University of the Republic of Uruguay
Montevideo, Uruguay

"University of the Republic" redirects here. For the university in San Marino, see University of the Republic of San Marino.The University of the Republic is Uruguay's public university. It is the most important, oldest, and largest university of the country, with a student body 108.886 students . It was founded on July 18, 1849 in Montevideo, where most of its buildings and facilities are still located. Its current Rector is Dr. Roberto Markarián. Wikipedia.

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Alonso J.R.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Applied Optics | Year: 2017

Computational optical imaging methods allow the extension of the functionality of traditional cameras. The shape of the aperture in an optical system determines the shape in which the out-of-focus points are blurred in a captured image. In this work we present a method in the Fourier domain that allows us, from an acquired multi-focus image stack, to synthesize images of a three-dimensional scene as if they had been acquired with apertures with arbitrary shapes. Partially extended depth-of-field as well as all-in-focus image reconstruction can be obtained as particular cases. © 2017 Optical Society of America.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-01b-2014 | Award Amount: 9.31M | Year: 2015

Helminth and ectoparasitic infections of ruminants and poultry have a huge impact on the biological efficiency of these vital food sources. Indiscriminate antiparasitic use has led to drug resistance across the globe. The main alternative to the dwindling supply of antiparasitics is vaccines. Here, in the PARAGONE project, findings from previous EU and other-funded projects on parasite vaccine development will be exploited to take a number of promising prototypes towards commercialisation. Partners from the Europe, China, Uruguay, SMEs and pharma, will directly move forward prototypes against the ruminant helminths Fasciola hepatica, Cooperia spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus and, the ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes ovis (ruminants) and Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry). They will utilise novel adjuvants or delivery systems to maximise efficacy of some of the prototypes. Moreover, immunology studies will focus on pathogens that have previously proved problematic, often because they release immunosuppressive molecules that must be overcome for vaccines to work or because recombinant vaccines have failed to elicit protection observed with native prototypes. State-of-the-art technologies will be used to interrogate host/parasite interactions to define key signatures of protection that can be used to inform delivery systems that will enhance immunity, while other studies will define polymorphism in current vaccine candidates to ensure derived prototypes will be fit-for-purpose across geographic scales. Fundamental, is engagement of the scientists with pharma and other stakeholders (farmers, veterinarians, regulators) via many dissemination activities that will be used to obtain feedback on how the vaccines can be best deployed in the field. The output will be at least two prototypes to the point of uptake by pharma, government or philanthropic agencies, and a clear pathway to commercialisation for all prototypes studied.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-31-2014 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2015

The aims of the TRANSLITERACY project are to understand how teenagers are learning outside the school and to introduce those experiences into it. The ethnographic identification and analysis of the (trans)media skills will be at the centre of the research program. Once identified the informal learning strategies applied by young people outside the formal institutions, the team will translate them into a series of proposals to be implemented into the schools. The TRANSLITERACY Project will involve an interdisciplinary group of 25 senior and junior researchers with sound experience in fields such as media literacy, transmedia storytelling, user-generated contents and participatory culture, ludology, traditional and virtual ethnography, pedagogy and innovation in education. The research will focus on the following set of skills: Problem-solving strategies developed by teens in video gaming (Videogame literacy) Content creation, production and sharing strategies developed by teens in fan fiction (Participatory culture literacy). Content creation, production and sharing strategies developed by teens in social media (Web / social networks literacy). The research will focus on 12-18 years old teens, an age characterized by a short but intensive experience in the use of new media and digital technologies. The fieldwork based on surveys, interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and online activities analysis- will be simultaneously developed in 9 countries: Australia, Colombia, Finland, Italy, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. The duration of the research will be 3 years. After mapping the transmedia practices and informal learning strategies the team will produce an open and customizable Teachers Kit based on the outputs of the research. The kit will propose learning strategies and activities to be developed with students into the schools.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.41M | Year: 2013

Health services fragmentation is one of the main obstacles to effective health care in Latin-America, particularly for chronic diseases. This research builds upon results from Equity-LA (FP7-B-223123) and focuses on one of the most promoted policies to respond to fragmentation in LA, the development of Integrated Health Care Networks (IHN). The general objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of different care integration strategies in improving coordination and quality of care of IHN in different health care systems in Latin America, with particular reference to chronic diseases. Methods: The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, with a participatory action-research approach. In each country, two comparable IHN will be selected -one acting as the intervention and the other as the control area. It is structured in four phases: 1) a base-line study using qualitative and quantitative methods to carry out an initial evaluation of IHN performance; 2) design and implementation of an intervention focused on care coordination and quality of care; and based on health professionals training; 3) evaluation of effectiveness and limitations of interventions and associated contextual factors; and; 4) cross-country comparative analysis and elaboration of tools for getting research into policy. In each country, a research steering committee will be set up to lead the project, composed by health care professionals, managers, users and researchers. Results and relevance: The project will contribute to FP7 Cooperation Work Programme Health (SICA)s objectives by: 1) generating evidence-based policies to improve integration of care in Latin American countries; 2) strengthening research capacity of all involved institutions in order to enhance knowledge development on care integration in their countries; and by 3) contributing to skills improvement and motivation of health workforce, through training programs aimed at improving care coordination and quality.

French National Center for Scientific Research, Institute Pasteur Of Lille, ETH Zurich and University of the Republic of Uruguay | Date: 2014-07-25

The present invention relates to methods and pharmaceutical compositions for the treatment of bacterial infections. In particular, the present invention relates to a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist for use in a method for the treatment of a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof wherein the TLR agonist is administered to the subject in combination with at least one antibiotic.

Radi R.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

In proteins, the nitration of tyrosine residues to 3-nitro-tyrosine represents an oxidative post-translational modification that disrupts nitric oxide (•NO) signaling and skews metabolism towards pro-oxidant processes. Indeed, excess levels of reactive oxygen species in the presence of •NO or •NO-derived metabolites lead to the formation of nitrating species such as peroxynitrite. Thus, protein 3-nitrotyrosine has been established as a biomarker of cell, tissue, and systemic "nitroxidative stress". Moreover, tyrosine nitration modifies key properties of the amino acid: phenol group pKa, redox potential, hydrophobicity, and volume. Thus, the incorporation of a nitro group (-NO 2) into protein tyrosines can lead to profound structural and functional changes, some of which contribute to altered cell and tissue homeostasis.In this Account, I describe our current efforts to define (1) biologically-relevant mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration and (2) how this modification can cause changes in protein structure and function at the molecular level. First, I underscore the relevance of protein tyrosine nitration via free-radical-mediated reactions (in both peroxynitrite-dependent and -independent pathways) involving a tyrosyl radical intermediate (Tyr •). This feature of the nitration process is critical because Tyr• can follow various fates, including the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Fast kinetic techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, bioanalytical methods, and kinetic simulations have all assisted in characterizing and fingerprinting the reactions of tyrosine with peroxynitrite and one-electron oxidants and its further evolution to 3-nitrotyrosine. Recent findings show that nitration of tyrosines in proteins associated with biomembranes is linked to the lipid peroxidation process via a connecting reaction that involves the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine by lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO•).Second, immunochemical and proteomic-based studies indicate that protein tyrosine nitration is a selective process in vitro and in vivo, preferentially directed to a subset of proteins, and within those proteins, typically one or two tyrosine residues are site-specifically modified. The nature and site(s) of formation of the proximal oxidizing or nitrating species, the physicochemical characteristics of the local microenvironment, and the structural features of the protein account for part of this selectivity. How this relatively subtle chemical modification in one tyrosine residue can sometimes cause dramatic changes in protein activity has remained elusive. Herein, I analyze recent structural biology data of two pure and homogenously nitrated mitochondrial proteins (i.e., cytochrome c and manganese superoxide dismutase, MnSOD) to illustrate regioselectivity and structural effects of tyrosine nitration and subsequent impact in protein loss- or even gain-of-function. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Gambino D.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2011

Research efforts on the medicinal chemistry of vanadium have been mainly focused whether on improving biodistribution and tolerability of the vanadium insulin-enhancing core or on developing potential anti-tumor compounds. Despite the fact that the World Health Organization statistics show that parasitic diseases are among the most prevalent illnesses worldwide, work on vanadium compounds for the potential treatment of some of these diseases has only recently arisen. This review focuses on recent attempts to develop vanadium-based potential anti-parasitic agents, mainly active against the parasites causing American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), leishmaniasis and amoebiasis. In addition, the search for new therapeutic uses of some previously known bioactive vanadium compounds is included. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Naya D.E.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)-in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one-as could be expected from the Scholander-Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs.

Farina R.A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America.

University of the Republic of Uruguay | Date: 2015-10-14

The invention relates to the composition, preparation and use of a formulation as an adjuvant for human or animal use, said formulation comprising at least one bile acid or salts thereof and saponin, in order to enhance the immune response against an antigen, which may or may not be well defined, including but not limited to bacterins, antigens and antigenic preparations that are viral, bacterial or parasitic, and antigens associated with diseases such as different types of cancer. The antigens used can be isolated from pathogens, as well as products resulting from enzymatic or chemical modification, synthetic or recombinant antigens, or mixtures of the same.

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