Bloemfontein, South Africa
Bloemfontein, South Africa

The University of the Free State is a multi campus public university in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Free State and the judicial capital of South Africa. Wikipedia.


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Marston A.,University of the Free State
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Bioautography on thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) plates is a means of detecting the biological activity of a sample which has migrated on the plate with a suitable solvent. It only requires small amounts of sample and is ideal for the investigation of plant constituents, which often occur as complex mixtures. It can be used for the target-directed isolation of these constituents. In contrast to HPLC, many samples can be run at the same time on TLC. Organic solvents, which cause inactivation of enzymes or death of living organisms, can be completely removed before biological detection. Many bioassays are compatible with TLC. Antimicrobial, radical scavenging, antioxidant activities and enzyme inhibition feature among the tests that are employed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Van Rensburg H.C.J.,University of the Free State
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2014

The purpose of this contribution is to analyse and explain the South African HRH case, its historical evolution, and post-apartheid reform initiatives aimed at addressing deficiencies and shortfalls. HRH in South Africa not only mirrors the nature and diversity of challenges globally, but also the strategies pursued by countries to address these challenges. Although South Africa has strongly developed health professions, large numbers of professional and mid-level workers, and also well-established training institutions, it is experiencing serious workforce shortages and access constraints. This results from the unequal distribution of health workers between the well-resourced private sector over the poorly-resourced public sector, as well as from distributional disparities between urban and rural areas. During colonial and apartheid times, disparities were aggravated by policies of racial segregation and exclusion, remnants of which are today still visible in health-professional backlogs, unequal provincial HRH distribution, and differential access to health services for specific race and class groups.Since 1994, South Africa's transition to democracy deeply transformed the health system, health professions and HRH establishments. The introduction of free-health policies, the district health system and the prioritisation of PHC ensured more equal distribution of the workforce, as well as greater access to services for deprived groups. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic brought about huge demands for care and massive patient loads in the public-sector. The emigration of health professionals to developed countries and to the private sector also undermines the strength and effectiveness of the public health sector. For the poor, access to care thus remains constrained and in perpetual shortfall.The post-1994 government has introduced several HRH-specific strategies to recruit, distribute, motivate and retain health professionals to strengthen the public sector and to expand access and coverage. Of great significance among these is the NHI Plan that aims to bridge the structural divide and to redistribute material and human resources more equally. Its success largely hinges on HRH and the balanced deployment of the national workforce.Low- and middle-income countries have much to learn from South African HRH experiences. In turn, South Africa has much to learn from other countries, as this case study shows. © 2014 van Rensburg; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Atangana A.,University of the Free State
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2015

In this work, we have generalized the time-fractional telegraph equation using the concept of derivative of fractional variable order. The generalized equation is called time-fractional variable order telegraph equation. This new equation was solved numerically via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Stability and convergence of the numerical solution were presented in details. Numerical simulations of the approximate solution of the time-fractional variable order telegraph equation were presented for different values of the grid point. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Grobbelaar J.U.,University of the Free State
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2010

The maximum quantumyield (φ max), calculated from the maximum chlorophyll a specific photosynthetic rate divided by the quantum absorption per unit chlorophyll a, is 8 photons or 0.125 mol C per mol Quanta light energy. For the average solar radiation that reaches the earth's surface this relates to a photosynthetic yield of 1.79 g(dw m -2 day -1 per percentage photosynthetic efficiency and it could be doubled for sunny, dry and hot areas. Many factors determine volumetric yields of mass algal cultures and it is not simply a question of extrapolating controlled laboratory rates to large scale outdoor production systems. This is an obvious mistake many algal biotechnology start-up companies make. Closed photobioreactors should be able to outperform open raceway pond cultures because of the synergistic enhancement of a reduced boundary layer and short light/dark fluctuations at high turbulences. However, this has not been shown on any large scale and to date the industrial norm for very large production systems is open raceway production ponds. Microalgal biomass production offers real opportunities for addressing issues such as CO 2 sequestration, biofuel production and wastewater treatment, and it should be the preferred research emphasis. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 670.90K | Year: 2016

South African higher education (HE) is characterised by inequalities of access, participation and success, and hence youth disadvantage, yet it is also seen as central to economic development and social mobility. The aim of the research, captured in the production of an innovative HE Index, is to develop an integrated, policy-oriented theorisation of pathways to learning outcomes that foregrounds equality and quality for young people from rural areas and townships when they are preparing for university, their experiences at university, and their graduate outcomes, and to understand what enables the realization of the transformative potential of HE for them. The project conceptualises raising learning outcomes as a process of multi-dimensional capabilities expansion and realization of plural valued functionings. Using the capability approach allows an understanding of how various factors interact to inhibit or enable capabilities that are valuable to individuals and to building a decent society. The project will uncover interrelated personal, educational and social challenges that account for the inequities in outcomes experienced by young people from challenging backgrounds, and standing in the way of quality HE for all. In particular, the project will focus on HE students supported by Thusanani Foundation (http://www.thusananifoundation.org), a youth-led not-for-profit organisation. Working with the Foundation provides access to disadvantaged youth and their educational pathways into, in and beyond higher education, and is a site through which important user insights can be gained. The mixed-method study will explore contextual factors - families, schools, university educational and social arrangements, and work-readiness activities - that enable and inhibit higher education pathways for these students. In particular, it will investigate what learning outcomes are valued by students themselves and by other stakeholders, why they are valued, and whether and how they are achieved. Engagement with stakeholders and impact activities are built into the project from the outset; the evidence-informed and consultative process will generate practice recommendations and policy options. The main research participants are Thusanani Foundation supported students, attending four historically diverse universities, over four years from 2nd HE year to post graduation. Against a backdrop analysis of documentation, literature and national statistical data of inequalities and learning outcomes (cohort analyses), we will use quantitative (survey of n=700 Thusanani supported students; final year students n=1600), longitudinal qualitative methods (life histories; interviews, n=48 x 4 years), as well as notes of stakeholder meetings and visual methods to explore, at macro and micro levels, student experiences and learning outcomes. The methodology includes a participatory element with young people (students plus mentors) as researchers (n=32) and the interviews they conduct (n=40), to allow co-construction of ideas and to explore how participation in research might enhance learning outcomes. Interviews with Foundation student mentors (24); Foundation Board members (5); and, ethnographic field notes of Foundation work with school pupils will provide insight into the motivations, strategies and possibilities of raising learning outcomes. The project thus provides an integrated analysis of access, higher education experiences and graduate outcomes, with attention to educational, social and economic impacts. The data will be analysed in terms of: (1) structural distributive patterns of opportunities and achievements, including an analysis of the differences made by Thusanani Foundation; (2) a framework of capabilities inhibition and expansion, profiled inductively and deductively; and, (3) multi-dimensional HE learning outcomes Index of practical use to policy makers and development agencies, going beyond narrow measures of completion rates.


Patent
University of the Free State | Date: 2013-09-06

This invention relates to a mammographic tomography test object (hereinafter referred to as a phantom) and more particularly, but not exclusively, to a mammographic tomography test phantom for use in the verification of image reconstruction positions in digital breast tomosynthesis. The phantom includes a body made from an approximately tissue equivalent x-ray attenuating material; an upper spacer located on top of the body, and a lower spacer located below the body, the spacers being made from a substantially non-compressible material; and a plurality of x-ray opaque granules located at predetermined positions within the body.


The present invention relates to the expression of polypeptides using Yarrowia lipolytica, in particular the secretion of expressed polypeptides into either the extracellular space or the surface of the Y. lipolytica host cell wall. The invention also extends to the use of the polypeptides so expressed in biotechnological applications. The present invention provides an expression construct for the expression of polypeptides using at least a single Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cell, the expression construct having at least one expression cassette, the expression cassette including an acid extracellular protease secretion signal sequence and flanking zeta sequence recombination sites.


The present invention relates to the expression of polypeptides using Yarrowia lipolytica, in particular the secretion of expressed polypeptides into either the extracellular space or the surface of the Y. lipolytica host cell wall. The invention also extends to the use of the polypeptides so expressed in biotechnological applications. The present invention provides an expression construct for the expression of polypeptides using at least a single Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cell, the expression construct having at least one expression cassette, the expression cassette including an acid extracellular protease secretion signal sequence and flanking zeta sequence recombination sites.


Patent
University of the Free State | Date: 2015-08-17

The invention relates to an additive manufacturing system 10 for manufacturing a product 300 layer-by-layer. The system 10 includes a production arrangement 12 which is configured to manufacture a product 300 layer-by-layer upon receiving instructions from a control arrangement 32. The control arrangement 32 is operatively connected to the production arrangement 12 and is configured to control the operation of the production arrangement 12 by providing control instructions for each layer of a product 300 to be manufactured to the production arrangement 12. The system 10 includes an optical monitoring arrangement 14 which is configured to capture an image of a layer manufactured by the production arrangement and/or a layer of source material laid/placed over a previously manufactured layer of the product 300. The optical monitoring arrangement 14 is also configured to send the captured image to the control arrangement for processing. The control arrangement 32 is configured to analyse the received captured image and, if required, to adjust control instructions for the manufacturing of the next layer.


Patent
University of the Free State | Date: 2013-10-30

The present invention relates to the isolation and characterization of a protein responsible for the reduction of uranium (VI) to uranium (IV). The present invention extends to the use of the isolated protein in the reduction of uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) and further extends to a process for the bioremediation, or at least partial remediation, of a site contaminated with a source of U (VI). According to a first aspect thereof, the present invention provides an isolated polypeptide derived from Thermus scotoductus strain SA-01 that is responsible for the reduction of uranium (VI), in a source of uranium (VI), to uranium (IV), wherein the polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No: 1.

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