power shortages. We investigated occupants comfort and productivity in five office buildings in Tokyo during the summer season under mandatory electricity savings implemented after the earthquake. We changed the temperature, illumination and ventilation rate settings to investigate their effects on thermal comfort, productivity and energy levels. Occupants were more receptive towards decreased illumination than increased temperature. Awareness of power savings was increased, with more than 90% of people accepting the poor indoor environment in the light of recent events. Set-point temperature and clothing recommendations made by the Super Cool Biz campaign were followed in most offices. However, self-estimated productivity was 6.6% lower than the previous summer. Thus, electricity-saving strategies that do not affect productivity are required. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Tanabe S.-I.,Waseda University | Haneda M.,Waseda University | Haneda M.,Toda Corporation | Nishihara N.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

This study examines the relationship between individual thermal satisfaction and worker performance. Field measurements and a questionnaire survey were conducted within an organization participating in the COOL BIZ energy conservation campaign. A subjective experiment was also conducted in a climate chamber with eleven Japanese male subjects, testing five scenarios combining operative temperature (25.5°C and 28.5°C), clothing (with and without suits), and cooling items (desk fan, air-conditioned shirt, mesh office chair). From the individual analysis, actual air temperature in the COOL BIZ office was poorly correlated with self-estimated performance, whereas perceived thermal satisfaction correlated well with self-estimated performance (R2=0.944, p<0.001). The results of the subjective experiment indicate that performance during simulated office work (i.e. multiplication and proof reading tasks) increased with greater individual thermal satisfaction (R2=0.403 and 0.464, p<0.001). The finding that perceived thermal satisfaction of occupants is reflected in objective measurement of office work performance has practical implications for the evaluation of thermal satisfaction in real offices as a means to boost workplace productivity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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