Tortajada C.,University of the East of Mexico |
Joshi Y.K.,National University of Singapore
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013
Water demand management requires the implementation of instruments and strategies that consider pricing, mandatory water conservation requirements and the engagement of the public and private sectors as well as of the society at large. In the case of Singapore, water is treated as an economic good. It is priced to recover the full costs of production and to reflect the scarcity of the resource and the high cost of developing additional water sources. Within a framework for water conservation, public education, information and awareness instruments have played a very important part in making the public appreciate the importance of conserving the resource. This paper analyses the water demand strategies that have been developed in the city-state, with emphasis on education efforts and on the results obtained in terms of water conservation. Lessons learnt from this study can provide very useful experiences for cities in developed and developing countries on the type of policies that could be successful in reducing consumption as well as in providing alternative supplies of water for both the domestic and the industrial sectors They also provide useful insights on the different ways to make the public realise the importance of using water sustainably for its long-term conservation even when immediate access to clean water may not be an issue. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Ramirez-Montes P.I.,CINVESTAV |
Ochoa M.E.,CINVESTAV |
Santillan R.,CINVESTAV |
Ramirez D.J.,University of the East of Mexico |
Farfan N.,University of the Basque Country
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2014
The synthesis and crystal structure of three new molecular rotors derived from levonorgestrel and norethisterone are reported. The conformation, close contacts, and shape characteristics of these molecules exhibiting Z′ = 2 and the inclusion of solvent molecules were analyzed together with the crystal structures of parent molecules retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database. For the set of estranes studied, we confirmed that whenever an alternative conformer cannot satisfy the crystallographic symmetry, a second molecule is incorporated in the asymmetric unit resulting in conformational isomorphism (Z′ > 1). The shape of these molecules could make them interesting as potential hosts. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
The organic acids that are accumulated in the flesh of fruits: Occurrence, metabolism and factors affecting their contents - A review [Ácidos orgánicos acumulados en la pulpa de los frutos: Ocurrencia, metabolismo y factores que afectan sus contenidos- una revisión]
Famiani F.,University of Perugia |
Battistelli A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Moscatello S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Cruz-Castillo J.G.,University of the East of Mexico |
Walker R.P.,University of Perugia
Revista Chapingo, Serie Horticultura | Year: 2015
organic acids are abundant constituents of ripe fruits and are responsible for their sourness. In addition, they contribute to their flavour. In many fruits, the most abundant organic acids are malic and citric. The aims of this review are two-fold. The first is to provide a clear overview of malic and citric acids in the flesh of fruits. The abundance of different organic acids in commercially grown fruits is described. How this abundance changes during fruit development is outlined. The metabolic pathways used in the synthesis and dissimilation of malic and citric acids in fruits are described. The functions of malic and citric acids in the flesh of fruits are discussed. Secondly, how environmental and cultural practices can alter the organic acid content of fruits is considered.
Velasco-Perez A.,University of the East of Mexico |
Alvarez-Ramirez J.,Metropolitan Autonomous University |
Solar-Gonzalez R.,Istmo University of Mexico
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniera Qumica | Year: 2011
This paper addresses the multiple input - single output (MISO) control problem of a simple generic model of a CSTR. The control design is based on simple models and the inversion of dead-beat filters. It is proposed a synthesis procedure of controllers based on the factorization of MISO plants that leads to a parallel control structure. The proposed controller performs a balance in the use of the control inputs via an optimization problem. Numerical simulations show the performance and comparison of the control scheme against its counterparts SISO.
Cruz-Castillo J.G.,University of the East of Mexico |
Woolley D.J.,Massey University |
Famiani F.,University of Perugia
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010
A partial defoliation study was carried out on 'Hayward' kiwifruit vines with the aim of evaluating effects on fruit yield, changes in concentration of carbohydrates, and return bloom. At full bloom, 'Hayward' kiwifruit vines trained to the pergola system were submitted to 0% (control), 50% and 75% defoliation in the 2.0. m wide central horizontal area of the canopy. This area represents the vine 'replacement cane zone' (RCZ), whereas the remaining external area represents the 'fruiting zone' (FZ). Removing 50% of the leaves resulted in a small (-9. g in the RCZ and -3.3. g in the FZ), but significant, reduction in fruit weight compared to the control vines. More severe defoliation (75%) reduced fruit weight by 13. g in the RCZ and 7. g in the FZ. The defoliation treatment reduced the concentrations of starch and total soluble carbohydrates (glucose. +. fructose. +. sucrose) in the shoots and starch in trunk bark compared to those in control vines. The treatments caused a large reduction in return bloom, expressed as number of flowers per winter bud, by about 25% and 53% in vines with 50% and 75% defoliation, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Valle-Mendiola A.,University of the East of Mexico |
Weiss-Steider B.,University of the East of Mexico |
Rocha-Zavaleta L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Soto-Cruz I.,University of the East of Mexico
Cancer Investigation | Year: 2014
The IL-2R signaling is critical for normal lymphocyte proliferation. However, the role of the IL-2 signaling in cervical cancer is not yet fully understood. We show that in IL-2R-expressing cervical cancer cells, JAK1 molecules are not phosphorylated. At low doses of IL-2, the constitutive phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5 increases in the tumor cells and decreases in lymphocytes, whereas the opposite occurs at high doses of IL-2. Using AG-490, the activation of JAK3 and the proliferation of cervical cancer cells were inhibited. We describe differences in the response of molecules downstream the IL-2R in lymphocytes and tumor cells. Copyright © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Feria-Ortiz M.,University of the East of Mexico |
Manrquez-Morn N.L.,University of Central Mexico |
De Oca A.N.-M.,National University of Costa Rica
Herpetological Monographs | Year: 2011
The Mexican Plestiodon brevirostris species group (Squamata: Scincidae) is composed of seven nominal species. The wide-ranging P. brevirostris is a polytypic species composed of five subspecies: P. b. brevirostris, P. b. bilineatus, P. b. dicei, P. b. indubitus, and P. b. pineus. A tree-based approach for species delimitation with mtDNA data was used to test the traditional species-level taxonomy of P. brevirostris preliminarily. A haplotype phylogeny for all of the species and subspecies in the P. brevirostris group, except P. colimensis, was inferred. The mtDNA data consisted of sequences encompassing the genes encoding 16S rRNA (part), ND1, and associated tRNAs (1355 base pairs), which were analyzed with Bayesian methods. Then, a search for diagnostic morphological characters for the putative species delimited by this approach was performed. The results indicate that the P. brevirostris group is paraphyletic with respect to P. lynxe, and that P. brevirostris actually is composed of at least five distinct lineages disguised by traditional taxonomy: P. b. brevirostris, P. b. bilineatus, P. b. dicei, and the eastern populations of P. b indubitus (from Morelos, Guerrero, and México) represent distinct species, whereas the western populations of P. b. indubitus (from Colima and Jalisco) represent an undescribed species. The data cannot resolve whether P. b. pineus is conspecific with P. b. dicei or P. b. dicei is a paraphyletic (?=?nonexclusive) species relative to an exclusive P. b. pineus. Thus, the status of P. b. pineus remains uncertain. The haplotype phylogeny also suggests that P. b. brevirostris may represent more than one species. © 2011 The Herpetologists' League, Inc.
Pascual-Pineda L.A.,University of Xalapas |
Flores-Andrade E.,University of the East of Mexico |
Alamilla-Beltran L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
Chanona-Perez J.J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
And 3 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014
Carotenoids were encapsulated by means of coacervation by using a nanostructured material (NE) prepared with alginate/zeolite valfor 100 (1:3) and another that was non-nanostructured (AA) prepared with alginate at 2 %. The diameter of the AA and NE capsules was ≈1,200 μm. The NE protected the carotenoids at higher water activities (a w) than the AA. The highest retention of carotenoids (7,200 mg/kg dry solids for NE and 2,230 mg/kg dry solids for AA) was observed at water activities corresponding to the minimal integral entropy (≈0.35-0.45 for NE and ≈0.1 for AA). According to the enthalpy-entropy compensation, the water adsorption in the AA capsules was enthalpy driven at a w range of 0.115-0.973. However, the NE showed two zones: (1) at low a w (0.115-0.4), the water adsorption was controlled by entropy and (2) over an a w range of 0.4-0.973, controlled by enthalpy. Atomic force microscope images, moisture content corresponding to micropore volume and thermodynamic properties suggest that the adsorption process and the carotenoids stability were controlled by entropic barriers when the water molecules were adsorbed in the micropores (nanopores with pore diameter <2 nm). The practical use of these results is that increasing the number of micropores in the solid matrix of wall materials is possible to improve the preservation of nutrients and functional substances during processing and storage of foods. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Jimenez M.,University of Veracruz |
Flores-Andrade E.,University of the East of Mexico |
Pascual-Pineda L.A.,University of Veracruz |
Beristain C.I.,University of Veracruz
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LBC81 microorganisms were encapsulated by fluidized bed drying using water-alginate system incorporating potato starch. The capsules were stored for seven weeks in aw (s) from 0.103 to 0.846 at 25, 35 and 45°C. The quantitative analysis of microorganisms indicated that the survival of the strain decreased more rapidly over water activity of 0.536, which was considered as critical for maintaining these alive. This water activity can be obtained using the Rockland analysis. The enthalpy-entropy compensation revealed that encapsulated probiotics were kept alive when the adsorption process was controlled by entropy, which was where the critical water activity occurred. •Viability of encapsulated probiotics decreases above water activity of 0.536.•Thermodynamic compensation provides the critical water activity for the bacterial survival.•The best bacterial stability was entropy driven. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | University of the East of Mexico
Type: | Journal: Mediators of inflammation | Year: 2016
IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signalling is critical for normal lymphocyte proliferation, but its role in cervical cancer is not fully understood. The receptor is composed of three chains: IL-2, IL-2, and IL-2. Intracellular signalling is initiated by ligand-induced heterodimerization of the IL-2 and IL-2 chains, resulting in the activation of multiple intracellular kinases. Recently, IL-2R was shown to be expressed on nonhaematopoietic cells, especially on several types of tumour cells. However, the function of this receptor on malignant cells has not been clearly defined. The expression of IL-2R and the production of IL-2 in cervical cancer cells have been documented as well as expression of molecules of the JAK-STAT pathway. In the current review we have highlighted the differences in the responses of molecules downstream from the IL-2R in normal lymphocytes and tumour cells that could explain the presence of tumour cells in an environment in which cytotoxic lymphocytes also exist and compete and also the effect of different concentrations of IL-2 that could activate effector cells of the immune system cells, which favour the elimination of tumour cells, or concentrations that may promote a regulatory microenvironment in which tumour cells can easily grow.