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Nuneza O.M.,MSU Iligan Institute of Technology | Ates F.B.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao | Alicante A.A.,Mindanao State University
Biodiversity and Conservation

Mt. Malindang is one of the upland ranges where biodiversity has been severely threatened due to forest loss. Fieldwork was conducted from October 2003 to December 2004 in 14 sampling sites from an elevation of 120 to over 1,700 m above sea level to assess the distribution of endemic and threatened herpetofaunal species. Twenty-six species of amphibians and 33 species of reptiles were observed for all sampling sites. The level of endemism for amphibians was 42% where 7 of the 11 recorded species are found only in Mindanao. Nine species were in the threatened category, 8 vulnerable and 1 endangered. For the reptiles, 48% endemicity was observed. No threatened species was found. Field observations show that the major threat to the herpetofauna is habitat destruction, particularly the conversion of the forest to agricultural farms by the local people. It was also observed that endemic and threatened species were distributed in high elevation sites (submontane, dipterocarp, almaciga, and montane forests). Despite habitat loss in Mt. Malindang, 18% of the recorded herpetofaunal species recorded in the Philippines were found in Mt. Malindang, indicating the conservation importance of this mountain range. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Holmes W.R.,University of Melbourne | Holmes W.R.,University of California at Irvine | Mata M.A.,University of British Columbia | Mata M.A.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao | Edelstein-Keshet L.,University of British Columbia
Biophysical Journal

Diffusion and interaction of molecular regulators in cells is often modeled using reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Analysis of such models and exploration of their parameter space is challenging, particularly for systems of high dimensionality. Here, we present a relatively simple and straightforward analysis, the local perturbation analysis, that reveals how parameter variations affect model behavior. This computational tool, which greatly aids exploration of the behavior of a model, exploits a structural feature common to many cellular regulatory systems: regulators are typically either bound to a membrane or freely diffusing in the interior of the cell. Using well-documented, readily available bifurcation software, the local perturbation analysis tracks the approximate early evolution of an arbitrarily large perturbation of a homogeneous steady state. In doing so, it provides a bifurcation diagram that concisely describes various regimes of the model's behavior, reducing the need for exhaustive simulations to explore parameter space. We explain the method and provide detailed step-by-step guides to its use and application. © 2015 Biophysical Society. Source

Fundador N.G.V.,University of Tokyo | Fundador N.G.V.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao | Enomoto-Rogers Y.,University of Tokyo | Takemura A.,University of Tokyo | Iwata T.,University of Tokyo
Polymer Degradation and Stability

Xylan esters of varying alkyl chain lengths (C2-C12) were screened for their effect on the crystallization of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). Among the xylan esters, only xylan propionate (XylPr) and xylan butyrate (XylBu) exhibited a nucleating effect on PLLA during non-isothermal crystallization. Blending of 1% XylPr or XylBu with PLLA led to a decrease in the crystallization temperature (Tc) of PLLA from 125 °C to 96 or 97 °C, respectively. Similar results were also obtained for 0.1% blends of the same ester. Isothermal crystallization studies revealed that the PLLA blends exhibited faster crystallization rates, higher crystallinities and smaller spherulites than neat PLLA. Consequently, the PLLA blends possessed lower degrees of haze than neat PLLA and their thermal expansion values were also lower than that of neat PLLA when heated above their glass transition temperature (60 °C), indicating their resistance to heat deformation. The mechanism of nucleation was proposed based from the WAXD analysis results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Digal L.N.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research

The number of modern food retailers such as supermarkets and hypermarkets has increased considerably in the Philippines. However, participation of foreign retailers has been limited since opening the retail sector to foreign investment in March 2000 through Republic Act 8762. The rapid expansion of the sector came mostly from a few large domestic food retail chains. This paper aims to examine the market structure of the modern retail food sector particularly the dominance of the large domestic retailers and their implications on supply chains notably, on small-scale food retailers and producers. Results show that dominance of a few large domestic retailers has continued despite liberalization as indicated by high concentration ratios (CRs). While CRs initially reduced within 5 years after liberalization, they eventually increased through joint ventures and buy out of foreign retailers. These are expected to increase further with the proliferation of stand-alone stores and convenience stores under joint ventures with foreign retailers and strategic partnerships with other large retail and property development firms. There is some evidence of displacement of small traditional retailers and only a few small suppliers to supermarkets succeeded, despite efforts of the government and non-government organizations to help them access modern food retailers. It is suggested that the review and subsequent amendment of RA 8762 should be expedited and studies conducted to examine further the effects of the dominance of large food retailers in the chain including the possibility of market power in the output and input markets. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Concepcion S.B.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao
Acta Horticulturae

In the Philippines, more and more retailers are selling pre-cut, ready-to-cook vegetables. Initially done in an attempt to salvage usable portions of unsold vegetables, pre-cut vegetables are becoming more available in both traditional wet markets and supermarkets, with varying combinations of ingredients for traditional Filipino dishes. A survey among 300 consumers in Davao City, from three income classes, was conducted to determine their buying habits and market reaction to the purchase of pre-cut vegetables. It was ascertained that price-sensitive consumers purchase readyto- cook vegetables because they are cheaper and more convenient alternatives to buying whole vegetables. The phenomenon poses risks for consumers' health as well as opportunities for retailers to respond safely to the emerging need for convenience. Source

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