Bangangte, Cameroon

University of the Mountains
Bangangte, Cameroon
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PubMed | University of the Mountains, China Institute of Technology and Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Type: Review | Journal: International journal of MCH and AIDS | Year: 2017

This review paper examines the growing implications of Chinas engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs.We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences.Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. Chinas significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning.Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and emergency response is needed in transforming African health information systems, and local health governance structures and management in emerging epidemics. Furthermore, innovative evidence of operational joint solutions and strategies are critical in advancing healthcare delivery, and further enhancing Universal Health Care, and Sustainable Development Goals to attain global health improvements and economic prosperity.

Dominguez J.A.,University of the Mountains | Martin A.,University of the Mountains | Anriquez A.,National University of Santiago del Estero | Albanesi A.,National University of Santiago del Estero
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2012

The ecological, economic and social values of the ectomycorrhizal fungi of the black truffle found in the rural Mediterranean are well known. The inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the regeneration of arid regions and the reintroduction of inocula of mycorrhizal fungi into these areas. Some rhizobacteria can improve the establishment and functioning of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. In this study, seedlings of P. halepensis were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 under non-limiting greenhouse conditions. Five months after inoculation, we analysed the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at saturation, osmotic potential at turgor loss and modulus of elasticity), concentrations of mycorrhizal colonies, nutrient concentration and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) in roots and aerial parts of the seedlings. Subsequently, tests were performed to estimate the root growth potentials. None of the treatments changed the water parameters or growth potentials of the roots. The inoculations improved the growth and nutrient uptake of the seedlings, although the combination of P. fluorescens CECT 844 and T. melanosporum did not generally lead to a significant improvement over the positive effects of a simple inoculation of T. melanosporum; however, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did double the rate of the mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. These results may be promising for enhancing the cultivation of truffles. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Azodo C.C.,University of Benin | Agbor A.M.,University of the Mountains
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Optimal oral hygiene practices are instrumental to achieving good dental and gingival health. The purpose of this study was to determine the gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon. Methods: This cross-sectional survey among 12-13 years old rural and urban schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon was conducted between March and November, 2010. Results: A total of 2295 schoolchildren were interviewed but only 2287 of them had oral examination giving a 99.7 % participation rate. Out of 2287 school children examined, 1676 (73.3 %) had normal gingiva while 26.7 % had gingivitis of varying severity. The gingivitis was found significantly more in rural dwellers (P = 0.001). In terms of the severity of the recorded gingivitis, mild gingivitis constituted 549 (89.9 %), moderate gingivitis 49 (8.0 %) and severe gingivitis 13 (2.1 %). The majority-1929 (85.4 %) of the participants had received instruction on how to care for their teeth and the predominant source of this instruction was from their parents. Irregular teeth cleaning were marked 1137 (49.7 %) among the children. The dominant teeth cleaning materials were toothbrush and toothpaste. The other oral hygiene aid utilized by the participants include dental floss-25 (1.1 %), stick-759 (33.6 %), dental floss-25 (1.1 %) and other unorthodox agents. The reasons for teeth cleaning among the participants in descending order were to make the teeth clean, to prevent halitosis, to make teeth stronger, to prevent pain and dental diseases. Conclusion: The prevalence of gingivitis among Cameroonian schoolchildren in the Northwest region was 26.7 % with majority being of mild gingivitis category. Parents, dental professionals and teachers were the main sources of instruction on oral care. © 2015 Azodo and Agbor.

Agbor A.M.,University of the Mountains | Chinedu A.C.,University of Benin | Ebot-Tabil B.,University of the Mountains | Naidoo S.,University of the Western Cape
African Health Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess the pattern of dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents among riders and passengers in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based study conducted in 6 out of 10 regional capitals in the months of December 2011 to September 2012. Analyzed information included age, gender, residence, role on the motorcycle (rider or passenger), type, pattern and month of injury, cost, duration and patient's perception about the cost of treatment. Results: A total of 387 patients were studied with majority of the patients being 21-30 years (39.8%), males (63.8%), passengers (57.3%) and urban dwellers (85.8%). Most of the injuries occurred in December (20.7%), January (19.4%) and February (20.2%). Soft tissue injuries were most frequent (91.2%) followed by trauma to the teeth (83.5%), of which 62.3% were tooth loss. Mandibular fracture was commoner than maxillary fracture; (45% versus 25.3%). A total of 44.2% of patients received their treatment as in-patients. The treatment of the dentofacial injuries among 64.3% of the patients lasted for more than a month. A total of 51.9% of the patients spent 100,000 francs ($200) or more for their treatment. More than half (51.4%) of the patients perceived the cost of treatment as expensive. Conclusion: Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents necessitated hospital admission and lengthy treatment time with high attendant cost. Preventing these injuries will serves as a form of poverty reduction as money that will be used by the victim to better their life is not used to correct deformities or treat injuries.

Eballe A.O.,University of Douala | Eballe A.O.,Yaounde Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital | Mvogo C.E.,University of Yaounde I | Noche C.,University of the Mountains | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Background: Albinism causes significant eye morbidity and amblyopia in children. The aim of this study was to determine the refractive state in patients with complete oculocutaneous albinism who were treated at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon and evaluate its effect on vision. Methods: We carried out this retrospective study at the ophthalmology unit of our hospital. All oculocutaneous albino patients who were treated between March 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011 were included. Results: Thirty-five patients (70 eyes) diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism were enrolled. Myopic astigmatism was the most common refractive error (40%). Compared with myopic patients, those with myopic astigmatism and hypermetropic astigmatism were four and ten times less likely, respectively, to demonstrate significant improvement in distance visual acuity following optical correction Conclusion: Managing refractive errors is an important way to reduce eye morbidity-associated low vision in oculocutaneous albino patients. © 2013 Eballé et al,publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

PubMed | University of the Mountains and University of Colorado at Denver
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Seminars in ophthalmology | Year: 2016

We introduce a new method to observe the morphologic features of the vitreous with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) by evaluating and describing the posterior vitreous structure of various selected cases using enhanced high-density (HD) line mode.This is a descriptive case series of SD-OCT images with enhanced HD line at Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, in 2014. The medical records with ocular images for these patients were analyzed.Enhanced HD line in vitreoretinal mode with SD-OCT offered wide images with well-visible vitreoretinal interface. The posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP), often mistaken as a posterior vitreous detachment on standard retina-based cross line mode, was easily identified. Vitreomacular adhesion and traction, absence or presence of connecting channels between PPVP and Cloquets canal, liquefied vitreous lacuna, and emulsified silicone oil droplet-layer could be observed.SD-OCT using enhanced HD line in vitreoretinal mode enables clear visualization of the posterior vitreous structure and often reclassifies patients previously thought to have a posterior vitreous detachment.

Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs.

Mbatchou Ngahane B.H.,Douala General Hospital | Luma H.,Douala General Hospital | Mapoure Y.N.,Douala General Hospital | Fotso Z.M.,University of the Mountains | Afane Ze E.,University of Yaounde I
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with smoking among university students in Cameroon. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire among a convenience sample of 3000 students from three universities (the Université des Montagnes, and the Universities of Douala and Yaounde 1) in Cameroon; 190 students (5.9%) did not consent to the survey. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking trends were recorded. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for smoking. RESULTS: Of the students selected, 1862 (62%) were male. The mean age was 23.3 years. We found that 30.1% of students had tried smoking and that 5.6% (n = 168) reported regular smoking. Smoking prevalence among male and female students was respectively 9.5% and 1%. The mean age of smokers was 24.1 years. Only 12.5% of regular smokers were nicotine-dependent. Factors motivating smoking were pleasure, imitation, snobbery and curiosity. In the multivariate analysis, smoking was statistically associated with age, male sex, exposure to friends who smoke and living with smokers. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of smoking found in our study was low, effective tobacco control programmes targeting factors such as age, male sex and peer influence should be implemented in universities. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these interventions. © 2013 The Union.

Kengne-Fokam A.C.,University of Yaounde I | Nana-Djeunga H.C.,University of Yaounde I | Djuikwo-Teukeng F.F.,University of the Mountains | Njiokou F.,University of Yaounde I
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Biomphalaria camerunensis are intermediate hosts of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Up till now, very scanty data report the life history traits of these freshwater snails. This study was therefore conducted to provide further knowledge on the mating system of these two S. mansoni intermediate hosts in Cameroon. The study was performed following a three-step experimental design as follows: (i) for each species, a sample of young snails (G1), virgin and sexually mature was constituted and divided into two groups; (ii) in the first group, individuals were maintained isolated for the evaluation of the impact of self-fertilization on life history traits while in the second group, individuals were paired for few hours for the evaluation of cross-fertilization impact; (iii) in each group, fitness parameters (fecundity of G1 snails and survival of G2 offspring) were monitored during one month. Results: The sexual maturity (age at first egg-laying) was reached, on average, at 63.9 (sd: 3.0) and 103.7 (sd: 36.6) days for B. pfeifferi and B. camerunensis, respectively. Copulation was observed in all paired individuals in both species. In B. pfeifferi, the fecundity (number of egg capsules and eggs) of young G1 individuals and survival of G2 offspring on D0 and D8 were similar between selfing and outcrossing individuals, and a very low inbreeding depression (0.063) was observed. In B. camerunensis, the fecundity of outcrossed individuals was significantly higher than that of selfed individuals. The hatching rate was significantly higher and the incubation time significantly shorter for cross-fertilized eggs as compared with self-fertilized eggs, and a high inbreeding depression (0.71) was observed. Conclusion: These findings may explain the high adaptability to more diverse and inconstant habitats, as well as the better compatibility of B. pfeifferi to S. mansoni compared with B. camerunensis, and may support the sustainability of S. mansoni life cycle where this intermediate host prevails. © 2016 Kengne-Fokam et al.

Rondelaud D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Teukeng F.F.D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Teukeng F.F.D.,University of the Mountains | Vignoles P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dreyfuss G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2015

Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent. © Cambridge University Press 2014.

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