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Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Suarez J.A.,University of the Orient | Beaton P.A.,University of the Orient | Faxas R.,University of the Orient | Luengo C.A.,University of Campinas
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2016

Cuba is a nation with a high dependence on imported energy. About 53% of its energy is supplied by imported fuels. On the other hand, its location in the Caribbean Sea offers excellent geographical features for efficient exploitation of renewable energy resources. This article details the state of renewable energy development in Cuba, in terms of its sources, utilization, prospects and energy policy. At present, renewable energy in exploitation reaches around 2.042 million tonnes of oil equivalent, which is about 54.5% of Cuban annual crude oil production in 2009, and a total installed capacity of 400 MW, contributing about 4% of the national electricity generation. The main energy sources are concentrated in biomass (99.3%), followed by hydroelectric energy (0.6%), and in lesser proportions solar energy (photovoltaic and thermal; 0.06%) and wind energy (0.04%). The relevant points of the Renewable Energy Development Plan 2010–2030 include: the implementation of research and development projects on renewable energy technologies, infrastructure and technological capacities, development of human resources, use of different financing models, and encouragement of private sector investment Also, the Cuban government announced its desire to reach a goal of 2,075 MW installed from renewable energy by 2030, which will cover approximately 24% of the national electrical energy production. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Suarez J.A.,University of the Orient | Beaton P.A.,University of the Orient | Escalona R.F.,University of the Orient | Montero O.P.,University of the Orient
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

In Cuba, since 1959, the energy, environment and socio-economic development have been given high priority in national development plans. Fifty years later, the Cuban people have achieved a society with notable advances in literacy and education, health, culture, sports, social security and per capita of the gross domestic product (GDP), which has permitted the attainment of a sustainable development, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) report in 2006. The energy sector has been evolving constantly in the last 50 years, achieving as the main result the distribution of electricity to 97% of the country, the growth of domestic oil production to achieve about 47% of the total consumption, the introduction of the distributed generation of electricity reaching 40% on the generation, rehabilitation of the electric appliances, systematization of the Cuban Electricity Conservation Program (PAEC), the Energy Conservation Program of the Ministry of Education (PAEME) and rapid introduction of renewable energy technologies, with good results in demand side management, energy efficiency and energy education. Actually, soil degradation, deforestation, pollution, loss of biological diversity and lack of water have been identified as the main environmental problems; several plans and projects have been applied, in order to reduce their impact, following the policy expressed in the National Environmental Strategy. However, challenges exist for future development in Cuba in coming years, from an economical point of view will be necessary the enhancement of the economic relations with the American and European countries, to solve internal problems such as insufficient productivity, correspondence between the level of activities with the financial, material and human resources, to promote growth in the levels of exports and to achieve the substitution of imported basic food; the energy sector need to achieve growth in the levels of prospection and exploitation of domestic oil, to diversify fossil energy and energetic technologies suppliers, energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy; the protection of the environment will demand to develop research about adaptation and mitigation of climate change, conservation and rational use of natural resources, in particular, the lands, water and forests. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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