University of the Gambia

of the Gambia, Gambia

University of the Gambia

of the Gambia, Gambia
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Sisawo E.J.,University of the Gambia | Sisawo E.J.,National Yang Ming University | Ouedraogo S.Y.Y.A.,National Yang Ming University | Huang S.-L.,National Yang Ming University
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2017

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. Methods: Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. Results: A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients’ escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. Conclusions: Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence. © 2017 The Author(s).


Lopez-Garcia J.,Tomas Bata University in Zlin | Bilek F.,Tomas Bata University in Zlin | Lehocky M.,Tomas Bata University in Zlin | Junkar I.,Jozef Stefan Institute | And 3 more authors.
Vacuum | Year: 2013

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) foils were surface-modified by using non-thermal non-equilibrium oxidative air 40 kHz frequency, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) discharge plasma treatment. The pristine and treated specimens were morphologically and chemically characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement with surface energy evaluation. In addition, printability and ink adhesion tests were carried out on the samples, and quantitatively appraised by UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy. The overall outcome indicated chemical and physical changes after each treatment, and the improvement of printability. The present approach could serve as a viable and promising method to improve printability of polyethylene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fan S.-K.S.,National Taipei University of Technology | Chang Y.-J.,Yuan Ze University | Aidara N.,University of the Gambia
Quality and Reliability Engineering International | Year: 2013

In most statistical process control (SPC) applications, it is often assumed that the quality of a process or product can be adequately represented by the distribution of a univariate quality characteristic. However, in some particular situations, the quality-related response of interest is not a single variable but a function of some independent variables. Such a functional relationship is called a profile. Recently, profile monitoring has drawn considerable attention in the statistical process control literature. This article proposes a new approach for the reflow process data, which applies the sum of sine functions to model the nonlinear profiles and then the vector of parameter estimates is monitored using the Hotelling T2 and metric control charts. Through an actual data set of the reflow process, the proposed approach is compared with the polynomial regression approach in phase I and phase II analyses. The experimental results show that the proposed approach demonstrates good abilities to detect outlying profiles in phase I and provides better out-of-control average run length performances than the polynomial regression approach in phase II. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Sighoko D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Bah E.,C o MRC Laboratories | Haukka J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | McCormack V.A.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Since 1987, the Gambia National Cancer Registry has provided nationwide cancer registration for the Gambia. We used data from 1998 to 2006 to assess age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of 2 common cancers in women, breast and cervix. With an ASR of 15.42 (95% CI [14.18-16.66]) for cervix and 5.86 (95% CI [5.12-6.59]) for breast per 105 person-years, these cancers ranked first and third, respectively, among Gambian women (the second most common being liver, ASR 14.90). Incidence of both cancers, breast and cervix, increased rapidly at young ages to reach a peak at ages 40-44 years. Significant differences were observed in relation to ethnicity. Using the Mandinka (42% of the population) as a reference, breast cancer incidence rates were 2.16-fold higher (95% CI [1.33-3.52]) in Jola (10% of the population), specially at early-onset ages (before 40 years). For cervix cancer, highest rates were observed in Fula (18% of the population; risk ratio (RR): 1.84 (95% CI [1.44-2.36])). In contrast, a significantly lower risk was observed in the Serrahuleh (9% of the population; RR: 0.54 (95% CI [0.31-0.96]). This study revealed a preponderance of early-onset breast cancer among Gambian women similar to that seen in African women in more developed countries but also demonstrates large ethnic variations. It points to the need for further studies on cancer determinants to improve prevention, early detection and therapeutic management of these diseases in a low-resource setting in West Africa. © 2010 UICC.


Sanyang M.L.,University of Birmingham | Sanyang M.L.,University of the Gambia | Kaban A.,University of Birmingham
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

We consider Black-Box continuous optimization by Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA). In continuous EDA, the multivariate Gaussian distribution is widely used as a search operator, and it has the well-known advantage of modelling the correlation structure of the search variables, which univariate EDA lacks. However, the Gaussian distribution as a search operator is prone to premature convergence when the population is far from the optimum. Recent work suggests that replacing the univariate Gaussian with a univariate Cauchy distribution in EDA holds promise in alleviating this problem because it is able to make larger jumps in the search space due to the Cauchy distribution's heavy tails. In this paper, we propose the use of a multivariate Cauchy distribution to blend together the advantages of multivariate modelling with the ability of escaping early convergence to efficiently explore the search space. Experiments on 16 benchmark functions demonstrate the superiority of multivariate Cauchy EDA against univariate Cauchy EDA, and its advantages against multivariate Gaussian EDA when the population lies far from the optimum. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


Sanyang M.L.,University of Birmingham | Sanyang M.L.,University of the Gambia | Kaban A.,University of Birmingham
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

It has been observed that in many real-world large scale problems only few variables have a major impact on the function value: While there are many inputs to the function, there are just few degrees of freedom. We refer to such functions as having a low intrinsic dimension. In this paper we devise an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for continuous optimisation that exploits intrinsic dimension without knowing the influential subspace of the input space, or its dimension, by employing the idea of random embedding. While the idea is applicable to any optimiser, EDA is known to be remarkably successful in low dimensional problems but prone to the curse of dimensionality in larger problems because its model building step requires large population sizes. Our method, Random Embedding in Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (REMEDA) remedies this weakness and is able to optimise very large dimensional problems as long as their intrinsic dimension is low. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.


Sanyang M.L.,University of Birmingham | Sanyang M.L.,University of the Gambia | Kaban A.,University of Birmingham
2015 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

In this paper, we present a new variant of EDA for high dimensional continuous optimisation, which extends a recently proposed random projections (RP) ensemble based approach by employing heavy tailed random matrices. In particular, we use random matrices with i.i.d. t-distributed entries. The use of t-distributions may look surprising in the context of random projections, however we show that the resulting ensemble covariance is enlarged when the degree of freedom parameter is lowered. Based on this observation, we develop an adaptive scheme to adjust this parameter during evolution, and this results in a flexible means of balancing exploration and exploitation of the search process. A comprehensive set of experiments on high dimensional benchmark functions demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. © 2015 IEEE.


Bah E.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | Bah E.,University of Tampere | Carrieri M.P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hainaut P.,International Prevention Research Institute iPRI | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population.Methods and Findings:We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively.Conclusions:Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. © 2013 Bah et al.


Sesay C.,University of the Gambia | Chien L.-Y.,National Yang Ming University
African Journal of AIDS Research | Year: 2012

Knowing one's HIV status is fundamental to the prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS. However, HIV prevention is defeated if individuals who opt to be tested fail to return for their test result. Despite the burden of HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, regional studies on failure to return (FTR) for an HIV-test result are lacking. We investigated the factors associated with FTR in The Gambia, West Africa. FTR was analysed for 1 755 persons who attended an outpatient clinic during 2000 to 2009. Overall, the proportion of FTR was 30%. Logistic regression showed that FTR was significantly higher among males, individuals whose nationality was not Gambian, individuals with a history of condom use, and individuals who resided in an urban area. Persons who were younger than age 18 years and persons who had received some formal education were more likely to not return for the HIV-test result than were persons aged 40 years or older and persons without formal schooling. The results provide evidence for the need for appropriate strategies to increase the receipt of HIV-test results among people in the general population and among certain group profiles. © NISC (Pty) Ltd.


Yaffa S.,University of the Gambia
International Journal of Global Warming | Year: 2013

In 2011 the North Bank Region of The Gambia experienced its most severe drought in 20 years. This article looks at how this drought affected households in the region, the coping measures they adopted, and residual loss and damage. In this study, 'loss and damage' is defined as adverse effects of climatic stressors that people have not been able to avoid through coping and adaptation (from Warner et al., 2012). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey (N = 373), 60 focus group discussions and six expert interviews. Almost all respondents reported that the 2011 drought had affected their household, particularly through crop failure, livestock losses and high food prices. Most households tried to cope by seeking non-farm income or selling livestock to buy food. Others relied on food aid or social networks. However, for almost two thirds of the households, these measures were not sufficient or had adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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