Smits C.C.A.,Wageningen University |
Justinussen J.C.S.,University of the Faroe Islands |
Bertelsen R.G.,University of Tromsø |
Bertelsen R.G.,University of Aalborg
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2016
The Arctic region is opening up due to climate change, causing sea ice extend and snow cover to decrease. Over the past decade economic activities, including fisheries, shipping, oil & gas, mining and tourism have increased throughout the region. Especially the oil and gas activities are subject to public debate and attract a lot of (international) attention. Obtaining and maintaining the support of local stakeholders are thus of major importance if governments and companies want to see these activities continue and contribute meaningfully to the resilience of Arctic societies. The concept of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy are the two fundamental principles on which a Social License to Operate is based, these are being examined more closely. On the basis of three case studies, this manuscript explores how human capital development can contribute to the legitimacy of Arctic energy development and trust building between various stakeholders. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Feng W.,China Transportation and Information Center |
Liu J.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Cao J.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Yang L.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Xin Q.,University of the Faroe Islands
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013
Cooperative communication is a new physical technology, which has the potential to improve QoS support for multi-hop wireless network. Existing works did not consider the interference effect among links while designing cooperative QoS routing. To overcome this limitation, this paper targets at designing an interference-aware Cooperative QoS routing algorithm (CQ-routing) to satisfy users' bandwidth requirement. We formulate the problem of finding cooperative routing path with maximum available bandwidth as an optimization problem, called Coop-routing problem. We prove that the Coop-routing problem is strong NP-hard. We propose both centralized and distributed algorithm to solve the Coop-routing problem. We prove that the centralized algorithm can achieve a constant approximation ratio. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms through simulations. The results show that CQ-routing algorithms can significantly improve the network performance in terms of available bandwidth and number of admitted flows. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feng W.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Feng W.,China Transport and Telecommunication Information Center |
Cao J.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Zhang C.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing | Year: 2012
In cognitive networks, spectrum handoff occurs when primary users reclaim their rights to access their licensed spectrum. When links perform spectrum handoff, their communication may be interrupted for a certain period and incurs spectrum handoff delay. Existing work only considered the problem of minimizing spectrum handoff delay of a single link in single-hop cognitive networks, referred to as the SH-SLSH problem. This paper studies a more challenging problem (referred to as the SH-MLMH problem) in which multiple links perform spectrum handoff in multi-hop cognitive networks. Assuming each node is equipped with multiple radios and multi-path routing is adopted, the SH-MLMH problem targets at maintaining the network connectivity and minimizing the Total Handoff Completion Time (THCT) by coordinating multiple links to perform spectrum handoff. THCT is defined as the time for all links to finish spectrum handoff. We can keep the communication of switching links uninterrupted by maintaining network connectivity and adopting multi-path routing. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study the SH-MLMH problem. We make following contributions in this paper. We prove that the SH-MLMH problem is NP-hard. We propose both centralized and distributed algorithm to solve the SH-MLMH problem. We prove that the centralized algorithm can achieve a logarithmic approximation ratio. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithms not only improve the network throughput but also reduce THCT compared with spectrum handoff without coordination. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hammer K.,University of the Faroe Islands |
Hall E.O.C.,University of Aarhus |
Mogensen O.,Institute of Clinical Research
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND:: In mysterious ways, hope makes life meaningful even in chaotic and uncontrolled situations. When a woman is newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer, hope is ineffable and needs exploring. Drawings help express ineffable phenomena. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the study was to explore how women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer express the meaning of hope in drawings. METHOD:: Participants were 15 women who on the same day had received the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. They were between 24 and 87 years (median, 52 years) with a variety of gynecologic cancer diagnoses. Data from 15 drawings and postdrawing interviews with the women were analyzed using visual and hermeneutic phenomenology. RESULTS:: Three themes emerged: hope as a spirit to move on, hope as energy through nature, and hope as a communion with families. CONCLUSION:: Hope as pictured in drawings often appears through metaphors and incorporates internal, external, and relational aspects. With other words, inner willpower, experiences in open nature, and closeness to loved ones contribute to hope when newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE:: The use of drawings in clinical situations might give cancer nurses new perceptions of hope and other phenomena. Patients might feel threat and despair when diagnosed with cancer; they need gentle truth about reality, and they long for being together with loved ones. Nurses are in a unique position to enable hope in this situation through listening and active engagement. Drawing might be a tool in understanding the hope. Drawings picture where words come short. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mohr M.,University of the Faroe Islands |
Mohr M.,Gothenburg University |
Thomassen M.,Copenhagen University |
Girard O.,Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2016
Purpose: To examine how match performance parameters in trained footballers relate to skeletal muscle parameters, sprint ability and intermittent exercise performance. Methods: 19 male elite football players completed an experimental game with physical performance determined by video analysis and exercise capacity assessed by intermittent Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 tests, and a repeated sprint test (RST). Muscle tissue was obtained for analysis of metabolic enzyme maximal activity and key muscle protein expression. Results: Total game distance, distance deficit from first to second half and high-intensity running in the final 15 min of the game were all correlated to the players’ Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.55–0.87) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD) maximal activity (r = 0.55–0.65). Furthermore, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) protein expression was weakly (r = 0.46) correlated to total game distance. Peak 5-min game distance faster than 21 km h−1 was related to the Na+–K+ ATPase subunit (α1, α2, β1 and FXYD1) protein levels (r = 0.54–0.70), while Yo-Yo IR2 performance explained 40 % of the variance in high-intensity game distance. Total and 1-min peak sprint distance correlated to myosin heavy chain II/I ratio (MHCII/I ratio) and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform-1 (SERCA1) protein (r = 0.56–0.86), while phosphofructokinase (PFK) maximal activity also correlated to total sprint distance (r = 0.46). Conclusion: The findings emphasize the complexity of parameters predicting physical football performance with Yo-Yo IR1 and HAD as the best predictors of total distance, while high expression of Na+–K+ ATPase proteins and the Yo-Yo IR2 test are better predictors of high-intensity performance. Finally, sprint performance relates to skeletal muscle fiber-type composition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Pettersen S.A.,Regional University of the North |
Krustrup P.,University of Exeter |
Krustrup P.,Copenhagen University |
Bendiksen M.,Copenhagen University |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014
Abstract: The study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on match activities and development of fatigue during a football match. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over design, two experimental football games separated by 7 days were organised between the junior teams of two professional football clubs (17.6 ± 1.1 years (±s), 71.7 ± 6.9 kg, 13.9% ± 5.0% body fat). The players ingested either a capsule of 6 mg · kg−1 b.w. caffeine or placebo (dextrose) 65 min prior to the matches. Match activities were assessed using the ZXY match analysis system, and a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test–level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) was conducted immediately post-game. Heart rate was monitored throughout the game, and blood samples were obtained at baseline, half-time and after the game. There were no differences between caffeine and placebo regarding total distance covered (10,062 ± 916 vs 9854 ± 901 m), high-intensity running (557 ± 178 vs 642 ± 240 m), sprinting distance (109 ± 58 vs 112 ± 69 m) or acceleration counts (123 ± 31 vs 126 ± 24). In both trials, players displayed lower (P < 0.05) values in total distance and acceleration counts in the last 15 min compared to all other 15-min periods of the matches. Post-game Yo-Yo IR2 performance was not different between game trials (caffeine: 829 ± 322 m; placebo 819 ± 289 m). In conclusion, oral caffeine administration does not appear to have an ergogenic effect in young football players during match play. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Eysturskard J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Haug I.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Ulset A.-S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Joensen H.,University of the Faroe Islands |
Draget K.I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Food Biophysics | Year: 2010
Small-strain oscillatory measurements and size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering were used to study the mechanical properties and the molecular weight distribution, respectively, of acid porcine skin gelatins (type A), lime bovine bone gelatins (type B), and cold water fish gelatins, while principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression were used to relate the mechanical properties with the molecular weight distribution. The present study suggests a linear relationship between the mechanical properties and the fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) molecules, α-chains, β-chains, and high molecular weight (HMW) molecules. The Bloom value for mammalian gelatin was positively correlated with the fractions of α-chains, β-chains, and HMW molecules and negatively correlated with the fraction of LMW molecules. The dynamic storage modulus for cold water fish gelatin was positively correlated with the fractions of β-chains and HMW molecules and negatively correlated with the fractions of LMW molecules and α-chains. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Gaard E.,Faroe Marine Research Institute |
Nori G.A.,Faroe Marine Research Institute |
Simonsen K.,University of the Faroe Islands
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2011
Primary production in the fjords of the Faroe Islands is usually high. Results of productivity measurements in a typical Faroese fjord (Kaldbaksfjord) in 2006 and 2007 reveal values of about 335 g C m-2 year -1, which is two to three times higher than reported from neighboring regions, such as Icelandic, west Norwegian and west Scottish fjords. The causal mechanism is high flushing rate of the euphotic zone and high influx of nutrients, relative to the surface area. On average, the majority of the production is based on new production. The productive season is from late March to early April until October. It is controlled by irradiance and occurs when the critical depth extends below the halocline. The system is highly dynamic and the plankton productivity is largely influenced by short-term fluctuations in horizontal flow and vertical mixing, influencing vertical as well as temporal variability in P/B ratio and f-ratio. Fast repetition rate fluorescence profiles revealed that Fv/Fm decreases below 0.5 when the light intensity is above 200 E m-2 s-1 or when the nitrate + ammonium concentrations were below a threshold between 0.8 and 2 M. © 2011 The Author.
Jensen P.M.,Copenhagen University |
Magnussen E.,University of the Faroe Islands
Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016
Leptospira interrogans is a bacterium that can infect most mammal species. Brown rats are considered to be one of the most important reservoirs of Leptospira because they frequently are infected and live in close proximity to humans. Past studies of prevalence of Leptospira in brown rats indicate that temperature - both high and low - may negatively affect the prevalence rate in rats, so that Leptospira is rare or even absent at temperatures below 7-8 °C. Here we investigated the prevalence of infection in brown rats on the Faroese Islands (mean temperature of 6.5 °C) and did not find any infected animals in a sample of 95 animals. We propose that prevalence rates of Leptospira are very low in rural brown rats in the cooler Scandinavian regions, even though urban/sewer rats might be highly infected in the same regions. © 2015 Society for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Kaschek R.,University of the Faroe Islands
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013
Models, according to common understanding, facilitate to make and share references. A reference is a deictic activity whose point of origin differs from its target. The activity of modeling rests on taking a reference's point of origin as a substitute for its target. In this paper I discuss two aspects of modeling, namely abstraction and direction-of-fit. I am going to show that representation, rather than abstraction, is key to modeling and that the direction-of-fit is not inherent to a model. © Springer-Verlag 2013.