Sao Joao del Rei, Brazil

University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Sao Joao del Rei, Brazil
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Lead (Pb) is recognized as a toxic metal to organisms when present for a long time and also when it is found in high levels in the environment. The contamination, verified through clinical and laboratorial data, results in adverse and severe physiological effects and, in extreme cases, death. The main build-up sources of Pb are located in highly urban areas due to automotive and industrial activities. The metal is used as hunting ammunition, mainly in developing countries and it is a known contamination source for birds and environments. The objective is to review information sources on sport hunting with the use of Pb based ammunition since the nineteenth century. I analyze the matter of sport hunting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which is one of the most important areas of hunting activity in Brazil. I verified that the studies on Pb contamination on birds so far are mainly focused on waterbirds and that there have been few records on terrestrial birds. The majority of studies focusing on Pb contamination through its use in ammunition have been done on developed countries such as USA, Canada, United Kingdom and Spain, where sport hunting with Pb ammunition has over 100 years of use. In those countries, Pb ammunition has been banned or replaced by other materials. In southern Brazil, researches on this issue are scarce, which reinforces the need of detailed studies in order to obtain more precise and substantial data necessary on decision-taking. © 2016, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). All rights reserved.

Canuto R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Garcez A.S.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Olinto M.T.A.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Olinto M.T.A.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2013

The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as the potential confounders investigated. A systematic search was conducted with the aim of finding original articles on the association between shift work and MetS. The included articles were chosen based on established inclusion criteria; their methodological quality was assessed using a validated quality checklist. A total of 10 articles were included in this review. The majority of the studies were classified as having a low risk of bias. The definitions of MetS and shift work varied between studies. Among the ten studies, eight found a positive association between shift work and MetS after controlling for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Only three studies included sleep duration as a confounder, and these studies presented discordant results. We conclude that there was insufficient evidence regarding the association between shift work and prevalent MetS when the confounders are taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

da Silva T.R.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Einstein (São Paulo, Brazil) | Year: 2012

To identify non-biological maternal risk factors to low birth weight in Latin America. Systematic review of literature through meta-analysis. The tool for methodological evaluation was the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement. Studies in non-pathological maternal risk factors to low-birth weight and those evaluated by a Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement method under C grade were excluded. From seven studies, five pointed out the influence of maternal age under 20. In four studies maternal age above 35 years old was relevant to low birth weight. Other factors were present in only one or two studies. According to this study the maternal age under 20 and above 35 years old is a relevant factor to low birth weight. There are few studies with universal and solid methodology, which difficult a systematic review of literature though meta-analysis.

Hajmohammad S.,University of Western Ontario | Vachon S.,University of Western Ontario | Klassen R.D.,University of Western Ontario | Gavronski I.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Organizations are faced with increasing pressure to engage in sustainable development and to integrate environmental and social dimensions into their traditional performance metrics. Prior research suggests that lean management and supply management are potentially important determinants of environmental performance and can be seen as capabilities that ease the adoption of environmental practices. To help understand the roles of lean and supply management in regards to improving the firm's environmental performance, a conceptual model proposes that the magnitude of environmental practices mediates the relationship between lean and supply management with environmental performance. To test the model, plant-level survey data from a sample of Canadian manufacturing plants is used. The results indicate that supply management and lean activities provide means by which resources are invested in environmental practices. The empirical analysis also confirms that the impact of lean management, and to a lesser extent supply management, on environmental performance is mediated by environmental practices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Machado I.F.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Maltchik L.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2010

1. Rice field expansion is one of the activities associated with the disappearance of 90% of the wetlands in southern Brazil. Worldwide, rice agriculture has been recognized as having considerable potential value for many aquatic species. Nevertheless, management practices in such systems must be ameliorated and better investigated. 2. This study evaluated the potential role of rice fields as refugia for amphibians, and whether different hydrologic management practices after rice cultivation could contribute to wetland amphibian conservation in southern Brazil. 3. Six collections were made in six rice fields with different management practices after cultivation (three dry and three flooded) and three natural wetlands. The amphibians were sampled through six random 15-min visual transects per collection in each rice field and the natural wetlands. 4. In total, 2139 anuran individuals were observed in rice fields (798) and Reserva Lake (1341), comprising 12 anuran species distributed among five anuran families. Anuran richness and abundance varied over the rice cultivating cycle, and they were higher in the growing phases than in the fallow phases. The mean anuran richness and abundance was higher in Reserva Lake than in flooded and dry rice fields. 5. The different management practices adopted after the harvesting period (presence or lack of surface water) did not influence the anuran richness and abundance. It did, however, influence species composition. 6. The difference in species composition between the management practices adopted is an interesting result in terms of biodiversity conservation. Rice producers could maintain part of their agricultural land flooded during the fallow phase as a strategy to preserve a higher diversity of anurans. These results should be taken into consideration in wetland conservation plans in southern Brazil; however, the percentage of each agricultural land that should be kept flooded should be decided by Brazilian agricultural and conservation policies. Such a strategy would reconcile agricultural/economic needs with the conservation of biodiversity in southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This article aims to analyze the HIV/AIDS policies, particularly campaigns, in the perspective of race and gender intersection. Such perspective enables the understanding of how gender oppression and race oppression intersect each other, whereas, on the other hand, political action deconstructs these inequalities and enables the transformation of institutions in the promotion of gender and race equality. The ethnographic data I analyzed were collected during a qualitative research that focused on the actions carried out by organizations of the black movement and on their demands before the public power for participation in the struggle against the spread of the epidemics among the black population of the Southern region of Brazil. In the first part, I employ the concept of biopower to analyze the relation between race, gender and health. In the second part, I analyze the representations of body and subject activated in two nationwide HIV/AIDS campaigns centered on the image of a black woman, and the debates they brought about. The analysis reveals the centrality of the body as the expression of the black women movement's political struggle, stressing on and questioning the social vulnerability that results from the impact of biopolitics on the bodies, especially when gender and race are brought together.

Moraes R.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Valiati J.F.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Gaviao Neto W.P.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

Document-level sentiment classification aims to automate the task of classifying a textual review, which is given on a single topic, as expressing a positive or negative sentiment. In general, supervised methods consist of two stages: (i) extraction/selection of informative features and (ii) classification of reviews by using learning models like Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB). SVM have been extensively and successfully used as a sentiment learning approach while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have rarely been considered in comparative studies in the sentiment analysis literature. This paper presents an empirical comparison between SVM and ANN regarding document-level sentiment analysis. We discuss requirements, resulting models and contexts in which both approaches achieve better levels of classification accuracy. We adopt a standard evaluation context with popular supervised methods for feature selection and weighting in a traditional bag-of-words model. Except for some unbalanced data contexts, our experiments indicated that ANN produce superior or at least comparable results to SVM's. Specially on the benchmark dataset of Movies reviews, ANN outperformed SVM by a statistically significant difference, even on the context of unbalanced data. Our results have also confirmed some potential limitations of both models, which have been rarely discussed in the sentiment classification literature, like the computational cost of SVM at the running time and ANN at the training time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Luz A.M.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Revista brasileira de enfermagem | Year: 2010

This qualitative study aimed at learning the masculine conception of paternity and understanding the masculine strategies to cope the legal, social and affective pressures of this process. The collection of information was done through semi-structured interview with eight adolescents from Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, ranging between 15 and 19 years old, who experienced paternity. The interpretation and analysis were based on the content analysis. From the analysis of these youngsters' reports the following categories have emerged: Adolescents Relationship; Paternity and Gender; and, Meaning of Being a Father. The attentive look to paternity in adolescence brings to light the comprehension of issues regarding the masculine exclusion in objective life experiences marked by the commitment with paternity.

De Cesaro Oliveski R.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2013

A new dimensionless correlation for the Nusselt number and high Prandtl number is presented. It can be used to correct the temperature profiles obtained through a global method. The mathematical model is transient two-dimensional, assuming laminar flow. Thermal losses are considered for all tank walls. Several cooling cases are simulated varying the aspect ratio, the cooling rate and the volume of the tank. The temperature fields are used to obtain the internal coefficient of heat transfer. It was use the Buckingham theorem to determine the dimensionless groups that represent the cooling process. The correlation is checked with numerical simulations results with good agreement. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mori A.L.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Souza P.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Marques J.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lopes R.D.C.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

Index species useful for correlations with the International Stratigraphical Column are rare or absent in the Pennsylvanian-Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Brazil, preventing accuracy in geochronologic assignments. Besides, absolute datings are very scarce in comparison with other Gondwana basins. This paper presents palynological data from an outcrop on the surroundings of the Candiota coal mine, southmost Brazil, from several levels of the Rio Bonito and Palermo formations. The presence of certain index species of spore-pollen allowed the recognition of two Permian palynozones: the Vittatina costabilis and the Lueckisporites virkkiae zones. Furthermore, U-Pb in zircons from a volcaniclastic level interbedded in the coal strata of the former unit was analyzed through LA-MC-ICP-MS method, providing a new absolute age dating of 281.4 ± 3.4. Ma (Cisuralian, Early Permian). This dating is assumed as the oldest occurrence of the L. virkkiae Zone in Paraná Basin, which contains index species that are widespread in other Gondwana basins. A well distributed surface boundary occurs in this section also, allowing local and regional correlations. These new biostratigraphical and geochronological data are integrated, in order to offer a deep analysis on the stratigraphical significance for correlations across the Occidental Gondwana. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.

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