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Laguna, Philippines

The University of the Philippines Los Baños is a public university located in the towns of Los Baños and Bay in the province of Laguna, some 64 kilometers southeast of Manila. It traces its roots to the UP College of Agriculture , which was founded in 1909 by the American colonial government to promote agricultural education and research in the Philippines. American botanist Edwin Copeland served as its first dean. UPLB was formally established in 1972 following the union of UPCA with four other Los Baños and Diliman-based University of the Philippines units.The university has played an influential role in Asian agriculture and biotechnology due to its pioneering efforts in plant breeding and bioengineering, particularly in the development of high-yielding and pest-resistant crops. In recognition of its work, it was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding in 1977. Nine research centers are recognized as Centers of Excellence by presidential decree. UPLB hosts a number of local and international research centers, including the International Rice Research Institute , ASEAN Center for Biodiversity, World Agroforestry Centre, and the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture .UPLB offers more than 100 degree programs in various disciplines through its nine colleges and two schools. As of Academic Year 2012-2013 the Commission on Higher Education has accredited nine academic units as Centers of Excellence and two as Centers of Development, giving UPLB the largest number of Centers of Excellence among all universities in the country.UPLB alumni have been recognized in a wide range of fields. They include 13 scientists awarded the title National Scientist of the Philippines, members of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , the winner of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize; Palanca Award winners; as well as political and business leaders. Wikipedia.

Fajutag A.J.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos
The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health | Year: 2013

The soil-transmitted nematode Toxocara sp has little epidemiological information in the Philippines. In this study, we studied the extent of soil contamination with Toxocara eggs and the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among public school children in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Soil samples were obtained from public schools, backyards, and empty lots in Los Baños to examine for the presence of Toxocara eggs using the modified sucrose flotation technique. Serum samples were obtained from public school children in Los Baños and examined for Toxocara infection using an ELISA test. Of the 200 soil samples, 85 (43%) were positive for Toxocara eggs at a concentration of 1 egg/g of soil. Forty-two percent of soil samples obtained from the public school, 45% of backyard samples, and 40% of empty lot samples were positive. Of the 75 serum samples from children, 37 (49%) were positive for Toxocara infection. There was a positive correlation between Toxocara egg concentration and seroprevalence of Toxocara infection. Results showed a high prevalence of soil contamination and a high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among children in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

Borines M.G.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | De Leon R.L.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | McHenry M.P.,Murdoch University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Increasing biofuel production on agricultural lands in tropical island nations will likely result in increased deforestation [1], and also inflate food prices, especially in net food importing countries like the Philippines [2-4]. Compounding problems associated with promotion of biofuels in southeast Asian countries are the technical efficiencies of bioethanol production, including poor energy balances from terrestrial crops that are close to, or less than unity, unless bagasse is used as the distillation heat source [1]. As the increase in terrestrial biofuel production in Pacific island nations is potentially less sustainable than is publically stated, alternative feedstocks are required which retain the regional development benefits, while reducing the negative ecological and food security impacts [1,5]. This work presents the potential of farmed macroalgae chemical substrates as a bioethanol feedstock supply, explores macroalgae-to-bioethanol yields, and details prospective non-food macroalgae species, specific to the Philippine coastal region. Leveraging off the existing capability of the macroalgae farming industry (producing 1.7 million wet tonnes annually in the Philippines alone), a significant new market for non-food macroalgae stimulated by bioethanol producers can be developed to avoid problems related to food/feed grade ethanol feedstocks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Varca L.M.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

The quality of the water of Laguna de Bay is been threatened by industrial and domestic activities in its western bay and agricultural activities in its eastern bay contribute to nutrient and pesticide discharges affecting the lake. A pesticide monitoring study of surface water of the Lucban River and Salasad Creek in the Pagsanjan-Lumban watershed of Laguna de Bay showed that some of the pesticides used by farmers to protect their crops from pests are being transported in drainage water. In the Lucban River, malathion was detected throughout the monitoring period from 2007 to 2009 at concentrations ranging from 0.005. μg/L to 3.3. μg/L. The detections of pesticides corresponded with times of pesticide application in the field. Profenofos was detected at concentrations of 0.5-15.3. μg/L during 2008-2009 in water of Salasad Creek. The concentrations exceeded the (WHO, 2006) recommended level of 0.1. μg/L for single pesticide in drinking water. There was no direct relationship between total suspended sediments and concentration of pesticides present in the surface water of Lucban River and Salasad Creek. Malathion and profenofos were transported from site of application to water bodies predominantly (>60%) in the soluble (<1.2. μm) phase. Although the concentration of malathion increased in January with increasing rainfall the trend was not consistent throughout the study period. Measures to mitigate the off-site movement of malathion and profenofos to surface water need to be implemented to protect the quality of the eastern bay of the lake. This study shows that pesticide applications to crops very close to the water bodies, a common practice in the Philippines, is responsible for contamination of the creek and river, and a first step in reducing contamination would be improve practices in the areas closest to the drainage system, perhaps by introducing a narrow (3-5. m) riparian buffer zone in which spraying in not permitted. However, this strategy would have limited effectiveness for compounds that move predominantly in a soluble phase. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Acda M.N.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2013

A belt transect survey was conducted to determine the geographical distribution of economically important subterranean termites in the island of Luzon, Philippines. Termite species Macrotermes gilvus Hagen, Nasutitermes spp., Microcerotermes losbanosensis Oshima and Coptotermes vastator Light (C. gestroi Wasmann) were found widely distributed in the National Capital Region (NCR), Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon (CALABARZON) and Central Luzon. Nasutitermes luzonicus and Microcerotermes losbanosensis were the most common species encountered in homes and wooden structures in both rural and urban environments. M. gilvus was the dominant species in the soil and open fields. Multiple colonies of species belonging to the genera Nasutitermes and Microcerotermes or Macrotermes were also observed to be tolerant of one another in the field with limited or no agonistic behavior toward one another. Effects of soil type, pH, elevation and habitat on subterranean termite distributions were discussed to help formulate effective control measures against these wood-boring structural pests.

Wang Z.,Yunnan University | Calderon M.M.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | Lu Y.,Yunnan University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Due to issues relating to the sustainability of biofuel production, second generation biofuel has attracted much attention. As a promising feedstock of second generation biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is being massively planted on marginal land in China, but its viability as a biofuel source has not been systematically assessed. This paper performed a lifecycle assessment of the economic, environmental and energy (3E) performance of the JCL biodiesel, assuming JCL oil is either used for direct blending with diesel or further processed into JCL methyl ester (JME). The results show that, at the current technical levels, the production of JCL biodiesel is financially infeasible, but has positive environmental and energy performance. Despite the additional cost incurred in the transesterification process, the net present value of JME is slightly higher than that of JCL oil when a part of the cost is allocated to the co-product, i.e., glycerin. As compared with that of diesel, the production and consumption of per liter JCL oil and JME can reduce 7.34kg and 8.04kg CO 2 equivalent, respectively. The energy balances of both JCL oil and JME are 1.57 and 1.47, respectively, in terms of the ratio of the heat value of biodiesel and that of energy input. The main factors affecting the 3E performance of JCL biodiesel are seed yield, co-product output, and farm energy input. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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