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Alamosa East, CO, United States

University of the Rockies is a for-profit graduate school located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. As of February 2013, the university offers three different Master of Arts degrees: Master of Arts in Human Services, Master of Arts in Organizational Development and Leadership, and Master of Arts in Psychology. At the doctorate level, the university offers a PsyD in Psychology and a PhD in Organizational Development and Leadership.The university's programs, which are offered on campus in Colorado Springs and online, are organized into two schools: The School of Professional Psychology and the School of Organizational Leadership .Within the degree programs, students may enhance their studies by selecting a specialization. The Master of Arts in Psychology includes nineteen specializations. The Doctor of Psychology program has ten available specializations. Online students who pursue the Master of Arts in Organizational Development and Leadership or the PhD in Organizational Development and Leadership may choose from six available specializations.Students who wish to pursue licensure as clinical psychologists enroll in the PsyD, Clinical Specialization, which is only available on campus. The PsyD, Clinical Specialization degree can be tailored by one of five concentrations .UoR also offers four graduate-level certificate programs : Business Psychology, Criminology and Justice Studies, General Psychology, and Organizational Leadership.The university’s parent organization, Bridgepoint Education, Inc., is a for-profit higher education company based in San Diego, California. University of the Rockies is regionally accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Initial accreditation was granted by The Higher Learning Commission in 2003. The Higher Learning Commission accredits degree-granting post-secondary educational institutions in the North Central Region of the United States. The university has also been granted Category I status as a degree-granting institution by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education . University of the Rockies is an associate member of the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology. Finally, University of the Rockies has been approved to offer continuing education credits through the American Psychological Association . Wikipedia.

Ricciardiello L.,University of Bologna | Ahnen D.J.,University of the Rockies | Lynch P.M.,University of Houston
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is potentially preventable. Chemoprevention, a focus of research for the past three decades, aims to prevent or delay the onset of cancer through the regression or prevention of colonic adenomas. Ideal pharmacological agents for chemoprevention should be cheap and nontoxic. Although data indicate that aspirin can reduce the risk of CRC in the general population, the highest return from chemopreventive strategies would be expected in patients with the highest risk of developing the disease, particularly those with a defined hereditary predisposition. Despite compelling data showing that a large number of chemopreventive agents show promise in preclinical CRC models, clinical studies have yielded conflicting results. This Review provides a historical and methodological perspective of chemoprevention in familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome, and summarizes the current status of CRC chemoprevention in humans. Our goal is to critically focus on important issues of trial design, with particular attention on the choice of appropriate trial end points, how such end points should be measured, and which patients are the ideal candidates to be included in a chemopreventive trial. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.All rights reserved. Source

Richards J.C.,Colorado State University | Crecelius A.R.,Colorado State University | Larson D.G.,University of the Rockies | Dinenno F.A.,Colorado State University
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Human aging is associated with reduced skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise, which may be a result of impaired endothelium-dependent dilation and/or attenuated ability to blunt sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction. Intra-arterial infusion of ascorbic acid (AA) increases nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and forearm blood flow (FBF) during handgrip exercise in older adults, yet it remains unknown whether an acute oral dose can similarly improve FBF or enhance the ability to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction during exercise. We hypothesized that 1) acute oral AA would improve FBF (Doppler ultrasound) and oxygen consumption (VO2) via local vasodilation during graded rhythmic handgrip exercise in older adults (protocol 1), and 2) AA ingestion would not enhance sympatholysis in older adults during handgrip exercise (protocol 2). In protocol 1 (n = 8; 65 ± 3 yr), AA did not influence FBF or VO2 during rest or 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) exercise, but increased FBF (199 ± 13 vs. 248 ± 16 ml/min and 343 ± 24 vs. 403 ± 33 ml/min; P < 0.05) and VO2 (26 ± 2 vs. 34 ± 3 ml/min and 43 ± 4 vs. 50 ± 5 ml/min; P < 0.05) at both 15 and 25% MVC, respectively. The increased FBF was due to elevations in forearm vascular conductance (FVC). In protocol 2 (n = 10; 63 ± 2 yr), following AA, FBF was similarly elevated during 15% MVC (~20%); however, vasoconstriction to reflex increases in sympathetic activity during -40 mmHg lower-body negative pressure at rest (ΔFVC: -16 ± 3 vs. -16 ± 2%) or during 15% MVC (ΔFVC: -12 ± 2 vs. -11 ± 4%) was unchanged. Our collective results indicate that acute oral ingestion of AA improves muscle blood flow and VO2 during exercise in older adults via local vasodilation. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source

Headley S.,Springfield College | Germain M.,Western New England Renal and Transplant Associates | Milch C.,Springfield College | Pescatello L.,University of Connecticut | And 6 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

PURPOSE: The current pilot and feasibility study was designed to examine the effect of 48 wk of moderate-intensity exercise training and dietary modification on kidney function and vascular parameters in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Twenty-one stage 2-4 CKD patients (age, 18-70 yr) were randomly assigned to either the training group (TG, n = 10) or the usual care group (n = 11) for 48 wk. The TG received 48 wk of personal training (3 d•wk for up to 55 min per session at 50%-60% V̇O2peak) and dietary counseling, whereas individuals in the usual care group received standard of care and were instructed not to start a structured exercise program while in the study. V̇O2peak, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), resting and ambulatory HR, plasma lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) were assessed at baseline and weeks 24 and 48. An independent group's t-test was used to compare glomerular filtration rate slopes between groups, whereas all other data were analyzed with ANCOVA using the baseline value as the covariate. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters at baseline. The 48-wk intervention led to a significant increase in V̇O2peak, reductions in both resting and ambulatory HR, and increases in LDL cholesterol and in TG, but it had no effect on the rate of change of eGFR over time. CONCLUSIONS: A 48-wk exercise training program, primarily focused on aerobic exercise, increases V̇O2peak and favorably alters autonomic function as evidenced by reductions in HR in stages 2-4 CKD patients. The exercise intervention had no effect on kidney function as assessed by eGFR. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Wickramasekera I.E.,University of the Rockies
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self. © American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Source

Crecelius A.R.,Colorado State University | Richards J.C.,Colorado State University | Luckasen G.J.,University of the Rockies | Larson D.G.,University of the Rockies | Dinenno F.A.,Colorado State University
Circulation Research

RATIONALE: Reactive hyperemia (RH) in the forearm circulation is an important marker of cardiovascular health, yet the underlying vasodilator signaling pathways are controversial and thus remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that RH occurs via activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na/K-ATPase and is largely independent of the combined production of the endothelial autocoids nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins in young healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 24 (23±1 years) subjects, we performed RH trials by measuring forearm blood flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography) after 5 minutes of arterial occlusion. In protocol 1, we studied 2 groups of 8 subjects and assessed RH in the following conditions. For group 1, we studied control (saline), KIR channel inhibition (BaCl2), combined inhibition of KIR channels and Na/K-ATPase (BaCl2 and ouabain, respectively), and combined inhibition of KIR channels, Na/K-ATPase, NO, and prostaglandins (BaCl2, ouabain, L-NMMA [N-monomethyl-L-arginine] and ketorolac, respectively). Group 2 received ouabain rather than BaCl2 in the second trial. In protocol 2 (n=8), the following 3 RH trials were performed: control; L-NMMA plus ketorolac; and L-NMMA plus ketorolac plus BaCl2 plus ouabain. All infusions were intra-arterial (brachial). Compared with control, BaCl2 significantly reduced peak FBF (-50±6%; P<0.05), whereas ouabain and L-NMMA plus ketorolac did not. Total FBF (area under the curve) was attenuated by BaCl2 (-61±3%) and ouabain (-44±12%) alone, and this effect was enhanced when combined (-87±4%), nearly abolishing RH. L-NMMA plus ketorolac did not impact total RH FBF before or after administration of BaCl2 plus ouabain. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of KIR channels is the primary determinant of peak RH, whereas activation of both KIR channels and Na/K-ATPase explains nearly all of the total (AUC) RH in humans. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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