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De Dear R.J.,University of Sydney | Akimoto T.,Shibaura Institute of Technology | Arens E.A.,University of California at Berkeley | Brager G.,University of California at Berkeley | And 9 more authors.
Indoor Air | Year: 2013

Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Kasai T.,Okayama University | Nagano K.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Mizoguchi R.,Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2014 | Year: 2014

We have built an instructional design support system called "FIMA-Light" which reasons about a teacher's intentions from his/her lesson plan and automatically produces I-L event decomposition trees. The decomposition tree expresses the ways of achieving a learner's state change that should be realized in a whole lesson in the form of a tree structure. In this paper, we discuss the difficulty of attaining the goals of university education without using our approach. We also report on practical use of FIMA-Light in teacher training at university in order to investigate changes in students' awareness of teaching strategies brought about by providing them with I-L event decomposition trees.

Tanabe S.-I.,Waseda University | Iwahashi Y.,Waseda University | Tsushima S.,Waseda University | Nishihara N.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan
Architectural Science Review | Year: 2013

Little is known of workers comfort and productivity under special conditions, particularly after large disasters. The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused enormous damage, leading to a 15% peak-power reduction to address power shortages. We investigated occupants comfort and productivity in five office buildings in Tokyo during the summer season under mandatory electricity savings implemented after the earthquake. We changed the temperature, illumination and ventilation rate settings to investigate their effects on thermal comfort, productivity and energy levels. Occupants were more receptive towards decreased illumination than increased temperature. Awareness of power savings was increased, with more than 90% of people accepting the poor indoor environment in the light of recent events. Set-point temperature and clothing recommendations made by the Super Cool Biz campaign were followed in most offices. However, self-estimated productivity was 6.6% lower than the previous summer. Thus, electricity-saving strategies that do not affect productivity are required. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kasai T.,Okayama University | Nagano K.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Mizoguchi R.,Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2015

In order to facilitate learners' knowledge refinement process, it is effective to let them externalize their knowledge. However, in a domain of the instructional design in which existence of knowledge and its necessity are not sufficiently articulated or recognized, it is not easy for teachers who are also learners of how to externalize their knowledge. In this study, we have built a system called ``FIMA-Light'' which uncovers knowledge that teachers must have applied in their lesson plans from global to local viewpoints instead of them. FIMA-Light makes use of the OMNIBUS ontology which describes various instructional knowledge for attaining educational goals extracted from instructional/ learning theories. And, FIMA-Light automatically generates what we call I_L event decomposition trees by interpreting a given lesson plan based on the OMNIBUS ontology. Then, FIMA-Light facilitates teachers' deep reflection and helps them to refine their lesson plans by providing them with decomposition trees. We report some results of an experiment carried out for evaluation of the quality and the effectiveness of I_L event decomposition trees. © 2015, Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

Kawakami K.,University of the Sacred Heart of Japan | Takai-Kawakami K.,Japan Womens University
Infant Behavior and Development | Year: 2015

Peer-directed behaviors of toddlers were longitudinally recorded in a naturalistic preschool setting. An observer (O, the first author) recorded children's behaviors during play sessions with an IC recorder. One-year-old children (N= 13) and children under the age of 12 months (N= 8) were observed for 15. min, 6 times in a year. Their teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors were analyzed in detail. Results indicated that peer-directed behaviors of one-year-olds increased dramatically. It is concluded that toddlers are sophisticated social being. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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