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Bangangte, Cameroon

Mbatchou Ngahane B.H.,Douala General Hospital | Luma H.,Douala General Hospital | Mapoure Y.N.,Douala General Hospital | Fotso Z.M.,University of the Mountains | Afane Ze E.,University of Yaounde I
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with smoking among university students in Cameroon. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire among a convenience sample of 3000 students from three universities (the Université des Montagnes, and the Universities of Douala and Yaounde 1) in Cameroon; 190 students (5.9%) did not consent to the survey. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking trends were recorded. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for smoking. RESULTS: Of the students selected, 1862 (62%) were male. The mean age was 23.3 years. We found that 30.1% of students had tried smoking and that 5.6% (n = 168) reported regular smoking. Smoking prevalence among male and female students was respectively 9.5% and 1%. The mean age of smokers was 24.1 years. Only 12.5% of regular smokers were nicotine-dependent. Factors motivating smoking were pleasure, imitation, snobbery and curiosity. In the multivariate analysis, smoking was statistically associated with age, male sex, exposure to friends who smoke and living with smokers. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of smoking found in our study was low, effective tobacco control programmes targeting factors such as age, male sex and peer influence should be implemented in universities. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these interventions. © 2013 The Union. Source

Azodo C.C.,University of Benin | Agbor A.M.,University of the Mountains
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Optimal oral hygiene practices are instrumental to achieving good dental and gingival health. The purpose of this study was to determine the gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon. Methods: This cross-sectional survey among 12-13 years old rural and urban schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon was conducted between March and November, 2010. Results: A total of 2295 schoolchildren were interviewed but only 2287 of them had oral examination giving a 99.7 % participation rate. Out of 2287 school children examined, 1676 (73.3 %) had normal gingiva while 26.7 % had gingivitis of varying severity. The gingivitis was found significantly more in rural dwellers (P = 0.001). In terms of the severity of the recorded gingivitis, mild gingivitis constituted 549 (89.9 %), moderate gingivitis 49 (8.0 %) and severe gingivitis 13 (2.1 %). The majority-1929 (85.4 %) of the participants had received instruction on how to care for their teeth and the predominant source of this instruction was from their parents. Irregular teeth cleaning were marked 1137 (49.7 %) among the children. The dominant teeth cleaning materials were toothbrush and toothpaste. The other oral hygiene aid utilized by the participants include dental floss-25 (1.1 %), stick-759 (33.6 %), dental floss-25 (1.1 %) and other unorthodox agents. The reasons for teeth cleaning among the participants in descending order were to make the teeth clean, to prevent halitosis, to make teeth stronger, to prevent pain and dental diseases. Conclusion: The prevalence of gingivitis among Cameroonian schoolchildren in the Northwest region was 26.7 % with majority being of mild gingivitis category. Parents, dental professionals and teachers were the main sources of instruction on oral care. © 2015 Azodo and Agbor. Source

Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs. Source

Rondelaud D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Teukeng F.F.D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Teukeng F.F.D.,University of the Mountains | Vignoles P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dreyfuss G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2015

Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent. © Cambridge University Press 2014. Source

Kengne-Fokam A.C.,University of Yaounde I | Nana-Djeunga H.C.,University of Yaounde I | Djuikwo-Teukeng F.F.,University of the Mountains | Njiokou F.,University of Yaounde I
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Biomphalaria camerunensis are intermediate hosts of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Up till now, very scanty data report the life history traits of these freshwater snails. This study was therefore conducted to provide further knowledge on the mating system of these two S. mansoni intermediate hosts in Cameroon. The study was performed following a three-step experimental design as follows: (i) for each species, a sample of young snails (G1), virgin and sexually mature was constituted and divided into two groups; (ii) in the first group, individuals were maintained isolated for the evaluation of the impact of self-fertilization on life history traits while in the second group, individuals were paired for few hours for the evaluation of cross-fertilization impact; (iii) in each group, fitness parameters (fecundity of G1 snails and survival of G2 offspring) were monitored during one month. Results: The sexual maturity (age at first egg-laying) was reached, on average, at 63.9 (sd: 3.0) and 103.7 (sd: 36.6) days for B. pfeifferi and B. camerunensis, respectively. Copulation was observed in all paired individuals in both species. In B. pfeifferi, the fecundity (number of egg capsules and eggs) of young G1 individuals and survival of G2 offspring on D0 and D8 were similar between selfing and outcrossing individuals, and a very low inbreeding depression (0.063) was observed. In B. camerunensis, the fecundity of outcrossed individuals was significantly higher than that of selfed individuals. The hatching rate was significantly higher and the incubation time significantly shorter for cross-fertilized eggs as compared with self-fertilized eggs, and a high inbreeding depression (0.71) was observed. Conclusion: These findings may explain the high adaptability to more diverse and inconstant habitats, as well as the better compatibility of B. pfeifferi to S. mansoni compared with B. camerunensis, and may support the sustainability of S. mansoni life cycle where this intermediate host prevails. © 2016 Kengne-Fokam et al. Source

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