University of the Region of Campanha
Bage, Brazil
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Da Silva Nunes R.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Da Silva Nunes R.,University of the Region of Campanha | Silva Kahl V.F.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Da Silva Sarmento M.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 5 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2013

Malpighia glabra L, popularly known as acerola, is considered a functional fruit and therefore is taken to prevent disease or as adjuvant to treatment strategies, since the fruit is an undeniable source of vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids. Acerola is a natural source of vitamin C, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Its chemical composition is affected by genetic uniformity of the orchards and environmental factors. Considering the extensive growth of the culture of acerola in Brazil as well as its widespread use, this study evaluates the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of acerola in relation to geographical origin using the comet assay in mice blood cells in vitro. No acerola samples showed potential to induce DNA damage, independently of origin. Also, for antigenotoxicity activity, only the acerola sample from SÃo Paulo reduced DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (by about 56%). The sample from Ceará showed good antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl assay, in agreement with its higher rutin, quercetin, and vitamin C levels. Additional studies with other treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the impact of the complex mixture of acerola on genomic stability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Audino L.D.,Federal University of Lavras | da Silva P.G.,Universidadefederal Of Santa Maria | Nogueira J.M.,University of the Region of Campanha | de Moraes L.P.,ONG Instituto Pro Pampa Sustentavel | Vaz-de-Mello F.Z.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2011

This study provides data about the Scarabaeinae fauna that occurs in a eucalyptus plantation inserted in an originally open area, describing which are able to establish themselves in this introduced and shaded environment. The survey was carried in an area of eucalyptus monoculture using flight intercept and pitfall traps baited with human feces, rotten banana and carcass, from December 2005 to November 2006. Twenty-eight species were collected, belonging to 11 genera. Of these 28 species, 11 have been previously recorded in grassland and native forest environments of the region, 11 only in grasslands, two were exclusive of eucalyptus plantations and four were not identified at the specific level, which did not allow the achievement of more information on these species in the natural ecosystems of the region. The results showed that species that occur in eucalyptus are habitat generalists, have preference for shaded environments and/or are tourist species. This, however, is one of the few surveys performed in the region. Therefore, additional studies are necessary to obtain more information about the distribution and response of dung beetles to natural and anthropogenic ecosystems of the region.

This study presents original data on the reproduction and feeding ecology of two syntopic amphisbaenians, Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 and Anops kingi Bell, 1833, from southern Brazil. Sampling was carried out from April 2004 to April 2006 at a highland area located in São Jerônimo and Barão do Triunfo municipalities, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 647 amphisbaenians were collected, 510 specimens of A. munoai and 137 specimens of A. kingi, of which 130 and 93, respectively, had their gonads and gut content analyzed. Both species presented a unimodal pattern of seasonal distribution, sexually mature females with significantly larger snout vent length (SVL) than sexually mature males, and seasonal reproductive cycle. Adults of A. kingi had significantly larger (SVL) than those of Amphisbaena munoai. Both species had generalist diets, but termites (Isoptera) was a staple item in their diet. Greater predominance of insect larvae was observed in the diet of A. kingi, which may be due to its larger body in comparison to A. munoai. Insect larvae ingested by A. kingi were significantly larger than those ingested by A. munoai. Diets of adult males and females of both species were not significantly different. The ontogenetic diet comparison in both species revealed significant numerical differences, with adults consuming higher numbers of prey.

Lima L.F.P.,University of the Region of Campanha | Miotto S.T.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Darwiniana | Year: 2011

Pollen morphology of eight species of Cyclanthera and three species of Sicyos was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of Cyclanthera have a mean polar diameter of 51.40 μm, and an equatorial mean diameter of 49.10 μm, a prolate spheroidal shape (P/E = 1.11), 4-7 zonocolporate, with circular endoapertures, and punctitegilate exine. Pollen grains of Sicyos have a mean polar diameter of 50.60 μm and a mean equatorial diameter of 61.30 μm, an oblate spheroidal shape (P/E = 0.88), 8-12 colpate, supra and microreticulate echinate exine. Differences among the genera and species are discussed.

Santos R.C.V.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Alves C.F.D.S.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Schneider T.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Lopes L.Q.S.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012

The Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the primary bacterial pathogen of honeybee brood and the causative agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB). One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control of this disease is essential oils. In this study in vitro antimicrobial activity of Andiroba and Copaíba essential oils against Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth by the microdilution method was assessed. Andiroba registered MIC values of 1.56-25%, while the MICs values obtained for Copaíba oil were of 1.56-12.5%. In order to determine the time-response effect of essential oils on P. larvae, this microorganism was exposed to the oils for up to 48. h. After 24. h treatment with Andiroba oil and after 48. h treatment with Copaíba oil no viable cells of P. larvae ATCC 9545 were observed. The possible toxic effect of essential oils were assessed by the spraying application method of the same concentrations of MICs. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with Andiroba oil and the Copaíba oil shows no toxic effects after 10. days of observation. Taking together ours results showed for the first time that these oils presented a high activity against Paenibacillus species showing that Copaíba oil may be a candidate for the treatment or prevention of AFB. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..

Sarmento M.B.,Federal University of Pampa | Da Silva A.C.S.,Instituto Biotecnologico Of Reproducao Vegetal Intec | dos Santos K.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Mattos L.C.P.,University of the Region of Campanha
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2013

Brazilian guava, native fruit tree from Southern Brazil, has become relevant due to its potencial use as ecological and comercial. This article aims evaluate the physiological quality of Brazilian guava seeds by tetrazolium test. The work was divided in two parts. In the first, both lots were submitted to the germination test, index of speed germination, mean time of germination, emergency of seedlings in greenhouse, mean time of emergency and shoot length of seedlings. In the second part it was performed the tetrazolium test. Two concentrations of tetrazolium were used (0,5 e 1,0) and two times of imbibition (2 h e 4 h). To the lot 2007, the treatment 0,5 TZ 4 h obtained 73% of viable seeds, otherwise, to the lot 2008, the was no significant differences among treatments. For the germination test there has been positive correlation for 0,5 TZ 2 h and 1 TZ 2 h treatments. Emergency of seedlings in greenhouse was correlated only to 0,5 TZ 2 h. The Tetrazolium Test has allowed to rank the lots in four classes of viability, confirming the eficiency of the test to evaluate the viability of Brazilian Guava seeds.

Bertoldi A.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Bertoldi A.D.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Helfer A.P.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Camargo A.L.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre | And 2 more authors.
Globalization and Health | Year: 2012

Background: To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines) and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and " popular pharmacies" ).Methods: Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR).Results: In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2-7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In " popular pharmacies" , mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities.Conclusions: Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata. © 2012 Bertoldi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Deble L.P.,Federal University of Pampa | Deble A.S.O.,University of the Region of Campanha | Alves F.S.,University of the Region of Campanha
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

Cypella luteogibbosa and C. magnicristata are described, illustrated and have their taxonomic affinities discussed. The former is related with C. fucata, but differs by white flowers (vs. pallide orange) and divergent adaxial crests of style apices (vs. convergent). From Cypella osteniana the new species differs by 1-flowered spathes (vs. 2-flowered), spatulate outer tepals, 10-12 mm wide (vs. obovate, 15-17 mm wide), inner tepals with a yellow hump abaxially, and keel-shaped distally (vs. without a hump, and folded distally), and anthers with narrowed connective (0.6-0.9 mm vs. 1.4-1.8 mm). Cypella magnicristata is related with C. armosa, but differs mostly by obovate outer tepals, 38-44 × 22-25 mm (vs. spatulate, 36-40 × 12-16 mm), larger inner tepals (22-24 × 15-16 mm vs. 14-18 × 10-12 mm), and longer filiform filaments (5.5-6.4 mm vs. 3-3.5 mm). From C. exilis the new species differs mostly by diameter of flowers (60-70 mm vs. 38-48 mm), bigger size of outer tepals (38-44 × 22-25 vs. 32-36 × 12-16 mm), larger inner tepals (22-24 × 15-16 vs. 12-15 × 8-9 mm), and length of crests of style apices (6-7 mm vs. 4-5 mm). © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Helfer A.P.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Camargo A.L.,University of Porto | Tavares N.U.L.,University of the Region of Campanha | Kanavos P.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Bertoldi A.D.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the affordability by workers of drugs used for treatment of chronic diseases, as well as the availability of the reference, similar, or generic forms of these drugs in the public health care system. Methods: We employed the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) for the standardized collection of information on selling prices in the private sector and availability in the public health care system of drugs in six cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected from November 2008 to January 2009. Affordability was estimated as the number of salary days required for a worker receiving the national minimum wage to buy, in a private pharmacy, the amount of medication required for one month of treatment. Availability was assessed by the presence of these drugs in public health care system facilities. Results: Twenty-two public facilities and 30 private pharmacies were studied. Of 21 drugs used for the treatment of seven chronic disorders, only nine were available free of charge in the six cities. Mean availability ranged from 83.3% (São Leopoldo) to 97.6% (Caxias do Sul). Affordability ranged from 0.4 to 10.5 salary days for reference drugs, 0.2 to 8.4 salary days for similar drugs, and 0.3 to 3.8 salary days for generic drugs. Conclusions: The overall availability of the drugs surveyed was higher than the 80% recommended by WHO. However, some treatments were not available, or had limited availability in the public system. Concerning affordability, the number of salary days required to buy these drugs may affect the continuation of drug treatments for chronic diseases.

Thume E.,Federal University of Pelotas | Facchini L.A.,Programa de Pos graduacao em Epidemiologia | Tomasi E.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Vieira L.A.S.,University of the Region of Campanha
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess factors associated with home health care for the elderly and its characteristics based on different care models, the Family Health Strategy and traditional primary care. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,593 individuals aged ≥60 years living in the urban area of the city of Bagé, Southern Brazil, in 2008. A multistage sampling was carried out. Data was collected during individual interviews about access to services, providers' involvement, users' satisfaction and health status after care. Poisson regression model was used for estimating crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their related 95% confidence intervals and p-values (Wald test). Results: Home health care was statistically associated with prior history of stroke, signs of dementia and disability in activities of daily living. The family was requested 75% of home care visits. Medical doctors provided most of the care in traditional primary care settings while nursing staff provided most care within the Family Health Strategy. Approximately 78% of the elderly received care within 24 hours after the request and 95% of them positively evaluated the care received. Two thirds of the elderly reported improved health status. Conclusions: The variables associated with home health care were consistent with fragility indicators included in the Brazilian National Health Policy for the Elderly, reinforcing the role of this strategy for promoting equitable health care to elderly population. Users' satisfaction and the positive impact on their health status confirm home as a setting for providing care.

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