Puerto Lopez, Colombia

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Velasco-Santamaria Y.M.,University of the Plains | Handy R.D.,University of Plymouth | Sloman K.A.,University of West of Scotland
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.16 or 0.48 μg/L of the insecticide, endosulfan, for 28 days. Haematology, whole body ions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Na+K +-ATPase, organ histology and reproduction were assessed in adults. The resulting offspring were examined for latent effects on development (heart rate and morphometrics). On day 14, adult fish exposed to 0.16 μg/L endosulfan showed significantly lower red blood cell counts than those exposed to 0.48 μg/L endosulfan; adult fish exposed to 0.16 ug/L also showed elevated TBARS compared to controls. Both concentrations of endosulfan caused a 4.0 fold increase in Na+K+-ATPase activity compared to controls (ANOVA, p < 0.05). On day 14, the livers of fish exposed to endosulfan had fewer, enlarged hepatocytes, with cell diameters greater than the controls (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Morphological alterations in the progeny of fish exposed to endosulfan were observed. Heart beat frequency was significantly lower in larvae from exposed adults to 0.16 μg/L compared to the control (ANOVA, p < 0.05). These findings show that sublethal exposure to endosulfan causes adverse sublethal effects in adult D. rerio, and effects on the development of their offspring. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Vasquez-Torres W.,University of the Plains | Arias-Castellanos J.A.,University of the Plains
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

The effects of diets with three contents of carbohydrates and lipids were evaluated on the growing performance of cachama Piaractus brachypomus juveniles (initial weight 7.8 ± 0.49 g). The experiments were performed a 3 × 3 factorial design (200, 280 and 360 g of carbohydrates and 40, 80 and 120 g of lipids kg-1). Protein content was kept constant in 320 g kg-1 and digestible energy between 11.3 and 16.1 MJ kg-1. Simple effects and interaction of factors on growth performance varied significantly (P < 0.05) indicating dependence among them. The maximum weight gain was observed in fish fed 200 and 280 g kg-1 carbohydrates and 40 g kg-1 lipids. Increase of lipids from 80 to 120 g kg-1 reduced growth significantly. Protein efficiency rate and percentages of protein retention and energy were positively correlated with carbohydrate levels and no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed with the lipid levels. Results indicate that cachama utilizes carbohydrates as energy source more efficiently than lipids; likewise, lipid levels over 40 g kg-1 depress growth at any carbohydrates level. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Josko D.,University of the Plains
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2012

Virus identification is a challenge to the clinical microbiologist since growing viruses in traditional cell culture is labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to contamination. The advent of rapid and automated immunoassays has eliminated this problem by generating positive results in minutes to hours. For example, testing for infectious mononucleosis can yield a positive result in 3-8 minutes as seen with the Beckman Coulter, Inc. ICON Mono test or in 5-15 minutes with the MONO Mononucleosis Rapid Test Device marketed by ACON Laboratories, Inc. Fully automated immunoassay analyzers provide fast, accurate, sensitive results that aid in a prompt and accurate diagnosis for the patient. Turnaround times are shortened, allowing for timely medical intervention and treatment. The priority in any hospital or medical facility is to treat the patient as quickly and appropriately as possible. By using immunoassays, clinical laboratory professionals are able to report out correct results in a timely manner, ensuring overall positive patient outcomes and improved quality of healthcare.


Josko D.,University of the Plains
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2012

There are many immunoassays available that provide rapid, accurate and sensitive results. The intent of this article was to provide a brief overview of some of the products and methodologies available for clinical use and to discuss some of the principles behind the methodology and instrumentation. In the area of infectious disease, the use of immunoassays ensures rapid turnaround times that will result in the administration of prompt, accurate treatment for the patient. Ultimately, this will improve overall patient outcomes while possibly decreasing the costs associated with increased hospital stay. In conclusion, immunoassays are essentially easy to perform, cost-effective, produce highly sensitive and specific results, and allow the medical laboratory professional the ability to report accurate results in a timely manner.


Ramirez-Gil H.,University of the Plains
Revista MVZ Cordoba | Year: 2016

Objetive. To determine the effect of fishing on capture size of both male and female Zungaro zungaro catfish, historical records of size and spatial distribution of the species were analyzed from the Orinoco Basin in Colombian. Materials and methods. Information was collected by sampling fishing port landings in the region between 1979 and 2011. Each specimen was measured, weighed and sexed. With 5411 records, the average size at capture were compared in time and among the different ports. Size at 50% maturity was estimated by quinquennium. Results. The average commercial capture sizes of Z. zungaro ranged from 35 to 161 cm standard length, with differences between males and females. From 1979 to 2011, in Puerto Lopez, the size at sexual maturity decreased from 123.8 to 83.4 cm in females and from 93.3 to 61 in males. In the annual cycle the greater average capture size in females was from April to July and for males from May to June. Average annual length is higher in the higher parts of the Meta and Guaviare river drainages. In the last quinquennium the size at 50% maturity had fallen 10 cm in females and 5 cm in males and it is higher than the average capture size. Conclusions. Populations of Z. zungaro in the Colombian Orinoco River Basin have been affected by overfishing and selective fishing of females.


Dittrich T.,National University of Colombia | Dubeibe F.L.,University of the Plains
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We study directed transport of charge and intrinsic angular momentum by periodically driven scattering in the regime of fast and strong driving. A spin-orbit coupling through a kicked magnetic field confined to a compact region in space leads to irregular scattering and triggers spin flips in a spatially asymmetric manner which allows us to generate polarized currents. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the spin separation carry over to the quantum level and give rise to spin pumping. Our theory based on the Floquet formalism is confirmed by numerical solutions of the time-dependent inhomogeneous Schrödinger equation with a continuous source term. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Bartholomew T.,University of the Plains | Kensler D.,Trenton Psychiatric Hospital
American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation | Year: 2010

State psychiatric hospitals across the United States continue to use methodologies that predate the emergence of the evidenced-based practices movement and widespread adoption of the recovery model. The cultural legacy of state psychiatric hospitals is often heavily influenced by the era of custodial treatment with an emphasis on medication and the primacy of the medical model of care. Using a recovery and wellness philosophy, combined with practices that are evidence based, represents a vision for the future of these institutions (Smith Bartholomew, 2006). This article describes the implementation of the evidence-based practice of illness management and recovery (SAMHSA, 2008) in a state psychiatric hospital. The role of this evidence-based program, as a way of operationalizing a recovery and wellness philosophy, is discussed in addition to some of the successful implementation strategies and program barriers. Directions for future work in this area are also discussed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Josko D.,University of the Plains
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2010

As one can see by the tests listed at www.amp.org, molecular diagnostic techniques have enabled the laboratory professionals to play an integral role in the identification and quantitation of viral infectious agents. Viral loads can be determined for HIV, HBV, and HCV using a variety of molecular methods such as real-time PCR, TMA, NASBA, and bDNA. Determining the amount of viral particles in a sample can not only monitor the status and progression of the disease, but can also guide recommendations for antiviral therapy. Other assays listed include cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, and human metapneumovirus detection, HPV testing, influenza and respiratory virus panels, and West Nile virus detection in blood donations using a variety of molecular methodologies. The use of molecular methodologies in the detection of viral pathogens has grown at an astounding rate, especially in the past two decades. It is now widely accepted that PCR is the "gold standard" for nucleic acid detection in the clinical laboratory as well as in research facilities. This article only touched on some of the common, widely used assays and platforms used in the identification process. With more and more assays being developed, the cost behind molecular testing has decreased since there are more competitors on the market. At one point, laboratorians may have thought of routine molecular testing as the wave of the future. It is obvious the future is upon us. Molecular diagnostics has become part of the daily, routine workload in most clinical laboratories. The advent of fully automated systems with faster turn around times has given laboratory professionals the tools necessary to report out accurate and sensitive results to clinicians who can ultimately improve patient care and outcomes by rendering a correct and rapid diagnosis.


Josko D.,University of the Plains
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2010

At the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services laboratory, clinical laboratory scientists receive specimens from various health care facilities and clinics in the state, and identify and confirm organisms of particular health concern in a rapid and timely manner. Most of the assays performed are specialized tests that are not done routinely in the clinical laboratories. Identifying and monitoring infectious agents such as West Nile virus, Influenza 2009 A (H1N1) pdm, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enteric organisms, etc. is part of the daily workload in the Public Health Laboratories. In addition, surveillance programs are in place to control the spread of various infectious agents and to aid in investigative epidemiologic purposes. The volume of samples and workload demands can be overwhelming especially in peak months such as summer (WNV) or winter (Influenza A) therefore, it was necessary to implement molecular diagnostics and robotic technology to aid in high throughput analysis. Molecular assays have become the "norm" not only in the public health laboratories but in most clinical microbiology laboratories as well. The use of molecular diagnostics has proven advantageous resulting in accurate results, decreased turn around times, and overall better patient care and outcomes.


Dubeibe F.L.,University of the Plains
International Journal of Modern Physics C | Year: 2010

In recent decades a lot of research has been done on the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. On the one hand, some of the proposed numerical methods do not need any kind of matrix inversion, but source terms cannot be easily implemented into these schemes; on the other, some methods involving matrix inversion can implement source terms in a natural way, but are not easy to implement into some computational software programs widely used by non-experts in programming (e.g. Mathematica). We present a simple method to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by using a standard CrankNicholson method together with a Cayley's form for the finite-difference representation of evolution operator. Here, such standard numerical scheme has been simplified by inverting analytically the matrix of the evolution operator in position representation. The analytical inversion of the N × N matrix let us easily and fully implement the numerical method, with or without source terms, into Mathematica or even into any numerical computing language or computational software used for scientific computing. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

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