The University of the Highlands and Islands

Isle of Islay, United Kingdom

The University of the Highlands and Islands

Isle of Islay, United Kingdom
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Loxton J.,The University of the Highlands and Islands | Wood C.A.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Bishop J.D.D.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Porter J.S.,Heriot - Watt University | And 3 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2017

The bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) was first recorded in European waters in 2010 and has since been reported from further locations in Great Britain (GB) and Norway. This paper provides a new earliest European record for the species from 2009, a first record from Ireland and presence and absence records from a total of 231 marinas and harbours across GB, Ireland, the Isle of Man, France and Portugal. This species is typically associated with human activity, including commercial and recreational vessels, aquaculture equipment, and both wave and tidal energy devices. It has also been observed in the natural environment, fouling rocks and boulders. The species has an extensive but widely discontinuous distribution in GB and Ireland. Although found frequently in marinas and harbours in Scotland, it inhabits only a few sites in England, Wales and Ireland, interspersed with wide gaps that are well documented as genuine absences. This appears to be a rare example of a southward-spreading invasion in GB and Ireland. The species has been reported from the Isle of Man and Norway but has not been found in France or Portugal. In the future we expect S. japonica to spread into suitable sections of the English, Welsh and Irish coasts, and further within Europe. The species’ capability for long-distance saltatory spread and potential for negative impact on native ecosystems and economic activity suggests that S. japonica should now be considered invasive in GB and Ireland. As such, it is recommended that biosecurity procedures alongside effective surveillance and monitoring should be prioritised for regions outside the species’ current distribution. © 2017 The Author(s)


Smith-Christmas C.,The University of the Highlands and Islands
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2016

This article analyses semantically-equivalent discourse markers (YOU KNOW/FIOS AGAD and ANYWAY/CO-DHIÙ) of two languages in contact-Scottish Gaelic and English-as a platform for investigating Auer's (1999) 'Code-Switching-Language Mixing-Fused Lect' continuum. Using a corpus of approximately ten hours of speech of older (over 50 years of age) Gaelic-English bilinguals, this paper shows how the use of English language discourse markers in salient positions and the subsequent salience bleaching of these discourse markers illustrates movement along Auer's continuum. However, the paper then discusses how rapid language shift and the emergence of 'new' speakers of Gaelic challenge Auer's assertion that contact may only progress, not regress, along the continuum. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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