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The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No. 1870 of the First Philippine Legislature, known as the "University Act" by authority of the United States, the University currently provides the largest number of degree programs in the country. Senate Resolution No. 276 of the Senate of the Philippines recognizes the University as "the nation’s premier university".The University has produced a significant number of public figures and officials since its founding. Seven Philippine Presidents have attended courses in the University either as undergraduate or postgraduate students; 13 Chief Justices; 38 National Artists and 34 National Scientists are also affiliated with the University.U.P. has the most National Centers of Excellence and Development among higher education institutions in the country and one of only three schools in Asia that have received institutional recognition in the Ramon Magsaysay Awards.U.P. is partly subsidized by the Philippine government. Students of the university and its graduates are referred to as “ Iskolar ng Bayan” . This makes admission into the University extremely competitive. Most recently, in 2014, almost 88,000 applicants flocked to test centers to take the University of the Philippines College Admission Test for undergraduate admission. Around 13,100 of the 83,000 applicants in the 2013 exam were admitted for the following year, an acceptance rate of approximately 16% for the entire U.P. System at the same year. In the 2012 admission test, U.P. added essay questions that tested the writing literacy of its High School exam takers.The symbol of U.P. is the Oblation. This is a figure of a naked man, with arms outstretched and face pointed upwards. The Oblation is based on the second stanza of Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios.The year 2008 was proclaimed as the "U.P. Centennial Year" and the years 1998-2008 as the "University of the Philippines Decade." The U.P. System is ranked as the top university in the country by the QS World University Rankings. Wikipedia.

Padilla Jr. S.G.,University of the Philippines
Human Biology | Year: 2013

The Philippine "negrito" groups comprise a diverse group of populations speaking over 30 different languages, who are spread all over the archipelago, mostly in marginal areas of Luzon Island in the north, the central Visayas islands, and Mindanao in the south. They exhibit physical characteristics that are different from more than 100 Philippine ethnolinguistic groups that are categorized as non-negritos. Given their numbers, it is not surprising that Philippine negritos make up a major category in a number of general ethnographic maps produced since the nineteenth century. Reports from various ethnological surveys during this period, however, have further enriched our understanding regarding the extent and distribution of negrito populations. Using the data contained in these reports, it is possible to plot and create a map showing the historical locations and distribution of negrito groups. Using geographic information systems (GIS), the location and distribution of negrito groups at any given time can be overlaid on historical or current maps. In the present study, a GIS layer was compiled and extracted from the 2000 Philippine Census of population at the village level and overlaid on existing maps of the Philippines. The maps that were generated from this project will complement ongoing anthropological and genetic studies of negrito groups that inhabit different locations within the Philippine archipelago. © 2013 Wayne State University Press.

Gabriel A.A.,Hiroshima University | Gabriel A.A.,University of the Philippines
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2012

The study determined the efficacy of Dynashock wave power ultrasound as an alternative processing technique for apple juice against a number of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The effects of several implicit, intrinsic and extrinsic properties on the Dynashock wave inactivation of the microorganisms were also investigated. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. but decreased that of Listeria monocytogenes. Spoilage yeast mixed inoculum composed of Debaryomyces hansenii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be more resistant than any of the adapted or non-adapted pathogens. Among the individual, acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7, the MN-28 isolate was found most resistant; while three other individual isolates had greater resistance than the composited E. coli inoculum. Increased in pulp content decreased the efficacy of Dynashock waves, but co-treatment with ultraviolet-C rays significantly enhanced inactivation in the cloudy apple juice. The results demonstrated the potential of Dynashock wave technology, together with other antimicrobial hurdles as alternative juice processing technique/s. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The effects of prior simultaneous pH (3.0-8.0), water activity, aw (0.93-0.99) and temperature (3.0-62.0 °C) stresses on injury and subsequent resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis to acid (pH 3.78, 25 °C) and heating (pH 3.78, 55 °C) in apple juice were determined. Injury rates were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the linear effects of aw and temperature. Exposure to combinations (pH 4.0, aw 0.98, 15 °C) and (pH 5.5, aw 0.99, 32.5 °C) resulted in acid adaptation. Only the linear influence of prior aw stress significantly affected the subsequent acid resistance. Heat resistance was greatest after previous exposure to pH, aw and temperature ranges of 4.0-5.5, 0.96-0.98, and 15-50 °C, respectively. None of the stress factors significantly influenced subsequent heat resistance. These results provide a more realistic simulation of the effects of environmental stress factors on the behavior of S. Enteritidis in food and food processing ecologies; and contribute in further understanding the behavior of the pathogen for the improvement of evaluation and control of safety of apple juice and similar products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

A 4-yr on-farm study was conducted in the Philippines between 2006 and 2009 to determine if there are any long-term impacts of Bt corn on the arthropod community on commercial farms and in adjacent riparian areas. Arthropod counts were gathered by visual inspection of corn plants in three pairs of commercial farms and by sweep sampling in riparian sites close by. Sampling showed that species composition between Bt and non-Bt corn and between riparian areas adjacent to Bt or non-Bt corn were similar. Principal response curves and analysis of variance showed that there were no adverse effects of Bt corn on the abundance of natural enemies either in crops or adjacent riparian sites. The frequently observed natural enemies in Bt corn were the predatory coccinellid beetle, Micraspis discolor (F.) and spiders (Araneae). Arthropod diversity was similar 1) in Bt- and non-Bt corn and 2) the adjacent riparian areas. Taken together, the two parts of this study show that Bt corn does not have any long-term adverse effect on arthropod communities in corn (Zea mays L.) or in adjacent riparian ecosystems. The methods and results described in this study will be useful to Philippine government regulators in making recommendations and policy guidelines related to monitoring for environmental effects of transgenic crops. The current study did not attempt to demonstrate the direct exposure of arthropods in riparian sites to transgenic Cry1Ab protein that might come from adjacent Bt corn fields; that would require different experimental methods but the current study suggests such effects are unlikely. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Garcia L.M.B.,University of the Philippines
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2010

The length-weight relationships or LWR (W = aL b) of 18 of the 21 fish species caught in 2007-2008 from the Candaba wetland in central Luzon, Philippines are reported. These species belong to 14 families and the LWR of six species are first documented in this paper. Cyprinids comprised the greatest number of species. The high significance of the LWR parameters indicate that fish weight may be predicted from length, at least within the range of the fish lengths recorded. This first reference to the LWR of fishes from the Candaba wetland provides baseline data for the conservation management of fish biota in this threatened ecological resource. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

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